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Encyclopedia > Peter D. Mitchell

Peter Dennis Mitchell (September 29, 1920April 10, 1992)[1] was a British biochemist who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of the chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis. is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ...


Mitchell was born in Mitcham, Surrey, England[2]. , Mitcham is a place in the London Borough of Merton, it is a suburb south of Streatham situated 7. ... This article is about the English county. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Peter D. Mitchell was born in Mitcham, Surrey on 29 September 1920. His parents were Christopher Gibbs Mitchell, a civil servant, and Kate Beatrice Dorothy (née) Taplin. He was educated at Queen's College, Taunton, and at Jesus College, Cambridge where he studied the Natural Sciences Tripos specialising in biochemistry. , Mitcham is a place in the London Borough of Merton, it is a suburb south of Streatham situated 7. ... This article is about the English county. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Queens College is located in Taunton, England. ... Taunton is the county town of Somerset, England. ... College name The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangelist and the glorious Virgin Saint Radegund, near Cambridge Named after The Virgin Mary Saint John the Evangelist Saint Radegund Jesus Lane and Jesus Parish Established 1496 Location Jesus Lane Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... The University of Cambridge has an undergraduate degree program in the sciences that differs from most other universities, in that one cannot read only one science, but a student must study several different broad bases of the sciences in their 1st year, specialising further in the 2nd year of their... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ...


He accepted a research post in the Department of Biochemistry, Cambridge, in 1942, and received the degree of Ph.D. in early 1951 for work on the mode of action of penicillin. In 1955 he was invited by Professor Michael Swann to set up a biochemical research unit, called the Chemical Biology Unit, in the Department of Zoology, Edinburgh University, where he was appointed to a Senior Lectureship in 1961, to a Readership in 1962, although ill health led to his resignation in 1963. Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Ennobled as Lord Swann of Coln St Denys, Michael Meredith Swann FRS (1920-1990) was a distinguished molecular and cell biologist working on the mechanisms of cell division and fertilisation. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Independent researcher

From then to 1965, he supervised the restoration of a Regency-fronted Mansion, known as Glynn House, near Bodmin, Cornwall - adapting a major part of it for use as a research laboratory. He and his former research colleague, Jennifer Moyle founded a charitable company, known as Glynn Research Ltd., to promote fundamental biological research at Glynn House and they embarked on a programme of research on chemiosmotic reactions and reaction systems[3][4][5] [6] [7]. The Regency style of architecture refers primarily to buildings built in Britain during the period in the early 19th century when George IV of the United Kingdom was still Prince Regent, and also to later buildings following the same style. ... Bodmin (Cornish: Bosvenegh) is a town in Cornwall, England, UK, with a population of 12,778 (2001 census). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Electrochemical potential is a thermodynamic measure that reflects energy from entropy and electrostatics and is typically invoked in molecular processes that involve diffusion. ...


In 1978 he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory."[8] This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Chemiosmosis is the diffusion of ions across a membrane. ...


Chemiosmotic hypothesis

Oxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation

In the 1960s, ATP was known to be the energy currency of life, but the mechanism by which ATP was created in the mitochondria was assumed to be by substrate-level phosphorylation. Mitchell's chemiosmotic hypothesis was the basis for understanding the actual process of oxidative phosphorylation. At the time, the biochemical mechanism of ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation was unknown. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Substrate-level phosphorylation is a type of chemical reaction that results in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the direct transfer of a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from a reactive intermediate. ... Chemiosmosis is the diffusion of ions across a membrane. ... The Electron Transport Chain. ... This article is about the study of energy transformation in Biology and related subjects. ...


Mitchell realised that the movement of ions across an electrochemical membrane potential could provide the energy needed to produce ATP. His hypothesis was derived from information that was well known in the 1960's. He knew that living cells had a membrane potential; interior negative to the environment. The movement of charged ions across a membrane is thus affected by the electrical forces (the attraction of plus to minus charges). Their movement is also affected by thermodynamic forces, the tendency of substances to diffuse from regions of higher concentration. He went on to prove that ATP synthesis was coupled to this electrochemical gradient[9]. Electrochemical potential is a thermodynamic measure that reflects energy from entropy and electrostatics and is typically invoked in molecular processes that involve diffusion. ... Membrane potential (or transmembrane potential or transmembrane potential difference or transmembrane potential gradient), is the electrical potential difference (voltage) across a cells plasma membrane. ... Willard Gibbs - founder of chemical thermodynamics In thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics is the mathematical study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... In cellular biology, an electrochemical gradient refers to the electrical and chemical properties across a membrane. ...


His theory was confirmed by the discovery of ATP synthase, a membrane-bound protein that uses the potential energy of the electrochemical gradient to make ATP. An ATP synthase (EC 3. ...


Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory turned out to be one of the two seminal discoveries in biology in the 20th century (DNA being the other). [citation needed]


References

  1. ^ Milton H. Saier Jr. Peter Mitchell and the Vital Force. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  2. ^ NNDB. Peter Mitchell Bio at NNDB. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  3. ^ Mitchell, Peter (Aug 1966). "Chemiosmotic coupling in oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation". Biol. Rev. Cambridge Phil Soc. 41: 445-502. PMID 5329743. 
  4. ^ Mitchell, Peter (May 1972). "Chemiosmotic coupling in energy transduction: a logical development of biochemical knowledge". J Bioenerg 3 (1): 5-24. PMID 4263930. 
  5. ^ Greville, G.D. (1969). "A scrutiny of Mitchell's chemiosmotic hypothesis of respiratory chain and photosynthetic phosphorylation". Curr. Topics Bioenergetics 3: 1–78.. 
  6. ^ Mitchell, Peter (Feb 1970). "Aspects of the chemiosmotic hypothesis". Biochem J. 116 (4): 5-6. PMID 4244889. 
  7. ^ Mitchell, Peter (Oct 1976). "Possible molecular mechanisms of the protonmotive function of cytochrome systems". J Theor Biol 62 (2): 327-67. DOI:10.1016/0022-5193(76)90124-7. PMID 186667. 
  8. ^ Mitchell's 1978 Nobel speech. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  9. ^ Mitchell, Peter (Jul 1961). "Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism". Nature 191: 144-8. PMID 13771349. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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