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Encyclopedia > Peter Hardeman Burnett
Peter Burnett
Peter Hardeman Burnett

In office
December 20, 1849 – January 9, 1851
Lieutenant(s) John McDougall
Preceded by Bennet Riley
Succeeded by John McDougall c

Born November 15, 1807
Nashville, Tennessee
Died May 17, 1895 (aged 87)
San Francisco, California
Political party Independent Democrat
Spouse Harriet Rogers
Profession Author, lawyer, politician
Religion Roman Catholic

Peter Hardeman Burnett (November 15, 1807May 17, 1895) was the first state Governor of California, serving from December 20, 1849 to January 9, 1851. He was also the first California governor to resign from office. Burnett previously served briefly during December 1849 as the territorial civilian governor of California. Peter Burnett is an author from Aberdeenshire in Scotland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 385 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (815 × 1270 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... We dont have an article called John Mcdougall Start this article Search for John Mcdougall in. ... Bennet Riley (or Bennett) (1790–June 6, 1853) was the seventh military governor of California, serving in 1849, before the territory became a U.S. state. ... We dont have an article called John Mcdougall Start this article Search for John Mcdougall in. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: , Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Government  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area  - City  526. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: , Country State City-County San Francisco Founded 1776 Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Authorship redirects here. ... A lawyer, according to Blacks Law Dictionary, is a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person licensed to practice law. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A resignation occurs when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down. ...

Contents

Personal background

Born in Nashville, Tennessee but raised in rural Missouri to a lower-class family, Burnett received no formal education in his youth, but self educated himself regarding law and government. After owning a general store, Burnett turned to a career in law. During his career as a lawyer, Burnett defended a group of Mormons – including Joseph Smith – who were accused of treason, arson and robbery. During the trial, Burnett requested a change of venue for the court proceedings, where during transportation to the next venue, the accused Mormons escaped. In 1843, Burnett became part of the exodus of Easterners moving Westward, moving his family to the Oregon Country (now modern-day Oregon) to take up farming in order to solve growing debts in Missouri, an agricultural endeavour that failed. While in the Oregon Country, Burnett began his forays into politics, getting elected to the provisional legislature between 1844 to 1848. It was during this time that Burnett, a traditional Southern Protestant, began to question the practices of his faith, drifting his religious views more to Roman Catholicism. By 1846, Burnett and his family made the complete transition from protestant to become Catholic.[1] Nickname: Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: , Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Government  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area  - City  526. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The Provisional Government of Oregon was a popularly elected government created in the Oregon Country that was in effect from May 2, 1843 until March 3, 1849. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


While in the Legislature, and later in the Provisional Supreme Court, Burnett proposed and openly advocated one of Oregon's first exclusion laws, barring African-Americans from moving to the territory. Blacks that did remain were to be arrested and flogged every six months until they did leave.[2] The measure successfully passed, with similar exclusion laws adopted by the Legislature over the next several decades. Oregon's Black exclusion laws would remain in effect until 1926 when referendums removed the clause from the Oregon Constitution. The barring of Blacks from voting remained until 1927.[3] The Provisional Legislature of Oregon was the single-chamber legislative body of the Provisional Government of Oregon. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... The Oregon Constitution is a U.S. state constitution, the governing document of the American state of Oregon. ...


Upon news of the discovery of gold in Coloma, California on January 24, 1848, Burnett and his family moved south to take part in the rush. After modest success in getting gold, Burnett envisioned a career in law in San Francisco, a rapidly-growing boomtown thanks largely to the Gold Rush. On the way to the Bay Area, Burnett met Swiss immigrant John Sutter, who offered Burnett a job in selling land plots for the new town of Sacramento. Over the next year, Burnett made nearly US$50,000 in land sales in Sacramento, a city ideally suited due to its closeness to the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the neighboring Sacramento River's navigability for large ships.[4] The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill. ... Coloma is a former small town in El Dorado County, California, USA (Latitude/Longitude: 38. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: , Country State City-County San Francisco Founded 1776 Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... A boomtown is a community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth. ... Bay Area is a common term to refer to a metropolitan area situated around a bay. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California County Sacramento Government  - Mayor Heather Fargo Area  - City  99. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is mostly in eastern California. ... The Sacramento River is the longest river in the U.S. state of California. ...


Governorship

In 1849, Burnett announced his intentions to return to politics. 1849 saw the first California Constitutional Convention in Monterey, where territorial politicians drafted documents suitable to admit California as a state in the United States. During the 1849 referendum to adopt the California Constitution, Burnett, now with name recognition in Sacramento and San Francisco, and a resume that included the Oregon Territorial Legislature, decided to run for the new territory's first civilian governor, replacing the string of military governors and bureaucracy from the U.S. military. Burnett easily won the election over four other candidates, and was sworn in as California's first elected civilian governor on December 20, 1849 in San Jose in front of the California State Legislature. Location of Monterey, California County Monterey Government  - Mayor Chuck Della Sala Area  - City 30. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Californias Capitol, where the State Legislature meets California State Assembly chamber California state Senate chamber The California Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ...


In the first days of the Burnett Administration, the governor and the California Legislature set out to create the organs of a state government, creating state cabinet posts, archives, executive posts and departments, subdividing the state into 27 counties and appointing John C. Fremont and William M. Gwin as California's senators to the federal U.S. Senate. Despite home proclamations and bureaucratic reorganizations that recognized California now as a U.S. state, the U.S. Congress and President Zachary Taylor had in fact not even signed authorization of statehood for California. Part of this miscommunication was due to California's relative remoteness to the rest of the U.S. during the time, but also to over-enthusiastic attitudes by politicians and the public alike to get California into the Union as quickly as possible. Following long contentious debates in the U.S. Senate, California was admitted as a state on September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850. Californians did not learn of their official statehood until one month later, when on October 18, the steamer Oregon entered San Francisco Bay, with a banner strapped to her rigging reading "California Is Now A State."[5] A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The U.S. state of California is divided into 58 counties. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813-July 13, 1890), birth name John Charles Fremon [Harvey, p. ... William McKendree Gwin William McKendree Gwin (October 9, 1805 – September 3, 1885) was an American medical doctor and politician. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)[2] was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ...


During these advancements into statehood, Governor Burnett's popularity among the State Legislature, the press and the public plummeted. Relations between the Legislature and Burnett began to immediately sour in early 1850, when bills pressing for the incorporation of Sacramento and Los Angeles as city municipalities, with Los Angeles being a special incorporation due to its earlier pueblo status during the previous Spanish and Mexican rule, passed the State Assembly and Senate. Burnett vetoed both bills, citing special incorporation bills as unconstitutional, and that reviews for municipal incorporation were best left to county courts. While the Legislature failed to override Burnett's veto of the Los Angeles bill, it did however successfully override the Sacramento bill, making Sacramento California's first incorporated city.[6] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... The California State Assembly chamber California State Assembly Chamber in the State Capitol The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. ... California State Senate chamber The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ...


As in Oregon, Burnett pushed for the exclusion of Blacks from California, raising the ire of pro-slavery supporters who wanted to import the Southern slave system to the West Coast. His proposals were defeated in the Legislature. Similarly, Burnett also pushed for heavy taxation on foreign immigrants. An 1850 Foreign Miners Tax Act, signed into law by Burnett, required every miner of non-American origin to pay US$20. In addition to these proposals and laws, Burnett also argued heavily for increased taxation and for the expansion of capital punishment to include larceny.[4] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... In the United States, larceny is a common law crime involving stealing. ...


Characterized as an aloof politician with little support from the Legislature by the San Francisco, Sacramento and Los Angeles press, Burnett grew frustrated as his agenda ground to a halt, and his governance style increasingly criticized. He became a regular fixture of ridicule in the state's newspapers and on the floor of the Legislature. With little over a year in office, Burnett, the first governor of the state, became the first to resign, announcing his resignation in January 1851. Burnett cited personal matters for his departure. Lieutenant Governor John McDougall replaced Burnett as the Governor of California on 9 January. The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor that serves as the vice-executive of California. ... We dont have an article called John Mcdougall Start this article Search for John Mcdougall in. ...


Post governorship

One year after leaving the governorship, Burnett was finally able to repay the heavy debts he had incurred in Missouri nearly two decades before. He entered a number of careers, serving briefly as a justice in the California Supreme Court between 1857 and 1858, the Sacramento City Council, as well as becoming a San Jose-based lawyer, a noted proponent of Catholicism during the Victorian period, and then the president of the Pacific Bank of San Francisco. Although never venturing into politics much after the 1860s, Burnett was an active supporter of the federal Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. He died in 1895 at the age of 88 in San Francisco. The Supreme Court of California is the state supreme court in California. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act may be: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 passed in the United States in 1882 banning Chinese from entering American soil. ...


Legacy

Peter Burnett's legacy is largely mixed. While regarded as one of the fathers of modern California in the state's early days, Burnett's openly racist attitudes towards Blacks, Chinese, and Native Americans have blackened his name today. Burnett's period in the Oregon Territorial Legislature helped facilitate the exclusion of Blacks from the state until 1926. Also, his open hostility to foreign laborers influenced a number of federal and state Califronia legislators to push future xenophobic legislation, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act thirty years after his departure from the governorship. Burnett was also an open advocate of exterminating local California Indian tribes, a policy that continued with successive state governmental administrations for several decades, where the state offered US$25 to US$50 for evidence of dead Natives.[7] Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...


San Francisco's Burnett Avenue near the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood is named after him. Categories: US geography stubs | San Francisco neighborhoods ...


Quotes

From Burnett's Inaugural Address, December 20, 1849:[8] is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected...
For some years past I have given this subject [slavery] my most serious and candid attention; and I most cheerfully lay before you the result of my own reflections. There is, in my opinion, but one of two consistent courses to take in reference to this class of population; either to admit [Blacks] to the full and free enjoyment of all the privileges guaranteed by the Constitution to others, or exclude them from the State. If we permit them to settle in our State, under existing circumstances, we consign them, by our own institutions, and the usages of our own society, to a subordinate and degraded position, which is in itself but a species of slavery. They would be placed in a situation where they would have no efficient motives for moral or intellectual improvement, but must remain in our midst, sensible of their degradation, unhappy themselves, enemies to the institutions and the society whose usages have placed them there, and for ever fit teachers in all the schools of ignorance, vice, and idleness.
We have certainly the right to prevent any class of population from settling in our State, that we may deem injurious to our society.

References

  1. ^ Edward P. Spillane (1908). Peter Hardeman Burnett. The Catholic Encyclopaedia, vol. III. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  2. ^ California State Library. Governor Peter Burnett of California. State of California. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  3. ^ Slavery in the Oregon Country. End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  4. ^ a b Gold Rush Profile: Peter Burnett. The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  5. ^ LearnCalifornia.org. California Becomes A State. State of California. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  6. ^ Peter M. Detwiler (1996). "Creatures of State...Children of Trade: The Legal Origins of California Cities" (.HTML). California Constitution Revision Commission. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  7. ^ Anthony R. Pico. History of Sovereignty in U.S.. Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  8. ^ Peter Burnett (20 December 1849). Inaugural Address. State of California. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Military Governor of California
Bennet Riley
Governor of California
December 20, 1849January 9, 1851
Succeeded by
John McDougall

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peter Burnett - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (259 words)
Peter Hardeman Burnett (November 15, 1807 – May 17, 1895) was California's first Governor, serving from December 20, 1849 to January 9, 1851.
Born in Nashville, Tennessee, Peter Hardeman Burnett was a classic figure of the American West.
As a young lawyer in Missouri, Burnett defended a group of Mormons – including Joseph Smith – who were accused of treason, arson and robbery.
Sarah Gibson Lansing and Brigadier General Henry L. Burnett (4591 words)
General Burnett was appointed to prepare the official account of this trial, and the large volume published by the War Department -- "The Assassination of President Lincoln, and Trial of the Conspirators" -- was compiled under his supervision, with the assistance of a stenographer.
Union soldier, lawyer was born in Youngstown, Ohio, the son of Henry and Nancy Jones Burnett, and a descendant of William Burnet, colonial governor of New York.
BURNETT, Henry Lawrence, soldier and lawyer, was born in Youngstown, O., Dec. 26, 1838, son of Henry and Nancy (Jones) Burnett, and a descendant of Thomas Burnett, who came from England and settled first in Lynn, MA and later in Southampton LI.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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