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Encyclopedia > Peter Kropotkin
Peter Kropotkin
Born December 9, 1842
Flag of Russia Moscow, Russia
Died February 08, 1921 (aged 78)
Flag of Russia Dmitrov, Russia
Occupation Anarchist Revolutionary, Geographer, Zoologist, and Political Essayist.
Part of the Politics series on

Anarchism December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... In the kremlin of Dmitrov: Cathedral of the Assumption was built in 1509–1523. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of (compulsory) government (cf. ...

Schools of thought

CapitalistChristian
CollectivistCommunist
Feminist • Green
IndividualistMutualist
Philosophical • Primitivist
Social • Syndicalist
Without adjectives
Image File history File links Anarchy-symbol. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Christian anarchism is a synthesis of anarchist theory with Christian theology. ... Left Anarchism is a term used almost exclusively by opponents of traditional anarchism to denominate philosophies that oppose private ownership of the means of production (or capitalism). ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Anarcha-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. ... Green anarchism is a set of related political theories that is derived from philosophical and social movements such as social ecologists, feminism, egoism, situationism, surrealism, the Luddites, Anarcho-primitivism, post- and anti-leftists, indigenous, anti-industrialism, and pre-civilized people. ... Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ... Mutualism is an economic theory or system, largely associated with Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, based on a labor theory of value which holds that in extreme laissez-faire, market competition will cause the market values (prices) of commodities and services to align with the amount of labor embodied in those things. ... Philosophical anarchism is a type of anarchism that sees the state as lacking moral legitimacy but does not recommend any immediate revolutionary action for its elimination. ... Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... Social anarchism is a term self-applied by many anarchists of the libertarian socialist thread of anarchism. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Anarchist theory

History • Economics
Co-operatives
Mutual aid
Symbolism • Post-left
EspecifismoPlatformism
Direct democracy
Direct action
Self-ownership
Social ecology
Spontaneous order
Workers' self-management
Anarcho-primitivists assert that, for the longest period before recorded history, human society was organized on anarchist principles. ... Anarchist economics entails theory and practice relating to economic activity within the philosophical outlines of anarchism. ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit, in an egalitarian fashion. ... Mutual aid is a term in political economy used to signify the economic concept of voluntary reciprocal exchange of resources and services for mutual benefit. ... Post-left anarchy is a recent current in anarchist thought that promotes a critique of anarchisms relationship to traditional leftism. ... Especifismo is an anarchist praxis which originates in South America. ... Platformism is a tendency within the wider anarchist movement which shares an affinity with organising in the tradition of Nestor Makhnos Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... Self-ownership or sovereignty of the individual or individual sovereignty is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral right to control his or her own body and life. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... Spontaneous order (sometimes called self-organization) is a phenomenon that happens when individuals each follow a set of self-interest-based rules without a central authority designing a plan for everyone. ... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ...

Anarchism in culture

ArtsBlack anarchism
Jewish anarchismSociety
Popular education
Criticisms
Anarchism has long had an association with the arts, particularly in music and literature. ... Black anarchism opposes the existence of a state and subjugation and domination of people of color, and favors a non-hierarchical organization of society. ... Freie Arbeiter Stimme, vol 1 no 4, Friday, July 25, 1890. ... This article discusses the anarchist critiques of society and proposed solutions from the anarchist perspective. ... Popular education is an educational technique designed to raise the consciousness of its participants and allow them to become more aware of how an individuals personal experiences are connected to larger societal problems. ... The theory and practice of anarchism has been controversial since it came to prominence in the 19th century. ...

Relationship to other
Belief Systems

CapitalismMarxism
NationalismReligion
Though the libertarian socialist critique of capitalism is rooted in socialist theory, there are certain key distinctions in their critiques, which this article attempts to elucidate. ... While anarchism and Marxism are two different political philosophies, there is some similarity between the methodology and ideology of groups of anarchists and Marxists, and the history of the two have often been intertwined. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Lack of Sources/POV If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ...

Anarchism geographically

AfricaAustria
BrazilChina
EnglandFrance
GreeceIreland
IsraelItaly
MexicoRussia
SpainSweden
UkraineUSA
African Anarchism This article is about the historical and contemporary Anarchist movement in Africa. ... Anarchism in England initially developed within the context of radical Whiggery and Protestant religious dissent. ...

Anarchism lists

BooksCommunities
ConceptsOrganizations
Periodicals Anarchist Daniel Guérin, Anarchism Robert Graham Anarchism. ... This is a list of anarchist communities, past and present. ... These are concepts which, although not exclusive to anarchism, are significant in historical and/or modern anarchist circles. ... This list uses the word organization in its loosest sense. ... The following is a chronological list of noteworthy anarchist periodicals. ...

Anarchism Portal
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Prince Peter (Pyotr) Alexeyevich Kropotkin (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842February 8, 1921) was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government. Because of his title of prince and his prominence as an anarchist in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, he was known by some as "the Anarchist Prince". Some contemporaries saw him as leading a near perfect life. Oscar Wilde called him "the new Christ coming out of Russia." He left behind many books, pamphlets and articles, the most prominent being his works The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops, and his principal scientific offering, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. He was also a contributor to the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. December 9 is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of (compulsory) government (cf. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... In many parts of the world, communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Cover of Elephant Editions reprint of Conquest Of Bread, 1985. ... Fields, Factories and Workshops is a landmark anarchist text by Peter Kropotkin, and arguably one of the most influential and positive statements of the anarchist political position. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

Contents

Biography

Kropotkin, by Nadar.
Kropotkin, by Nadar.

Peter (or Pyotr) Kropotkin was born in Moscow. His father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, owned nearly 1200 "souls" (male serfs) in three different provinces, and large tracts of land. Prince Kropotkin traced his male line to the legendary prince Rurik; his mother, Yekaterina Nikolaevna Sulima, was the daughter of a general in the Russian army. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 1600 pixel, file size: 611 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 1600 pixel, file size: 611 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nadar (self-portrait). ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ...


In 1857, at the age of fifteen, Kropotkin entered the Corps of Pages at St. Petersburg. Only a hundred and fifty boys — mostly children of the nobility belonging to the court — were educated in this privileged corps, which combined the character of a military school endowed with special rights and of a Court institution attached to the imperial household. He remained there until 1862, reading widely on his own account, and giving special attention to the works of the French encyclopaedists and to French history. Before he left Moscow, Prince Kropotkin had developed an interest in the condition of the Russian peasantry, and this interest increased as he grew older. The years 1857-1861 witnessed a rich growth in the intellectual forces of Russia, and Kropotkin came under the influence of the new Liberal-revolutionary literature, which indeed largely expressed his own aspirations. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1862 he was promoted from the Corps of Pages to the army. The members of the corps had the prescriptive right of choosing the regiment to which they would be attached. Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he did not have the means to enter St. Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work. For some time he was aide de camp to the governor of Transbaikalia at Chita, subsequently being appointed attaché for Cossack affairs to the governor-general of East Siberia at Irkutsk. 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Russia-related stubs | Universities and colleges in Russia | Saint Petersburg ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Annexation is the legal merging of some territory into another body. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mayan; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is Earths eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Transbaikal (Забайкалье in Russian) is a mountainous region to the east of the Lake Baikal in Russia. ... Chita (Russian: Чита́) is a city in Russia, and functions as the administrative center of Chita Oblast in eastern Siberia. ... Irkutsks location Kazansky Church in Irkutsk Irkutsk (Russian: ) is one of the largest cities in Siberia. ...


Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scarce, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria. Both these expeditions yielded most valuable geographical results. The impossibility of obtaining any real administrative reforms in Siberia now induced Kropotkin to devote himself almost entirely to scientific exploration, in which he continued to be highly successful. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Songhua River (松花江 song4 hua1 jiang1) is the largest tributary of the Amur River, flowing about 1,800 km from Changbai Mountains. ... Map of the Earth Geography (from the Greek words Geo (γη) or Gaea (γαια), both meaning Earth, and graphein (γραφειν) meaning to describe or to writeor to map) is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ...


He quit the army in 1867 and returned to St. Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the geography section of the Russian Geographical Society. In 1873 he published an important contribution to science, a map and paper in which he proved that the existing maps of Asia entirely misrepresented the physical formation of the country, the main structural lines being in fact from south-west to north-east, not from north to south, or from east to west as had been previously supposed. The Russian Geographical Society is a learned society, founded on 6 August 1845 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


In 1871 he explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Russian Geographical Society, and while engaged in this work was offered the secretaryship of that society. But by this time he had determined that it was his duty not to work at fresh discoveries but to aid in diffusing existing knowledge among the people at large, and he accordingly refused the offer, and returned to St. Petersburg, where he joined the revolutionary party.


He visited Switzerland in 1872 and became a member of the International Workingmen's Association at Geneva. The socialism of this body was not to his taste and after studying the programme of the more radical Jura federation at Neuchâtel and spending some time in the company of the leading members, he definitely adopted the creed of anarchism. On returning to Russia, he took an active part in spreading revolutionary propaganda through the nihilist-led Circle of Tchaikovsky. The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The Jura federation was the most important anti-authoritarian and anarchist section of the First International, based largely among watch-makers in the Jura mountain range in Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland Neuchâtel 47. ... The Nihilist movement was an 1860s Russian cultural movement which questioned the validity of traditional values and institutions. ... The Circle of Tchaikovsky was a Russian literary society for self-education. ...


In 1873 he was arrested and imprisoned, but escaped in 1876 and went to England, moving after a short stay to Switzerland, where he joined the Jura Federation. In 1877 he went to Paris, where he helped to start the socialist movement, returning to Switzerland in 1878, where he edited for the Jura Federation a revolutionary newspaper, La Révolte, subsequently also publishing various revolutionary pamphlets. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


In 1881, shortly after the assassination of the Tsar Alexander II, Kropotkin was expelled from Switzerland by the Swiss government, and after a short stay at Thonon (Savoy) went to London, where he remained for nearly a year, returning to Thonon towards the end of 1882. Shortly afterwards he was arrested by the French government, and, after a trial at Lyon, sentenced by a police-court magistrate (under a special law passed on the fall of the Paris Commune) to five years' imprisonment, on the ground that he had belonged to the IWA (1883). In 1886 however, as the result of repeated agitation on his behalf in the French Chamber, he was released, and settled near London. Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that Selective assassination be merged into this article or section. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 29 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Rhône-Alpes Department Haute-Savoie (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Thonon-les-Bains Canton Thonon Est and Thonon Ouest Intercommunality none Mayor Jean Denais Statistics Altitude 371 m–569 m (avg. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ...


In 1902 Kropotkin published the book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, which provided an alternative view on animal and human survival, beyond the claims of 'Survival of the Fittest' proffered at the time by some "social Darwinists", such as T.H. Huxley. (See Murray Bookchin and social ecology, and also sociobiology). 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 - June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: understood, of course, in its wide Darwinian sense -- not as a struggle for the sheer means of existence, but as a struggle against all natural conditions unfavourable to the species. The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress. The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution. The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay.

Peter Kropotkin, Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (1902), Conclusion.

Kropotkin's authority as a writer on Russia is generally acknowledged, and he contributed to many articles in the Encyclopædia Britannica, including an entry on anarchism in the 1911 edition (see external links, below). Most of the other articles (about 90) are to do with various aspects of Russian geography and regions. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


Kropotkin returned to Russia after the February Revolution and was offered the ministry of education in the provisional government, a post he rejected. His enthusiasm turned to disappointment when the Bolsheviks seized power. "This buries the revolution," he said. He thought that the Bolsheviks had shown how the revolution was not to be made - by authoritarian rather than libertarian methods. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A fact unknown to many regards Kropotkin's beard, which was grown initially to act as a disguise when he became a fugitive in 1876. His trademark facial hair went on to become one the most defining features of Kropotkin, aside from his ideological beliefs. Some historians have indeed argued that the beard may not have been his own at all.[citation needed]


He died on February 8, 1921 in the city of Dmitrov, Moscow province and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow. is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... In the kremlin of Dmitrov: Cathedral of the Assumption was built in 1509–1523. ... Grave of Anton Chekhov Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow, Russia, situated next to the World Heritage Site, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the citys third most popular tourist site. ...


Timeline of Kropotkin's life

  • 1842 - born in Moscow, Russia, on December 9.
  • 1857 - joins the Corps of Pages where he begins to develop a rebellious reputation.
  • 1858 - Peter's early writings show interest in political economy and statistics; begins contact with "real" peasants.
  • 1861 - Peter has his first prison experience as a result of participating in a student protest.
  • 1862 - becomes disillusioned with royalty when as page de chambre to the tsar he witnesses the extravagances of court life.
  • 1862-1867 - at his own request serves with the military in Siberia. Witnesses the living conditions there, and the unwillingness of the corrupt administration to do anything to improve this.
  • 1868-1870 - pursues survey and geographical studies.
  • 1871 - becomes interested in the workers' movement and the events surrounding the Paris Commune.
  • 1872 - travels to Switzerland, where he joins the International; returns to Russia with a quantity of prohibited socialist literature.
  • 1873 - as a member of the Chaikovskii Circle, he helps with rewriting pamphlets in a way that can be understood by the uneducated; he shows great ability for communicating with the workers.
  • 1874 - Peter is imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress because of his revolutionary activities. At the intervention of the Geographical Society, he is given special dispensation to work on a paper on glacial periods.
  • 1876 - escapes from a military hospital and moves to England.
  • 1877 - returns to Switzerland to work with the Jura Federation. Attends the last meeting of the First International in Ghent.
  • 1881 - attends the International Anarchist congress in London. In his propaganda of the deed he supports the assassination of Tsar Alexander II on the grounds that an explosion is far more effective than a vote in encouraging the workers to revolution. This gets him kicked out of Switzerland. The Russian government is embarrassed when he discovers a plot to assassinate him in London.
  • 1882 - shortly after moving to France he is arrested for his work in The First International and sentenced to five years in prison. He stays there until 1886 when he is released on condition that he leave France.
  • 1886 - returns to England. Learns of his brother Alexander's suicide in Siberian exile for political activity. Becomes co-founder of British anarchist magazine Freedom.
  • 1890s - spends most of his time writing. Visits Canada and the United States in 1897. The Atlantic Monthly agrees to publish his memoirs. In his books he attempts to develop an anarchist-communist view of society.
  • 1901-1909 - writes material in Russian for readers in his homeland. He was very disappointed by the failure of the 1905 revolution.
  • 1909-1914 - returns to Switzerland on condition that he refrain from anarchist activities. Tries to publicize the massacre of 270 workers at the Lena gold mines, but this activity is cut short by World War I. He then moved to the United Kingdom, where he spent some time in the Brighton area.
  • 1914-1917 - actively supports the war against Germany as a war against the state. This position, a strange and questionable one for an anarchist to take, alienated him from many of his associates, particularly Errico Malatesta.
  • 1917 - returns to Petrograd where he helps the Kerensky government to formulate policy. He curtails his activity when the Bolsheviks come to power.
  • 1921 - his funeral at the Novodevichy Cemetery, with Lenin's approval, becomes the last mass gathering of anarchists in Russia.

1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Circle of Tchaikovsky was a Russian literary society for self-education. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cover of Freedom, dated 13th September 2003, showing the new cover design by Clifford Harper. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. ... Errico Malatesta Errico Malatesta (December 14, 1853 – July 22, 1932) was an anarchist with an unshakable belief, which he shared with his friend Peter Kropotkin, that the anarchist revolution would occur soon. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Grave of Anton Chekhov Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow, Russia, situated next to the World Heritage Site, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the citys third most popular tourist site. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a...

Quotations

  • "Either the State for ever, crushing individual and local life, taking over in all fields of human activity, bringing with it its wars and its domestic struggles for power, its palace revolutions which only replace one tyrant by another, and inevitably at the end of this development there is ... death! Or the destruction of States, and new life starting again in thousands of centers on the principle of the lively initiative of the individual and groups and that of free agreement. The choice lies with you!"
  • "All things for all men, since all men have need of them, since all men worked to produce them in the measure of their strength, and since it is not possible to evaluate everyone's part in the production of the world's wealth... All is for all!"
  • " But what right had I to these highest joys, when all around me was nothing but misery and struggle for a moldy bit of bread; when whatsoever I should spend to enable me to live in that world of higher emotions must needs be taken from the very mouths of those who grew the wheat and had not bread enough for their children?"
  • "In order that the revolution should be something more than a word, in order that the reaction should not lead us back tomorrow to the situation of yesterday, the conquest of today must be worth the trouble of defending; the poor of yesterday must be worth the trouble of defending; the poor of yesterday must not be poor tomorrow."
  • " Lenin is not comparable to any revolutionary figure in history. Revolutionaries have had ideals. Lenin has none."
  • " Vladimir Ilyich [Lenin], your concrete actions are completely unworthy of the ideas you pretend to hold."
  • " Sociability is as much a law of nature as mutual struggle... mutual aid is as much a law of animal life as mutual struggle."
  • " The two great movements of our century --towards Liberty of the individual and social co-operation of the whole community--are summed up in Anarchist-Communism."
  • "[U]nless Socialists are prepared openly and avowedly to profess that the satisfaction of the needs of each individual must be their very first aim; unless they have prepared public opinion to establish itself firmly at this standpoint, the people in their next attempt to free themselves will once more suffer a defeat.

Trivia

  • Dennis Danvers' Science-Fiction novel "The Watch" is centred around a resurrected Peter Kropotkin living in Richmond, Virginia in the year 1999.
  • On February 16, 2007, Time Magazine's Justin Fox wrote a piece in his column "The Curious Capitalist" which looks at Kropotkin's theories of Mutual Aid in relation to modern business practices. [1]

Dennis Danvers (born 1947) is an American author of science fiction and horror novels. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... The term mutual aid has multiple meanings. ...

Works

Books

  • Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, 1955 paperback (reprinted 2005), includes Kropotkin's 1914 preface, Foreword and Bibliography by Ashley Montagu, and The Struggle for Existence, by Thomas H. Huxley, Boston: Extending Horizons Books, Porter Sargent Publishers. ISBN 0-87558-024-6. 
  • The Conquest of Bread
  • Fields, Factories and Workshops
  • P.Kropotkin, In Russian and French Prisons, London: Ward and Downey; 1887.
  • Memoirs of a Revolutionist, London : Smith, Elder; 1889. Kropotkin's own memoirs, which were also published in the United States in the same year and have appeared in a number of modern editions.
  • The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, London, William Heinemann, 1909, translated from the French by N.F. Dryhurst.

(in French) http://kropot.free.fr/Kropotkine-Vie.htm Ashley Montagu (June 28, 1905, London, England - November 26, 1999, Princeton, New Jersey), was an English anthropologist and humanist who popularized issues such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 - June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Cover of Elephant Editions reprint of Conquest Of Bread, 1985. ... Fields, Factories and Workshops is a landmark anarchist text by Peter Kropotkin, and arguably one of the most influential and positive statements of the anarchist political position. ...

Articles

  • "Research on the Ice age", Notices of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society, 1876.
  • "The desiccation of Eur-Asia", Geographical Journal, 23 (1904), 722-741.
  • Mr. Mackinder; Mr. Ravenstein; Dr. Herbertson; Prince Kropotkin; Mr. Andrews; Cobden Sanderson; Elisée Reclus, "On Spherical Maps and Reliefs: Discussion", The Geographical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3. (Sep., 1903), pp. 294-299, [JSTOR]
  • "Baron Toll", The Geographical Journal, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Jun., 1904), pp. 770-772, [JSTOR]
  • "The population of Russia", The Geographical Journal, Vol. 10, No. 2. (Aug., 1897), pp. 196-202, [JSTOR]
  • "The old beds of the Amu-Daria", The Geographical Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3. (Sep., 1898), pp. 306-310, [JSTOR]

Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Pamphlets

  • Listen, Anarchist!
  • An Appeal To The Young [2]

War. Law and Authority. The Place of Anarchy in Socialist Evolution. Revolutionary Government.


See also

-1...

External links and references

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

The Anarchist Geographer - an Introduction to the Life of Peter Kropotkin, by Brian Morris (Genge Press, 2007) Kropotkin - the Politics of Community, by Brian Morris (Humanity Press, 2004) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... ISBN 0-416-72250-4 (hardback) ISBN 0-416-72260-1 (paperback) The Anarchists is a book by the historian James Joll. ... James Bysse Joll (1918-1994) was an historian and university lecturer whose works included The Origins of the First World War and Europe Since 1870. ...


Sources: 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, [4]; The Anarchists, James Joll. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

  • George Woodcock The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peter Kropotkin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1722 words)
Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called "anarchist communism": the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society free from central government.
Peter (or Pyotr) Kropotkin was born in Moscow.
Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he did not have the means to enter St.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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