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Encyclopedia > Pesticide

A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest.[1] A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Although there are benefits to the use of pesticides, there are also drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other animals. Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...

Contents

Types of pesticides

Atrazine use in pounds per square mile by county. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the United States. (From USGS Pesticide Use Maps)
Atrazine use in pounds per square mile by county. Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the United States. (From USGS Pesticide Use Maps)

There are multiple ways of classifying pesticides. Image File history File links Atrazine_use_map_1997. ... Image File history File links Atrazine_use_map_1997. ... Atrazine, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamine)-6-(isopropylamine)-s-triazine, is an s-triazine-ring herbicide that is used globally to stop pre- and post-emergence broadleaf and grassy weeds in major crops. ...

Pesticides can also be classed as synthetic pesticides or biological pesticides (biopesticides), although the distinction can sometimes blur. Recent studies done in Sweden this year, have found a link between hive collapse disorder and a number of pesticides banned throughout Europe ,including 2,4D Amitrole, Amitraz, 1,3-dichloropropene, Atrazine etc. ehich are still used throughout the Canada,Britian, U.S.A and China is are guilty of using these pesticides and more. In China, they have gone even so far as to wipe out bees in one part of the country, now pear farmers are force to hand polinate, a labour intensive and almost impossible chore. Amitraz is a neurotoxin, affecting the nervous system as well as developement and reproduction of young. These pesticides as well as many more have been found to inhibit the auto-immune systems of animals, rendering them incapable of fighting off common bacteria and viruses. As in the case of honey bees, it was found that they are suffering from supressed imune systems likely to be caused by a combination of pesticides and a severly polluted Environment. Broad-spectrum pesticides are those that kill an array of species, while narrow-spectrum, or selective pesticides only kill a small group of species.[2] An algaecide or algicide is a substance used for killing and preventing the growth of algae. ... Algaecide is a substance used for killing and preventing the growth of algae. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... An avicide is any substance (normally, a chemical) which can be used to kill birds. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Miticides are pesticides that kill mites. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Mites, along with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari) and the class Arachnida. ... Molluscicides are pesticides used to control molluscs, i. ... This article is about land slugs. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... A nematicide is a chemical used to kill parasitic nematodes (a phylum of worms). ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ...


A systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. With insecticides and most fungicides, this movement is usually upward (through the xylem) and outward. Increased efficiency may be a result. Systemic insecticides which poison pollen and nectar in the flowers may kill needed pollinators such as bees. In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other one. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ...


Most pesticides work by poisoning pests.[3] For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ...


Uses, benefits and drawbacks

Pesticides are used to control organisms which are considered harmful.[4] For example, they are used to kill mosquitoes that can transmit potentially deadly diseases like west nile virus and malaria. They can also kill bees, wasps or ants that can cause allergic reactions. Insecticides can protect animals from illnesses that can be caused by parasites such as fleas.[4] Pesticides can prevent sickness in humans that could be caused by mouldy food or diseased produce. Herbicides can be used to clear roadside weeds, trees and brush. They can also kill invasive weeds in parks and wilderness areas which may cause environmental damage. Herbicides are commonly applied in ponds and lakes to control algae and plants such as water grasses that can interfere with activities like swimming and fishing and cause the water to look or smell unpleasant.[5] Uncontrolled pests such as termites and mould can damage structures such as houses.[4] Pesticides are used in grocery stores and food storage facilities to manage rodents and insects that infest food such as grain. Each use of a pesticide carries some associated risk. Proper pesticide use decreases these associated risks to a level deemed acceptable by pesticide regulatory agencies such as the EPA and PMRA. This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Moldy cream cheese Molds (British English: moulds) are various fungi that cover surfaces as fluffy mycelium and usually produce masses of asexual, sometimes sexual spores. ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ...


Pesticides can save farmers money by preventing crop losses to insects and other pests; in the US, farmers get an estimated four-fold return on money they spend on pesticides.[6] One study found that not using pesticides reduced crop yields by about 10%.[7]


DDT, sprayed on the walls of houses, has been used to fight malaria since the 1950s. Recent policy statements by the World Health Organization have given stronger support to this approach. [8] Dr. Arata Kochi, WHO's malaria chief, said, "One of the best tools we have against malaria is indoor residual house spraying. Of the dozen insecticides WHO has approved as safe for house spraying, the most effective is DDT."[8] However, since then, an October 2007 study has linked breast cancer from exposure to DDT prior to puberty.[9] Scientists estimate that DDT and other chemicals in the organophosphate class of pesticides have saved 7 million human lives since 1945 by preventing the transmission of diseases such as malaria, bubonic plague, sleeping sickness, and typhus.[2] However, DDT use is not always effective, as resistance to DDT was identified in Africa as early as 1955, and by 1972 nineteen species of mosquito worldwide were resistant to DDT.[10] A study for the World Health Organization in 2000 from Vietnam established that non-DDT malaria controls were significantly more effective than DDT use.[11] For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... WHO redirects here. ... Arata Kochi, a Japanese physician and public health expert, is the director of the World Health Organizations malaria program. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... WHO redirects here. ...


In the US, about a quarter of pesticides used are used in houses, yards, parks, golf courses, and swimming pools.[2] About 70% of the pesticides sold in the US are used in agriculture.[6]


History

Since before 2500 BC, humans have utilized pesticides to protect their crops. The first known pesticide was elemental sulfur dusting used in Sumeria about 4,500 years ago. By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests. In the 17th century, nicotine sulfate was extracted from tobacco leaves for use as an insecticide. The 19th century saw the introduction of two more natural pesticides, pyrethrum which is derived from chrysanthemums, and rotenone which is derived from the roots of tropical vegetables.[12] This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crown daisy Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum... Rotenone is a colorless-to-red, odorless solid. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ...


In 1939, Paul Müller discovered that DDT was a very effective insecticide. It quickly became the most widely-used pesticide in the world. Paul Hermann Müller (January 12, 1899 – October 12, 1965) was a Swiss chemist and winner of the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT. Müller was born in Olten/Solothurn. ... For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ...


In the 1940s manufacturers began to produce large amounts of synthetic pesticides and their use became widespread.[13] Some sources consider the 1940s and 1950s to have been the start of the "pesticide era."[14] Pesticide use has increased 50-fold since 1950 and 2.5 million tons (2.3 million metric tons) of industrial pesticides are now used each year.[12] Seventy-five percent of all pesticides in the world are used in developed countries, but use in developing countries is increasing.[2]


In the 1960s, it was discovered that DDT was preventing many fish-eating birds from reproducing, which was a serious threat to biodiversity. Rachel Carson wrote the best-selling book Silent Spring about biological magnification. DDT is now banned in at least 86 countries, but it is still used in some developing nations to prevent malaria and other tropical diseases by killing mosquitoes and other disease-carrying insects.[15] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are often credited with launching the global environmental movement. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification, or biological magnification is the increase in concentration of an element or compound, such as DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, a type of pesticide) that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of: food chain energetics; or lack of, or very slow, excretion or degradation of the... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ...


Regulation

Preparing for pesticide application.
Preparing for pesticide application.

In most countries, in order to sell or use a pesticide, it must be approved by a government agency.[16] For example, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does so. Complex and costly studies must be conducted to indicate whether the material is safe to use and effective against the intended pest. During the registration process, a label is created which contains directions for the proper use of the material. Based on acute toxicity, pesticides are assigned to a Toxicity Class. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Pesticide to be sprayed on food crops. ... Pesticide to be sprayed on food crops. ... EPA redirects here. ... Toxicity Class refers to a classification system for pesticides created by a national or international government-related or -sponsored organization. ...


Some pesticides are considered too hazardous for sale to the general public and are designated restricted use pesticides. Only certified applicators, who have passed an exam, may purchase or supervise the application of restricted use pesticides.[16] Records of sales and use are required to be maintained and may be audited by government agencies charged with the enforcement of pesticide regulations. Look up hazard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Canada, over 140 municipalities and the entire province of Quebec have now placed restrictions on the cosmetic use of synthetic lawn pesticides as a result of health and environmental concerns.[17] The Ontario provincial government promised on September 24, 2007 to also implement a province-wide ban on the cosmetic use of lawn pesticides, for protecting the public.[18] Medical and environmental groups support such a ban.[19] On April 22, 2008, the Provincial Government of Ontario announced that it will pass legislation that will prohibit, province-wide, the cosmetic use and sale of lawn and garden pesticides.[20] The Ontario legislation would also echo Massachusetts law requiring pesticide manufacturers to reduce the toxins they use in production.[21] The Province of Prince Edward Island is also considering such legislation.[22] On April 3, 2008, the Canadian Cancer Society released opinion poll results conducted by Ipsos Reid, which established that a clear majority of residents in the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan want province-wide cosmetic lawn pesticide bans, and that the majority of respondents believe that cosmetic pesticides are a threat to their health.


Though pesticide regulations differ from country to country, pesticides and products on which they were used are traded across international borders. To deal with inconsistencies in regulations among countries, delegates to a conference of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization adopted an International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides in 1985 to create voluntary standards of pesticide regulation for different countries.[16] The Code was updated in 1998 and 2002.[23] The FAO claims that the code has raised awareness about pesticide hazards and decreased the number of countries without restrictions on pesticide use.[24] FAO redirects here. ...


Two other efforts to improve regulation of international pesticide trade are the United Nations London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade and the United Nations Codex Alimentarius Commission. The former seeks to implement procedures for ensuring that prior informed consent exists between countries buying and selling pesticides, while the latter seeks to create uniform standards for maximum levels of pesticide residues among participating countries.[25] Both initiatives operate on a voluntary basis.[25] The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for food code or food book) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection. ...


Reading and following label directions is required by law in countries such as the US and in limited parts of the rest of the world.


In the US, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) was first passed in 1947, giving the United States Department of Agriculture responsibility for regulating pesticides.[16] In 1972, FIFRA underwent a major revision and transferred responsibility of pesticide regulation to the Environmental Protection Agency and shifted emphasis to protection of the environment and public health.[16] is only done after a period of data collection to determine the effectiveness for its intended use, appropriate dosage, and hazards of the particular material. ... USDA redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ...


One study found pesticide self-poisoning the method of choice in one third of suicides worldwide, and recommended, among other things, more restrictions on the types of pesticides that are most harmful to humans.[26]


Environmental effects

Main article: Environmental effects of pesticides

Pesticide use raises a number of environmental concerns. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water, bottom sediments, and food.[2] Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution, and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination. Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a class of chemicals that persist in the environment, are capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, and have significant impacts human health and the environment. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ...


Health effects

Pesticides can present danger to consumers, bystanders, or workers during manufacture, transport, or during and after use.[27]


The American Medical Association recommends limiting exposure to pesticides and using safer alternatives:

Particular uncertainty exists regarding the long-term effects of low-dose pesticide exposures. Current surveillance systems are inadequate to characterize potential exposure problems related either to pesticide usage or pesticide-related illnesses…Considering these data gaps, it is prudent…to limit pesticide exposures…and to use the least toxic chemical pesticide or non-chemical alternative.[28]

Farmers and workers

There have been many studies of farmers with the goal of determining the health effects of pesticide exposure.[29]


The World Health Organisation and the UN Environment Programme estimate that each year, 3 million workers in agriculture in the developing world experience severe poisoning from pesticides, about 18,000 of whom die.[2] According to one study, as many as 25 million workers in developing countries may suffer mild pesticide poisoning yearly.[30] Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... Pesticide poisonings, where chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees. ...


Organophosphate pesticides have increased in use, because they are less damaging to the environment and they are less persistent than organochlorine pesticides.[31] These are associated with acute health problems for workers that handle the chemicals, such as abdominal pain, dizziness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, as well as skin and eye problems.[32] Additionally, many studies have indicated that pesticide exposure is associated with long-term health problems such as respiratory problems, memory disorders, dermatologic conditions,[33][34] cancer,[35] depression, neurological deficits,[36][37] miscarriages, and birth defects.[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] Summaries of peer-reviewed research have examined the link between pesticide exposure and neurologic outcomes and cancer, perhaps the two most significant things resulting in organophosphate-exposed workers.[47][48] An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Dermatology (from Greek δερμα, skin) is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, sweat glands, etc). ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Consumers

There are concerns that pesticides used to control pests on food crops are dangerous to people who consume those foods. These concerns are one reason for the organic food movement. Many food crops, including fruits and vegetables, contain pesticide residues after being washed or peeled. Chemicals that are no longer used but which are resistant to breakdown for long periods may remain in soil and water and thus in food.[49] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ... When pesticides are applied to food crops, some pesticide may remain on or in the food. ...


The United Nations Codex Alimentarius Commission has recommended international standards for Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), for individual pesticides in food.[50] The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for food code or food book) is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety under the aegis of consumer protection. ...


In the EU, MRLs are set by DG-SANCO. In the US, levels of residues that remain on foods are limited to tolerance levels that are established by the US EPA and are considered safe.[51] The EPA sets the tolerances based on the toxicity of the pesticide and its breakdown products, the amount and frequency of pesticide application, and how much of the pesticide (i.e., the residue) remains in or on food by the time it is marketed and prepared.[52] Tolerance levels are obtained using scientific risk assessments that pesticide manufacturers are required to produce by conducting toxicological studies, exposure modeling and residue studies before a particular pesticide can be registered, however, the effects are tested for single pesticides, and there is little information on possible synergistic effects of exposure to multiple pesticide traces in the air, food and water.[53] MRL may refer to: Media Resource Locator, similar to a URL Maximum Residue Limit, usually for pesticides Montana RailLink (AAR reporting mark MRL), a Class II railroad in the United States Multiple rocket launcher Murphy Roths Large, a strain of mouse, found in [[1999[[1]]]] to have remarkable tissue regeneration... “EPA” redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


A study published by the United States National Research Council in 1993 determined that for infants and children, the major source of exposure to pesticides is through diet.[54] A study in 2006 measured the levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 23 school children before and after replacing their diet with organic food (food grown without synthetic pesticides). In this study it was found that levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure dropped dramatically and immediately when the children switched to an organic diet.[55] The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ... Organophosphorus compounds are chemical compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds. ...


In the US, the National Academy of Sciences estimates that between 4,000 and 20,000 cases of cancer are caused per year by pesticide residues in food in allowable amounts.[2] President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


The Pesticide Data Program, a program started by the United States Department of Agriculture is the largest tester of pesticide residues on food sold in the United States. It began in 1991, and has since tested over 60 different types of food for over 400 different types of pesticides - with samples collected close to the point of consumption. Their most recent summary results are from the year 2005:[56] USDA redirects here. ...


For example, on page 30 is comprehensive data on pesticides on fruits. Some example data:

Fresh Fruit and
Vegetables
Number of
Samples Analyzed
Samples with
Residues Detected
Percent of
Samples with
Detections
Different
Pesticides
Detected
Different
Residues
Detected
Total Residue
Detections
Apples 774 727 98 33 41 2,619
Lettuce 743 657 88 47 57 1,985
Pears 741 643 87 31 35 1,309
Orange Juice 186 93 50 3 3 94

They were also able to test for multiple pesticides within a single sample and found that:

These data indicate that 29.5 percent of all samples tested contained no detectable pesticides [parent
compound and metabolite(s) combined], 30 percent contained 1 pesticide, and slightly over 40 percent
contained more than 1 pesticide. - page 34.[56]

The Environmental Working Group used the results of nearly 43,000 tests for pesticides on produce collected by the USDA and the U.S. FDA between 2000 and 2004, to produce a ranking of 43 commonly eaten fruits & vegetables.[57] The Environmental Working Group is a public watchdog group specializing in environmental investigations in the areas of toxins, agricultural subsidies, public lands, and corporate accountability. ... USDA redirects here. ... FDA redirects here. ...


To reduce the amounts of pesticide residues in food, consumers can wash, peel, and cook their food; trim the fat from meat; and eat a variety of foods to avoid repeat exposure to a pesticide typically used on a given crop.[49] Consumers can also buy food that is grown organically, though even organic food may have traces of pesticides.[49]


Strawberries and tomatoes are the two crops with the most intensive use of soil fumigants. They are particularly vulnerable to several type of diseases, insects, mites, and parasitic worms. In 2003, in California alone, 3.7 million pounds of metam sodium were used on tomatoes. In recent years other farmers have demonstrated that it is possible to produce strawberries and tomatoes without the use of harmful chemicals and in a cost effective way.[58]


The public

Exposure routes other than consuming food that contains residues, in particular pesticide drift, are potentially significant to the general public.[59]


The Bhopal disaster occurred when a pesticide plant released 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, intermediate chemical in the production of some pesticides. The disaster immediately killed nearly 3,000 people and ultimately caused at least 15,000 deaths.[60] The Bhopal Disaster took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984,[1] in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Methyl isocyanates structure 3D model of the MIC molecule Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula C2H3NO, arranged as H3C-N=C=O. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine, and MIC. It was discovered in 1888 as an ester of isocyanic acid. ...


In China, an estimated half million people are poisoned by pesticides each year, 500 of whom die.[61]


Children have been found to be especially susceptible to the harmful effects of pesticides.[62] A number of research studies have found higher instances of brain cancer, leukemia and birth defects in children with early exposure to pesticides, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council.[63] Often used for ridding school buildings of rodents, insects, pests, etc., pesticides only work temporarily and must be re-applied. The poisons found in pesticides are not selectively harmful to just pests and in everyday school environments children (and faculty) are exposed to high levels of pesticides and cleaning materials. "No testing has ever been done specifically pertaining to threats among children"[64] Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) [1] is a leftist, New York City-based, non-profit, non-partisan environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and Los Angeles. ...


Peer-reviewed studies now suggest neurotoxic effects on developing animals from organophosphate pesticides at legally-tolerable levels, including fewer nerve cells, lower birth weights, and lower cognitive scores.[citation needed] The EPA finished a 10 year review of the organophosphate pesticides following the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act, but did little to account for developmental neurotoxic effects, drawing strong criticism from within the agency and from outside researchers.[65][66] Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Baby weighed as AGA Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ... Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of living entities. ... EPA redirects here. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... The Food Quality Protection Act[1] (FQPA) of 1996 is a United States federal law. ...


Some scientists think that exposure to pesticides in the uterus may have negative effects on a fetus that may manifest as problems such as growth and behavioral disorders or reduced resistance to pesticide toxicity later in life.[67] This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ...


A new study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, has discovered a 70% increase in the risk of developing Parkinson's disease for people exposed to even low levels of pesticides.[68] Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ...


A 2008 study from Duke University found that the Parkinson's patients were 61 percent more likely to report direct pesticide application than were healthy relatives. Both insecticides and herbicides significantly increased the risk of Parkinson's disease. [69]


One study found that use of pesticides may be behind the finding that the rate of birth defects such as missing or very small eyes is twice as high in rural areas as in urban areas.[70] Another study found no connection between eye abnormalities and pesticides.[70] Anophthalmia, also known as anophthalmos (Greek: ανόφθαλμος, without eye), is the congenital absence of one or both eyes. ... Microphthalmia means small eyes. ...


Pyrethrins, insecticides commonly used in common bug killers, can cause a potentially deadly condition if breathed in.[71]


Continuing development

Pesticide safety education and pesticide applicator regulation are designed to protect the public from pesticide misuse, but do not eliminate all misuse. Reducing the use of pesticides and choosing less toxic pesticides may reduce risks placed on society and the environment from pesticide use.[5] Integrated pest management, the use of multiple approaches to control pests, is becoming widespread and has been used with success in countries such as Indonesia, China, Bangladesh, the US, Australia, and Mexico.[2] IPM attempts to recognize the more widespread impacts of an action on an ecosystem, so that natural balances are not upset.[13] New pesticides are being developed, including biological and botanical derivatives and alternatives that are thought to reduce health and environmental risks. In addition, applicators are being encouraged to consider alternative controls and adopt methods that reduce the use of chemical pesticides. IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Pesticides can be created that are targeted to a specific pest's life cycle, which can be more environmentally-friendly.[72] For example, potato cyst nematodes emerge from their protective cysts in response to a chemical excreted by potatoes; they feed on the potatoes and damage the crop.[72] A similar chemical can be applied to fields early, before the potatoes are planted, causing the nematodes to emerge early and starve in the absence of potatoes.[72] The potato root nematode or potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a 1-mm long roundworm that lives on the roots of plants of the Solanaceae family, such as potatoes. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ...


Alternatives

Alternatives to pesticides are available and include methods of cultivation, use of other organisms to kill pests, genetic engineering, and methods of interfering with insect breeding.[2] Elements of genetic engineering Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM) and gene splicing are terms that are applied to the direct manipulation of an organisms genes. ...


Cultivation practices include polyculture (growing multiple types of plants), crop rotation, planting crops in areas where the pests that damage them do not live, timing planting according to when pests will be least problematic, and use of trap crops that attract pests away from the real crop.[2] In the US, farmers have had success controlling insects by spraying with hot water at a cost that is about the same as pesticide spraying.[2] Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... A trap crop is a plant that attracts parasitic insects away from otherwise attacking nearby crops. ...


Release of other organisms that fight the pest is another example of an alternative to pesticide use. These organisms can include natural predators or parasites of the pests.[2] Biological pesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses cause disease in the pest species can also be used.[2] This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that kills, or parasitizes and seriously disables, insects. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Interfering with insects' reproduction can be accomplished by sterilizing males of the target species and releasing them, so that they mate with females but do not produce offspring.[2] This technique was first used on the screwworm fly in 1958 and has since been used with the medfly, the tsetse fly,[73] and the gypsy moth.[74] However, this can be a costly, time consuming approach that only works on some types of insects.[2] El Salvador successfully demonstrated the sterile insect technique by eliminating a malaria-causing mosquito from a region for a period of time. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... Binomial name Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858) Cochliomyia hominivorax, the New World screw-worm fly, or screw-worm for short, is a species of parasitic fly that is famous for the way in which its larvae (maggots) eat the living tissue of warm-blooded animals. ... Genera 500 genera & about 5,000 species Tephritidae is a family of insects that includes fruit flies. ... Binomial name Glossina morsitans The tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, is a fly (order Diptera) that eats blood from animals, including humans. ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ...


Some evidence shows that alternatives to pesticides can be equally effective as the use of chemicals. For example, Sweden has halved its use of pesticides with hardly any reduction in crops.[2] In Indonesia, farmers have reduced pesticide use on rice fields by 65% and experienced a 15% crop increase.[2]


See also

In agriculture, agrichemical (or agrochemical) is a generic term for the various synthetic chemical products manufactured and sold for use in growing crops. ... An avicide is any substance (normally, a chemical) which can be used to kill birds. ... Daminozide (trade name Alar, Kylar, B-NINE, DMASA, SADH, B 995, and others) is a plant growth regulator, a chemical sprayed on fruit to regulate their growth, make their harvest easier, and enhance their color. ... Daminozide (trade name Alar) is a pesticide sprayed on apples to regulate their growth, make their harvest easier, and enhance their color. ... For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ... The endangered Smiths blue butterfly. ... is only done after a period of data collection to determine the effectiveness for its intended use, appropriate dosage, and hazards of the particular material. ... IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ... There are numerous health hazards that can affect people in their natural environment. ... Non-pesticide management (NPM) is all kinds of methods for agriculture ( the term seem to mainly refer to cotton ) that do not rely on pesticides. ... Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) does not come from a single source like point source pollution. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... Under United States laws, pesticide misuse is the use of a pesticide in a way that violates laws regulating their use or endangers humans or the environment; many of these regulations are laid out in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). ... Pesticide poisonings, where chemicals intended to control a pest affect non-target organisms such as humans, wildlife, or bees. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Pesticides vary in their effect on bees. ... Protectants are pesticidal substances that are produced by plants to protect the plant from insects and other harmful organisms. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Temik, the active ingredient is aldicarb, is a pesticide now owned and manufactured by Bayer CropScience, but was formerly owned and produced by the now infamous Union Carbide. ... The Pesticide Question: Environment, Economics and Ethics is a 1993 book edited by David Pimentel and Hugh Lehman. ... Transgenic maize (corn) has been deliberately genetically modified to have agronomically desirable traits. ... Genetically modified maize (corn) has been engineered and is grown commercailly in the United States. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment: air, water, and land. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

Part of a series on
Horticulture and Gardening
Gardening

Gardening • Garden • Botanical garden • Arboretum • Botany • Plant Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Descripción: Pequeña regadera metálica - Regando un mininaranjo Fecha: 15/07/2006 Hora: 11:16 Cámara: EOS 30D ISO: 200 Tv: 1/1250... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Horticulture

Horticulture • Agriculture • Urban agriculture • City farm • Organic farming • Herb farm • Hobby farm • Intercropping • Farm Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ... City farms are community-run projects in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... An herb farm is usually a farm where herbs are grown for market sale. ... An old dairy farm has become a hobby farm near Leicester, New York A hobby farm is a small farm that is maintained without expectation of being a primary source of income. ... Intercropping is the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time (Andrews & Kassam 1976). ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...

Customs

Harvest festival • Thanksgiving • History of agriculture In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Plant protection

Phytopathology • Pesticide • Weed control Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...

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Books

  • Greene, Stanley A.; Pohanish, Richard P. (editors) (2005). Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals. SciTech Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-8155-1516-2. 
  • Hamilton, Denis; Crossley, Stephen (editors) (2004). Pesticide residues in food and drinking water. J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-48991-3. 
  • Hond, Frank et.al. (2003). Pesticides: problems, improvements, alternatives. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-05659-2. 
  • Kegley, Susan E.; Wise, Laura J. (1998). Pesticides in fruits and vegetables. University Science Books. ISBN 0-935702-46-6. 
  • Levine, Marvin J. (2007). Pesticides: A Toxic Time Bomb in our Midst. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-99127-2. 
  • Ware, George W.; Whitacre, David M. (2004). Pesticide Book. Meister Publishing Co. ISBN 1-892829-11-8. 
  • Watson, David H. (editor) (2004). Pesticide, veterinary and other residues in food. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 1-85573-734-5. 

Journal Articles

  • Walter A. Alarcon, et.al. (July 2005). "Acute Illnesses Associated With Pesticide Exposure at Schools". Journal of the American Medical Association 294: 455–465. 
  • Tomlin, C.D.S. (Ed.) 2000 The Pesticide Manual 12th Edition, British Crop Protection Council, Bracknell, UK, 1250 pp.

News

  • Janofsky, M. "E.P.A. recommends limits on thousands of uses of pesticides", New York Times, August 4, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-24. 
  • Janofsky, M. "Unions say E.P.A. bends to political pressure", New York Times, 2006-08-02. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. 
  • Kaiser, J (June 2005). "Endocrine disrupters trigger fertility problems in multiple generations". Science 308: 1391-1392. 
  • Kaiser, J (May 2005). "House would foil human pesticide studies". Science 308: 1234. 
  • Webster, P (Dec 2004). "Study finds heavy contamination across vast Russian Arctic". Science 306: 1875. PMID 15591171. 
  • Stokstad, E (Nov 2004). "EPA criticized for study of child pesticide exposure". Science 306: 961. PMID 15528421. 
  • Helmuth, L (Nov 2000). "Pesticide causes Parkinson's in rats". Science 290: 1068. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1068a. 
  • Adam, D (Nov 2000). "Pesticide use linked to Parkinson's disease". Nature 408: 125. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

General information

  • International Pesticide Application Research Centre (IPARC)
  • PAN-UK. Working to eliminate the dangers of toxic pesticides, our exposure to them, and their presence in the environment where we live and work.
  • National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) Information about pesticide-related topics.
  • Beyond Pesticides, founded in 1981 as the National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides - Source of information on pesticide hazards, least-toxic practices and products, and on pesticide issues. Website has Daily News Blog relating to pesticides.
  • Cdms.net. All Supporting Agro-Chemical Manufacturers a list of EPA pesticide labels for pesticides by trade name.
  • Compendium of Pesticide Common Names: Classified Lists of Pesticides Lists of pesticide names by type.
  • Pesticide Action Network. PAN Pesticides Database. Compilation of multiple regulatory databases into a web-accessible form.
  • Croplifeamerica.org, US trade association representing the crop protection and pest control industry
  • US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. 1997 pesticide use map Shows estimates of pesticide type and intensity of pesticide use by business of mass food production.

EPA redirects here. ...

Pesticide regulatory authorities

  • US EPA
  • UK Pesticides Safety Directorate
  • European Commission pesticide information

Human health

  • Centers for Disease Control Pesticides. Compiled information on health effects of pesticides.
  • NIH encyclopedia pages with emergency treatment of Insecticide exposure
  • Durango Software - Provides risk assessment tools for pesticide use
  • Environmental Working Group (July 14, 2005), The Pollution in Newborns.
  • Pesticide Residues in Food - Data and Summary reports from the USDA on pesticide residues in food sold in the United States.
  • Pesticides: Use, Effects, and Alternatives to Pesticides in Schools (pdf) from the United States General Accounting Office
  • Pesticides and Health -- Greenpeace China
USDA redirects here. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Registering Pesticides | Pesticides | US EPA (1000 words)
Pesticide registration is the process through which EPA examines the ingredients of a pesticide; the site or crop on which it is to be used; the amount, frequency and timing of its use; and storage and disposal practices.
This workplan reflects the priority-setting (Pesticide Registration Notices 97-2 (PDF) and 98-7) process for these pesticides, which focuses on reduced-risk pesticides and pesticides that can replace methyl bromide or the organophosphate pesticides.
Pesticide registrants should consult with the appropriate state pesticide program for questions about state registration.
Pesticide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1649 words)
A pesticide may be a chemical substance or biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria) used against pests including insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread disease or are a nuisance.
Pesticide use has increased 50-fold since 1950, and 2.5 million tons of industrial pesticides are now used each year.
Many of the chemicals used in pesticides are persistent soil contaminants, whose impact may endure for decades, and adversely affect soil conservation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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