FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Peter I of Russia
Tsar Peter I
Peter the Great
Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
Reign 7 May 1682 - 8 February 1725
Coronation 25 June 1682 (as Czar)
Full name Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov
Titles Czar of Russia
Duke of Estonia and Livonia
Born 9 June 1672(1672-06-09)
Moscow
Died 8 February 1725 (aged 52)
Predecessor Feodor III
Successor Catherine I
Consort i) Eudoxia Lopukhina
ii) Marta Skavronskaya
Issue Alexis Petrovich
Alexander Petrovich
Anna Petrovna
Elizabeth Petrova
Natalia Petrovna
Peter Petrovich
Pavel Petrovich
Natalia Petrovna
Dynasty Romanov
Father Alexis I of Russia
Mother Nataliya Naryshkina

Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 16728 February 1725 [30 May 167228 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V. Peter carried out a policy of "Westernization" and expansion that transformed the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire, a major European power. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. ... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Evdokiya Feodorovna Lopukhina (Julian calendar, July 30, 1669 - August 27, 1731)/(Gregorian calendar, August 9, 1669 – September 7, 1731) was the first Empress consort of Peter I of Russia. ... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Portrait of Alexei by Johann Gottfried Tannauer, c. ... Portrait by Ivan Nikitin Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia (27 January 1708, Moscow – 4 March 1728) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Catherine I of Russia. ... Charles van Loo. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ... Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. ... Natalia Naryshkina Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina (September 1, 1651 – February 4, 1694) was the Tsaritsa of Russia from 1671 to 1676. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ivan V Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, September 6 [O.S. August 27] 1666 — February 8 [O.S. January 29] 1696) was a joint tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Peter, the son of Alexei Mikhailovich (Alexis I of Russia)[2] and his second wife, Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina, was born in Moscow. Alexei had previously married Maria Miloslavskaya, having five sons and eight daughters by her, although only two of the sons—Feodor III[3] and Ivan V—were alive when Peter was born. Alexei I died in 1676, and was succeeded by his oldest surviving son, Feodor. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексей Михайлович) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. ... Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina (September 1, 1651 - February 4, 1694) was a Russian tsarina. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Maria Miloslavskaya Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya (Russian: , 1625-1669) was the first wife of tzar Alexis I of Russia and mother of the tzars Feodor III of Russia and Ivan V of Russia, as well as regent princess Sophia Alekseyevna. ... Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. ... Categories: People stubs | 1666 births | 1696 deaths | Russian tsars ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ...

Young Peter with royal regalia.
Young Peter with royal regalia.

Feodor III's uneventful reign ended within six years; as Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute over the succession between the Naryshkin and Miloslavskyi families broke out. Ivan was the next for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind. Consequently, the Boyar Duma (a council of Russian nobles) chose the ten-year old Peter to become Tsar, his mother becoming regent. But one of Alexei's daughters by his first marriage, Sophia Alekseyevna, led a rebellion of the Streltsy (Russia's élite military corps). In the subsequent conflict, many of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered—Peter even witnessed the butchery of one of his uncles by a mob. The memory of this violence may have caused trauma during Peter's earlier years. Image File history File links 17th-portrait of young Peter I of Russia. ... Image File history File links 17th-portrait of young Peter I of Russia. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar, Romanian: ) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th century through the 17th century. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Sofia Alekseyevna (Царевна Софья Алексеевна in Russian) (September 17 (27), 1657 – July 3 (14), 1704) was a regent of Russia (1682-1689) who allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Galitzine, to install herself as a regent during the minority of her brothers, Peter I and Ivan V. The... Streltsy (Стрельцы in Russian) were the units of Russian guardsmen (sl. ...


The Streltsy uprising of April-May 1682 made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys (the clan of Ivan), and their allies, to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior of the two. Sophia acted as regent during the minority of the two sovereigns and exercised all power. Peculiarly, a large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Ivan and Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter conversed with nobles, also feeding him information and giving him responses to questions and problems. This throne can be seen in the Kremlin museum in Moscow. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat. Streltsy (Стрельцы in Russian) were the units of Russian guardsmen (sl. ...


Throughout the ages it has been the habit of many historians to portray Sophia as an ambitious, Machiavellian woman who would do whatever it took to achieve power. By early middle age, Peter himself came to associate Sophia with the dark forces of opposition, forgetting as do many historians that in the seven years of her regency that Peter and his mother, while pushed out of the scene, were never threatened or harmed. Indeed, the often overlooked fact that Peter lived, busy and content, through the regency speaks volumes. Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ...


Peter, meanwhile, was not particularly concerned that others ruled in his own name. He engaged in such pastimes as shipbuilding and sailing, as well as mock battles with his toy army. Peter's mother sought to force him to adopt a more conventional approach and arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1689. The marriage was an utter failure, and ten years later Peter forced her to become a nun and thus freed himself from the marriage. The toy army of Peter I (Russian: , literally fun forces) was initially called (Petrovskiy polk, Peters regiment) and was a collection of young Peters playmates, sons of noblemen and attendants of his father Alekseis court. ... Evdokiya Feodorovna Lopukhina (Julian calendar, July 30, 1669 - August 27, 1731)/(Gregorian calendar, August 9, 1669 – September 7, 1731) was the first Empress consort of Peter I of Russia. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


By the summer of 1689, Peter had planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by the two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns. When she learned of his designs, Sophia began to conspire with the leaders of the streltsy, who were somewhat like hooligans continually arousing disorder and dissent of the tsar's rule. Unfortunately for Sophia, Peter, warned by the Streltsy, escaped in the middle of the night to the impenetrable monastery of Troitsky; there he slowly gathered his adherents and others, who perceived he would win the power struggle. She was therefore overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name and position as a member of the royal family. Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Streltsy (Стрельцы in Russian) were the units of Russian guardsmen (sl. ... The Trinity Lavra of St. ...


Still, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs. Power was instead exercised by his mother, Nataliya Naryshkina. It was only when Nataliya died in 1694 that Peter became truly independent. Formally, Ivan V remained a co-ruler with Peter, although he was still ineffective. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696. Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ...

Peter the First Looking at the Baltic Sea.
Peter the First Looking at the Baltic Sea.

Peter grew to be a giant of a man. Standing at nearly two metres (six feet seven inches) he was literally head and shoulders above his contemporaries both in Russia and throughout Europe. However Peter lacked the overall proportional heft and bulk generally found in a man that size. Both Peter's hands and feet were small, and his shoulders narrow for his height; likewise, his head was also small for his tall body. Added to this were Peter's noticeable facial tics, and, judging by descriptions handed down, he almost certainly suffered from petit mal, a light form of epilepsy. Image File history File links Alexandre Benois. ... Image File history File links Alexandre Benois. ... In medicine, there are many kinds of generalized seizures. ...


Filippo Baltari, a young Italian visitor to Peter's court, wrote:

"Tsar Peter was tall and thin, rather than stout. His hair was thick, short, and dark brown; he had large eyes, black with long lashes, a well-shaped mouth, but the lower lip was slightly disfigured...For his great height, his feet seemed very narrow. His head was sometimes tugged to the right by convulsions."

Centuries later, the artist Valentin Serov gave a less flattering description of Peter: Self-portrait, 1880ies Valentin Alexandrovich Serov (Russian: Валентин Александрович Серов) (1865 - 1911) was a Russian painter. ...

"He was frightful: long, on weak, spindly little legs and with a head so small in relation to the rest of his body...he looked more like a sort of dummy with a badly stuck on head than a live person. He suffered from a constant tic and was always making faces: wrinkling, screwing up his mouth, twitching his nose, wagging his chin."

Otherwise, judging by documents—or lack thereof—that have managed to survive to the present day, few contemporaries, either in or outside of Russia, commented on Peter's great height or appearance.


Early reign

Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Russia. Heavily influenced by his western advisors, Peter reorganized the Russian army along European lines and dreamt of making Russia a maritime power. He faced much opposition to these policies at home, but brutally suppressed any and all rebellions against his authority, the rebelling of streltsy, Bashkirs, Astrakhan and including the greatest civil uprising of his reign, the Bulavin Rebellion. Further, Peter implemented social westernization in an absolute manner by implementing policies such as a "beard tax." Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... For other uses, see Astrakhan (fur). ... The Bulavin Rebellion, also called the Astrakhan Rebellion (Russian: Булавинское восстание), is the name given to a violent civil uprising in Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1709. ...


To improve his nation's position on the seas, Peter sought to gain more maritime outlets. His only outlet at the time was the White Sea at Arkhangelsk. The Baltic Sea was at the time controlled by Sweden in the north, while the Black Sea was controlled by the Ottoman Empire in the south. Peter attempted to acquire control of the Black Sea, but to do so he would have to expel the Tatars from the surrounding areas. He was forced, as part of an agreement with Poland, which ceded Kiev to Russia, to wage war against the Crimean Khan and against the Khan's overlord, the Ottoman Sultan. Peter's primary objective became the capture of the Ottoman fortress of Azov, near the Don River. In the summer of 1695 Peter organized the Azov campaigns in order to take the fortress, but his attempts ended in failure. Peter returned to Moscow in November of that year, and promptly began building a large navy. He launched about thirty ships against the Ottomans in 1696, capturing Azov in July of that year. On September 12, 1698, Peter The Great officially founded the first Russian Navy base, Taganrog. Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the people. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Azov (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just three kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Jan. ... Azov campaigns of 1695-1696 (Азовские походы in Russian), two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Azov (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just three kilometers from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ...

The Peter the Great statue in Taganrog by Mark Antokolski
The Peter the Great statue in Taganrog by Mark Antokolski

Peter knew that Russia could not face the Ottoman Empire alone. In 1697, he traveled to Europe incognito with a large Russian delegation–the so-called "Grand Embassy"—to seek the aid of the European monarchs. Peter's hopes were dashed; France was a traditional ally of the Ottoman Sultan, and Austria was eager to maintain peace in the east whilst conducting its own wars in the west. Peter, furthermore, had chosen the most inopportune moment; the Europeans at the time were more concerned about who would succeed the childless Spanish King Charles II than about fighting the Ottoman Sultan. Image File history File links Antokolski_Peter_the_Great. ... Image File history File links Antokolski_Peter_the_Great. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... Mark M. Antokolsky Antokolskys statue of Peter I graces one of the streets of Arkhangelsk. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Delegation is the handing of a task over to another person, usually a subordinate. ... The Grand Embassy (1697–1698) is incognito voyage of Russian Tsar Peter the Great to Western Europe, whose main official purpose was to secure allies against Ottoman Empire, but it was also intended to gather information on the economic and cultural life of Europe. ... Charles II of Spain. ...


The "Great Embassy", although failing to complete the mission of creating an anti-Ottoman alliance, still continued to travel across Europe. In visiting Holland, Peter learned much about Western culture. He studied shipbuilding in Zaandam and Amsterdam. Thanks to the mediation of Nicolaas Witsen, mayor of Amsterdam and expert on Russia par excellence, the czar was given the opportunity to gain practical experience in the largest shipyard in the world, belonging to the Dutch East India Company, for a period of four months. The Tsar helped with the construction of an East Indiaman especially laid down for him: Peter and Paul. During his stay the tsar engaged many skilled workers such as builders of locks, fortresses, shipwrights and seamen. Cornelis Cruys, a vice-admiral who became under Franz Lefort the Tsar's advisor in maritime affairs. Besides Peter paid a visit to Frederik Ruysch, who taught him how to draw teeth and catch butterflies. Also Ludolf Bakhuysen, a painter of seascapes and Jan van der Heyden the inventor of the fire hose, received Peter, who was keen on learning and bringing home what he had seen. This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Zaandam () is a town in the Dutch province of North Holland. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Nicolaas Witsen (1641-1717) was born to a family of successful Dutch businessmen and rapidly became a key figure in the political, economic and cultural relations between tsarist Russia and the Netherlands. ... This article is about the trading company. ... An East Indiaman was a ship belonging to the British East India Company. ... Canal locks in England. ... Admiral Cornelius Cruys Cornelis Cruys (1655-1727) - was a Vice Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. ... Franz Lefort - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Frederik Ruysch. ... Ludolf Backhuysen (or Bakhuisen) (1631-November 17, 1708), Dutch painter, was born at Emden, in Hanover. ... Jan van der Heyden (1637 - September 12, 1712), Dutch painter, was born at Gorcum in 1637, and died at Amsterdam. ...

A statue of Peter I on the bank of the Moskva River is one of the tallest outdoor sculptures in the world.
A statue of Peter I on the bank of the Moskva River is one of the tallest outdoor sculptures in the world.

In England he met with King William III, visited Greenwich, Oxford, was painted by sir Godfrey Kneller and saw a Fleet Review, Royal Navy in Deptford. Then the Embassy went to Leipzig, Dresden and Vienna. He spoke with August the Strong and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. The Embassy did not make it to Venice. The visit of Peter was cut short in 1698, when he was forced to rush home by a rebellion of the streltsy. The rebellion was, however, easily crushed before Peter returned home from England; of the Tsar's troops, only one was killed. Peter nevertheless acted ruthlessly towards the mutineers. Over 1200 of them were tortured and executed, with Peter acting as one of the executioners. The streltsy were disbanded, and the individual they sought to put on the Throne—Peter's half-sister Sophia—was forced to become a nun. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (976x1296, 442 KB) Summary July 2005, Photographer Eino Mustonen Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (976x1296, 442 KB) Summary July 2005, Photographer Eino Mustonen Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Moskva River near the Moscow Kremlin in 19th century. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... British tradition, where the monarch reviews the massed Royal Navy. ... Deptford is an area of the London Borough of Lewisham, on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... For other uses, see Dresden (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Streltsy Uprising of 1698 - an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...


Also, upon his return from his European tour, Peter sought to end his unhappy marriage. He divorced the Tsaritsa, Eudoxia Lopukhina. The Tsaritsa had borne Peter three children, although only one—the Tsarevich Alexei—had survived past his childhood. For other uses, see Grand Tour (disambiguation). ... A Tsaritsa (Цари́ца), also called tsarina, czarina, or czaritsa, was the title of Tsars wife or a female autocratic ruler(monarch) of Russia or Bulgaria. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Alexei Petrovich interrogated by his father Alexius Petrovich (Алексей Петрович in Russian) (1690-1718), a Russian tsarevich, was the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. ...


In 1698, Peter sent a delegation to Malta under boyar Boris Petrovich Sheremetyev, to observe the training and abilities of the Knights of Malta and their fleet. Sheremetyev also investigated the possibility of future joint ventures with the Knights, including action against the Turks and the possibility of a future Russian naval base. [2] Boris Petrovich Sheremetyev (Russian: Борис Петрович Шереме́тьев), born 1692, died 1719. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ...


Peter's visits to the West impressed upon him the notion that European customs were in several respects superior to Russian traditions. He commanded all of his courtiers and officials to cut off their long beards—causing his Boyars, who were very fond of their beards, great upset—and wear European clothing. Boyars who sought to retain their beards were required to pay an annual beard tax of one hundred rubles. He also sought to end arranged marriages, which were the norm among the Russian nobility, because he thought of such a practice was not only barbaric but also led to domestic violence since the partners usually resented each other in this forced union.[4] ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ...


In 1699, Peter also changed the celebration of new year from 1st September to 1 January. Traditionally, the years were reckoned from the purported creation of the World, but after Peter's reforms, they were to be counted from the birth of Christ. Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... AD redirects here. ...


Great Northern War

Peter made a temporary peace with the Ottoman Empire that allowed him to keep the captured fort of Azov, and turned his attention to Russian maritime supremacy. He sought to acquire control of the Baltic Sea, which had been taken by Sweden a half-century earlier. Peter declared war on Sweden, which was at the time led by King Charles XII. Sweden was also opposed by Denmark, Norway, Saxony, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ottoman redirects here. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Peter I interrogating his son Alexei.
Peter I interrogating his son Alexei.

Russia turned out to be ill-prepared to fight the Swedes, and their first attempt at seizing the Baltic coast ended in disaster at the Battle of Narva in 1700. In the conflict, the forces of Charles XII used a blinding snowstorm to their advantage. After the battle, Charles XII decided to concentrate his forces against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, giving Peter I time to reorganize the Russian army. Image File history File linksMetadata Peter_the_Great_Interrogating_the_Tsarevich_Alexei_Petrovich_at_Peterhof_by_Nikolai_Ge_1871. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Peter_the_Great_Interrogating_the_Tsarevich_Alexei_Petrovich_at_Peterhof_by_Nikolai_Ge_1871. ... Alexei Petrovich interrogated by his father Alexei Petrovich (Алексей Петрович in Russian) (1690–1718), a Russian tsarevich, was the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. ... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as Demirbaş Şarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


As the Poles and Lithuanians on one side and Swedes on the other, fought each other, Peter founded the great city of Saint Petersburg (Germanically named after Saint Peter the Apostle) in Izhora (which he had re-captured from Sweden) in 1703. He forbade the building of stone edifices outside Saint Petersburg — which he intended to become Russia's capital — so that all the stonemasons could participate in the construction of the new city. He also took Martha Skavronskaya as a mistress. Martha converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the name Catherine, allegedly marrying Peter in secret in 1707. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... H.I.M. Ekaterina I, Empress and Autocrat of all the Russias Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1683/1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Following several defeats, the Polish King August II abdicated in 1706. Charles XII turned his attention to Russia, invading it in 1708. After crossing into Russia, Charles defeated Peter at Golovchin in July. In the Battle of Lesnaya, however, Charles suffered his first loss after Peter crushed a group of Swedish reinforcements marching from Riga. Deprived of this aid, Charles was forced to abandon his proposed march on Moscow. Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... The Battle of Holowczyn was fought between the Russian army, led by Field Marshal Sheremetyev, and the Swedish army, led by Charles XII of Sweden. ... The Battle of Lesnaya was one of the decisive battles of the Great Northern War. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...

Charles XII refused to retreat to Poland or back to Sweden, instead invading Ukraine. Peter withdrew his army southward, destroying any property that could assist the Swedes along the way. Deprived of local supplies, the Swedish army was forced to halt its advance in the winter of 17081709. In the summer of 1709, they nevertheless resumed their efforts to capture Ukraine, culminating in the Battle of Poltava on 27 June. The battle was a decisive defeat for Swedish forces, ending Charles' campaign in Ukraine and forcing him into exile in the Ottoman Empire. In Poland, August II was restored as King. Poltava battle, fragment of mosaic, by Mikhail Lomonosov File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Poltava battle, fragment of mosaic, by Mikhail Lomonosov File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 7,000 besieging Poltava, 45,000 troops, 130 cannons (about 100 participated in the battle) 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed, wounded or missing 2760... This article is about a decorative art. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Combatants Swedish Empire Russian Empire Commanders Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld # Peter the Great Strength 17,000 troops attacking, 7,000 besieging Poltava, 45,000 troops, 130 cannons (about 100 participated in the battle) 3,000 Kalmyks arrived at the end of battle Casualties 6,900 killed, wounded or missing 2760... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Peter foolishly attacked the Ottomans in 1711. Normally, the Boyar Duma would have exercised power during his absence. Peter, however, mistrusted the Boyars; he abolished the Duma and created a Senate of ten members. Peter's campaign in the Ottoman Empire was disastrous; in the ensuing peace treaty, Peter was forced to return the Black Sea ports he had seized in 1697. In return, the Sultan expelled Charles XII. 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Peter's northern armies took the Swedish province of Livonia (the northern half of modern Latvia, and the southern half of modern Estonia), driving the Swedes back into Finland. Most of Finland was occupied by the Russians in 1714. In 1716 and 1717, the Tsar revisited the Netherlands, and went to see Herman Boerhaave. He continued his travel to the Austrian Netherlands and France. The Tsar's navy was so powerful that the Russians could penetrate Sweden. Peter also obtained the assistance of Hanover and the Kingdom of Prussia. Still, Charles XII refused to yield, and not until his death in battle in 1718 did peace become feasible. Sweden made peace with all powers but Russia by 1720. In 1721, the Treaty of Nystad ended what became known as the Great Northern War. Russia acquired Ingria, Estonia, Livonia and a substantial portion of Karelia. In turn, Russia paid two million Riksdaler and surrendered most of Finland. The Tsar was, however, permitted to retain some Finnish lands close to Saint Petersburg, which he had made his capital in 1712. He gained access to a warm-water-port during his reign for easier trading with the Western world. Livonia was a dominion of Sweden from the 1620s until 1721. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Herman Boerhaave (December 31, 1668 - September 23, 1738) was a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: ) was a historical territory in todays Germany, at various times a principality, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, a kingdom and a province of Prussia and of Germany. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Charles XII is: Charles XII, or Karl XII, (1682 - 1718), King of Sweden - see Charles XII of Sweden a 19th_century racehorse _ see Charles XII (horse) a pub in the Yorkshire village of Heslington, named after the racehorse - see Heslington This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... The Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ...


Later years

Diamond order of Peter the Great.
Diamond order of Peter the Great.

Peter I's last years were marked by further reform in Russia. On 22 October 1721, soon after peace was made with Sweden, he was acclaimed Emperor of All Russia. Some proposed that he take the title Emperor of the East, but he refused. Gavrila Golovkin, the State Chancellor, was the first to add "the Great, Father of His Country, Emperor of All the Russias" to Peter's traditional title Tsar following a speech by the archbishop of Pskov in 1721. Image File history File links 18th-century diamond order of Peter the Great File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links 18th-century diamond order of Peter the Great File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Count Gavrila Ivanovich Golovkin (Гаврила Иванович Головкин in Russian) (1660 - January 20, 1734) was a Russian statesman who formally presided over foreign affairs of the Russian Empire from 1706 until his death. ... The word Russia has been used to refer to several Russian states: Russian Federation, the modern successor state of Russian SFSR and the Soviet Union The Soviet Union, a multinational union of socialist republics Russian SFSR, a soviet republic in the union Bolshevik Russia, the revolutionary state during the Russian... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ...


Peter's imperial title was recognized by Augustus II of Poland, Frederick William I of Prussia and Frederick I of Sweden, but not by the other European monarchs. In the minds of many, the word emperor connoted superiority or pre-eminence over "mere" kings. Several rulers feared that Peter would claim authority over them, just as the Holy Roman Emperor had once claimed suzerainty over all Christian nations. Reign From 1697, until 1706 and from 1709, until February 1, 1733 Elected In 1697 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On September 15, 1697 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents John George III Wettin Anne Sophie Consorts  ? Children August III Sas Maurice... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Frederick I (Fredrik I) (April 23, 1676–March 25, 1751), was King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730 until his death. ...


Peter also reformed the government of the Russian Orthodox Church. The traditional leader of the Church was the Patriarch of Moscow. In 1700, when the office fell vacant, Peter had refused to name a replacement, allowing the Patriarch's Coadjutor (or deputy) to discharge the duties of the office. Twenty-one years later, in 1721, Peter followed the advice of Feofan Prokopovich and erected the Holy Synod, a council of ten clergymen, to take the place of the Patriarch and Coadjutor.Peter also implemented a law which stipulated that no Russian man can join a monastery before the age of 50. He felt that too many able Russian men were being wasted away by clerical work when they could be joining his new and improved army. [5] And in 18th century Russia, few people (men and women) rarely lived to over a half century, therefore very few men became monks during Peter's reign, much to the dismay of the Russian Church. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans of Moscow and Patriarchs of Moscow and all Russia along with when they served: // Metropolitans Maximus (1283-1305) Peter (1308-1326) Theognostus (1328-1353) Alexius (1354-1378) Cyprian (1381-1382), (1390-1406) Pimen (1382-1384) Dionysius I (1384-1385) Photius (1408... Theophan Prokopovich Feofan/Theophan Prokopovich (June 18, 1681, Kiev–September 19, 1736, St. ... In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. ...


In 1722, Peter created a new order of precedence, known as the Table of Ranks. Formerly, precedence had been determined by birth. In order to deprive the Boyars of their high positions, Peter directed that precedence should be determined by merit and service to the Emperor. The Table of Ranks continued to remain in effect until the Russian monarchy was overthrown in 1917.In addition, Peter decided that all of the children of the nobility should have some early education, especially in the areas of sciences. Therefore, on February 28th 1714, he introduced the decree on compulsory education which dictated that all Russian children of the nobility, of government clerks and even lesser ranked officials between the ages of 10 and 15 must learn basic mathematics and geometry and that they should be tested on it at the end of their studies. [6] // Events Abraham De Moivre states De Moivres theorem connecting trigonometric functions and complex numbers Publication of the first book of Bachs Well-Tempered Clavier Fall of Persias Safavid dynasty during a bloody revolt of the Afghani people. ... An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of people; it is used by many organizations and governments. ... Table of Ranks (Табель о рангах; Tabel o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in military, government, and court of the Imperial Russia. ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ...


Peter also introduced new taxes to fund improvements in Saint Petersburg. He abolished the land tax and household tax, and replaced them with a capitation. The taxes on land on households were payable only by individuals who owned property or maintained families; the new head taxes, however, were payable by serfs and paupers. A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...


In 1724, Peter had his second wife, Catherine, crowned as Empress, although he remained Russia's actual ruler. All of Peter's male children had died—the eldest son, Alexei, had been tortured and killed on Peter's orders in 1718 because he had disobeyed his father and opposed official policies. At the same time, Alexei's mother Eudoxia had also been punished; she was dragged from her home and tried on false charges of adultery. A similar fate befell Peter's beautiful mistress, Anna Mons, in 1724. Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Portrait of Alexei by Johann Gottfried Tannauer, c. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Mons Affairs of 1704 and 1724 and the Lopukhina Affair of 1742 comprise three interconnected trials that shocked the Russian nobility of the 18th century. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ...


In 1725, construction of Peterhof, a palace near St Petersburg, was completed. Peterhof (Dutch for "Peter's Court") was a grand residence, becoming known as the "Russian Versailles". Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Peterhof (Russian: , Petergof, originally named Peterhof: Peters Court), is a series of palaces and gardens, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great, and sometimes called the Russian Versailles. It is located about twenty kilometers west and six kilometers south of St. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ...


Death

In the winter of 1723, Peter, whose overall health was never robust, began having problems with his urinary tract and bladder. In the summer of 1724 a team of doctors performed the necessary surgery releasing upwards of four pounds of blocked urine. Peter remained bedridden till late autumn. Then in the first week of October, restless and certain he was cured, Peter began a lengthy inspection tour of various projects. According to tradition, it was in November, while at Lakhta along the Finnish Gulf to inspect some ironworks, that Peter saw a group of soldiers drowning not far from shore and, wading out into near-waist deep water, came to their rescue. Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... Russian: Лахта. Lakhta air base near Arkhangelsk, Russia Lakhta village near Saint Petersburg, Russia [1]. Now it is part of the city. ...

Peter the Great on his deathbed.
Peter the Great on his deathbed.

This icy water rescue is said to have exacerbated Peter's bladder problems and caused his death on January 28, 1725. The story, however, has been viewed with skepticism by some historians, pointing out that the German chronicler Jacob von Stählin is the only source for the story, and it seems unlikely that no one else would have documented such an act of heroism. This, plus the interval of time between these actions and Peter's death seems to preclude any direct link. However, the story may still, in part, contain some grain of truth. Image File history File links Nikitin_peter_deathbed. ... Image File history File links Nikitin_peter_deathbed. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ...


In early January 1725, Peter was struck once again with uremia. Legend has it that before lapsing into unconsciousness Peter asked for a paper and pen and scrawled an unfinished note that read: "Leave all to...." and then, exhausted by the effort, asked for his daughter Anna to be summoned.[7] Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ...


Peter died between four and five in the morning January 28, 1725. An autopsy revealed his bladder to be infected with gangrene. He was fifty-two years, seven months old when he died, having reigned forty-two years. is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... Gangrene is the necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis. ...

The most famous (1782) statue of Peter I in St. Petersburg, informally known as the Bronze Horseman
The most famous (1782) statue of Peter I in St. Petersburg, informally known as the Bronze Horseman
The tomb of Peter the Great in Peter and Paul Fortress.
The tomb of Peter the Great in Peter and Paul Fortress.

Many emotions swept through Russia, indeed throughout all of Europe, on the news of Peter's death, but genuine grief was not shared by all. In the words of Russian historian P. Kovalevsky: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x782, 176 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter I of Russia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x782, 176 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Peter I of Russia ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Bronze Horseman is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin which is widely considered to be one of the most significant works of Russian literature. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (976x1296, 461 KB) Summary The tomb of Peter the Great in the Peter and Paul fortress. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (976x1296, 461 KB) Summary The tomb of Peter the Great in the Peter and Paul fortress. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ...

"We could enthuse forever about the greatness of Peter's actions and still not depict in all its fullness, brilliance and worth everything that he accomplished...But in creating, he destroyed. He caused pain to all in whom he came into contact. He disturbed the safety, peace, prosperity, interests, strength, well-being, rights and dignity of everyone he touched. He made things unpleasant for everyone. He did harm to everyone. He touched intellectual, political, social, financial, family, moral and spiritual interests. Is it possible to love such a statesman? In no way. Such men are hated."[8]

Legitimate issue

Name Birth Death Notes
By Eudoxia Lopukhina
HIH Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia 18 February 1690 26 June 1718 married 1711, Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; had issue
HIH Alexander Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 13 October 1691 14 May 1692  
HIH Pavel Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 1693 1693  
By Catherine I
HIH Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia 7 February 1708 15 May 1728 married 1725, Karl Friedrich, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp; had issue
HIM Empress Elizabeth 29 December 1709 5 January 1762 reputedly married 1742, Alexei Grigorievich, Count Razumovsky; no issue
HIH Natalia Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 20 March 1713 27 May 1715  
HIH Margarita Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 19 September 1714 7 June 1715  
HIH Peter Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 15 November 1715 19 April 1719  
HIH Pavel Petrovich, Grand Duke of Russia 13 January 1717 14 January 1717  
HIH Natalia Petrovna, Grand Duchess of Russia 31 August 1718 15 March 1725  

Alexei Petrovich interrogated by his father Alexius Petrovich (Алексей Петрович in Russian) (1690-1718), a Russian tsarevich, was the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charlotte Christine (29 August 1694 – 2 November 1715, Saint Petersburg), daughter of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was the wife of Grand Duke Alexei Petrovich of Russia. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Portrait by Ivan Nikitin Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia (27 January 1708, Moscow – 4 March 1728) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Peter I of Russia and Catherine I of Russia. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... Duke Karl Friedrich of Holstein-Gottorp, (1700-1739) was the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Princess Hedwig Sophia of Sweden. ... Charles van Loo. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Count A. G. Razumovsky Count Alexei Grigorevich Razumovsky (Алексей Григорьевич Разумовский) (1709–1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Peter I of Russia
Monument to Peter the carpenter in St. Petersburg.
Monument to Peter the carpenter in St. Petersburg.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1785 KB) Beschreibung Description: Sankt Petersburg Peter der Große Restored monument Tsar the Carpenter Peter the I learns shipbuilding craft in the city of Saardam, in Holland in 1697. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 1785 KB) Beschreibung Description: Sankt Petersburg Peter der Große Restored monument Tsar the Carpenter Peter the I learns shipbuilding craft in the city of Saardam, in Holland in 1697. ... // Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... Caesaropapism is the concept of combining the power of secular government with, or making it supreme to, the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the inter-penetration of the theological authority of the Christian Church with the legal/juridical authority of the government; in its extreme form, it... This article covers the history of the administrative division of Russia from 1708 to 1743. ... The government reform of Peter I refers to a set of reforms introduced in Russian political and administrative system during the reign of Peter I of Russia. ... Tzar Peter the Great (born in 1672; dead in 1725) was one of the European rulers that was influenced by the Enlightement thoughts. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... The RFS Pyotr Velikiy is a Kirov class battlecruiser of the Russian Navy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are Old Style. All other dates in this article are New Style.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ There is some general confusion over transliterations into the Latin alphabet from the Russian Cyrillic. Although the variant "Feodor" often appears as in the title of the referenced article, "Fyodor", as the name is rendered here, is a more accurate representation. The Russian Cyrillic equivalent is Фёдор, the second letter of which [[ё] takes the sound "yo". It should be noted passim that one very rarely sees the form ё in print. The dieresis is almost always omitted leaving a bare e, unless the text is a primer with a target audience of young children who have not yet learned to read.
  4. ^ Basil Dmytryshyn, Modernization of Russia Under Peter I and Catherine II (Wiley, 1974) p.21
  5. ^ Basil Dmytryshyn, Modernization of Russsia Under Peter I and Catherine II (Wiley, 1974) p.18
  6. ^ Basil Dmytryshyn, Modernization of Russia Under Peter I and Catherine II (Wiley, 1974) p.10-11
  7. ^ The 'Leave all..." story first appears in H-F de Bassewitz Russkii arkhiv 3 (1865). Russian historian E.V. Anisimov contends that Bassewitz's aim was to convince readers that Anna, not Empress Catherine, was Peter's intended heir.
  8. ^ P. Kolvaevsky, 'Petr Velikii i ego genii', Dialog, 1992

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Yo (Ё, ё) is the seventh letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet, invented to replace the recklessly confused е and o for soft o relatively soon after the introduction of the Civil alphabet. ... In linguistics, a diaeresis or dieresis (AE) (from Greek diairein, to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ...

References and further reading

  • Massie, Robert K. Peter the Great: His Life and World. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980 (hardcover, ISBN 0-394-50032-6); New York: Ballantine Books, 1981 (paperback, ISBN 0-345-29806-3); 1986 (paperback, ISBN 0-345-33619-4); New York: Wings Books, 1991 (hardcover, ISBN 0-517-06483-9); London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2001 (paperback, ISBN 1-84212-116-2). Pulitzer Prize-winning biography of Peter I.
  • Hughes, Lindsey. Russia in the Age of Peter the Great. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-07539-1; paperback, ISBN 0-300-08266-5)
  • Hughes, Lindsey. Peter the Great: A Biography. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 2002 (hardcover, ISBN 0-300-09426-4); 2004 (paperback, ISBN 0-300-10300-X).
  • Peter the Great and the West: New Perspectives (Studies in Russian and Eastern European History), edited by Lindsey Hughes. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-333-92009-0).
  • Troyat, Henri. Peter the Great. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1987 (hardcover, ISBN 0-525-24547-2).
Preceded by
Feodor III
Tsar of Russia
1682–1721
with Ivan V 1682–1696
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Emperor of Russia
1721–1725
Succeeded by
Catherine I
Preceded by
Frederick I
Duke of Estonia and Livonia
1721–1725
Persondata
NAME Peter the Great
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Romanov, Pyotr Alexeyevich; Peter I
SHORT DESCRIPTION Emperor of Russia
DATE OF BIRTH =9 June 1672
PLACE OF BIRTH Moscow
DATE OF DEATH 8 February 1725
PLACE OF DEATH

... Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Ivan V Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, September 6 [O.S. August 27] 1666 — February 8 [O.S. January 29] 1696) was a joint tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Frederick I (Fredrik I) (April 23, 1676–March 25, 1751), was King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730 until his death. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Catherine I (In Russian: Екатерина I Алексеевна) (April 15, 1684 – May 17, 1727), the second wife of Peter the Great, reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death. ... Peter II (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... Anna Ivanovna (Russian: ) (February 7, 1693, Moscow – October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... H.I.M. Ivan, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna... Charles van Loo. ... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until her death. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777 – December 1, 1825?), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexander III Alexandrovich (10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) (Russian: Александр III Александрович) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Peter I of Russia (2552 words)
Peter, the son of Alexei I and his second wife, Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina, was born in Moscow.
Peter's hopes were dashed; France was a traditional ally of the Ottoman Sultan, and Austria was eager to maintain peace in the east whilst conducting its own wars in the west.
Russia turned out to be ill-prepared to fight the well-trained Swedes, and their first attempt at seizing the Baltic coast ended in disaster at the Battle of Narva in 1700.
AllRefer.com - Russia - Peter the Great and the Russian Empire - The Era of Palace Revolutions | Russian Information ... (1732 words)
Peter was unsuccessful in forging a European coalition against the Ottoman Empire, but during his travels he found interest in waging war against Sweden, then an important power in northern Europe.
Peter changed the rules of succession to the throne after he killed his own son, Aleksey, who had opposed his father's reforms and served as a rallying figure for antireform groups.
Russia's greatest reach into Europe was during the Seven Years' War (1756-63), which was fought on thre e continents between Britain and France with numerous allies on both sides.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m