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Encyclopedia > Pessimism
In the "Is the glass half empty or half full?" phenomenon, the pessimistic approach would be to pick half empty.
In the "Is the glass half empty or half full?" phenomenon, the pessimistic approach would be to pick half empty.

Pessimism, from the Latin pessimus (worst), is the decision to evaluate, percieve and view life in a generally negative light. Value judgments may vary dramatically between individuals, even when judgments of fact are undisputed. The most common example of this phenomenon is the "Is the glass half empty or half full?" situation. The degree in which situations like these are evaluated as something good or something bad can be described in terms of one's optimism or pessimism respectively. Throughout history, the pessimistic disposition has had effects on all major areas of thinking.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1573x2302, 581 KB) Summary A glass of water, demonstrating the eternal conundrum of whether the glass is half full or half empty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1573x2302, 581 KB) Summary A glass of water, demonstrating the eternal conundrum of whether the glass is half full or half empty. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Half empty or half full? Is the glass half empty or half full? is a common expression, used rhetorically to indicate that a particular situation could be a cause for optimism (half full), pessimism (half empty), realism (that depends on whether you are pouring or drinking), or as a general... Look up bad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ...


Philosophical pessimism is the similar but not identical idea that life has a negative value, or that this world is as bad as it could possibly be.

Contents

Historical account of pessimism

The first idea of an apocalypse has been traced back to 1400 BC.[2] Because the first world war was followed by another, our collective ability to learn moral lessons from history begins to seem suspect. Operating on the premise that morality is empty rhetoric, game theory and its political complement political realism appear as a model for understanding and prescribing behavior. The post war fifties saw the rise of dystopian literature. Books such as T. S. Eliot's wasteland (novel), Kafka's the trial (novel), Huxley's Brave New World, George Orwell's 1984, and plays such as Samuel Beckett's waiting for Godot expressed a deep pessimism during this time. The utopian promises of communism revealed themselves as false or unlikely during the collapse of communism. Reason itself, which once held on unquestioned status of perfect objectivity, as humanity is access to the truth, and it's understanding of progress, so widespread and unprecedented criticism in postmodernism and post structuralism. Likewise, nature, whose power and purity could at one time not be denied, is now the victim of problematic population growth and environmental decline. St. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Cyclic History is a theory which dictates that the major forces that motivate human actions return in a cycle. ... For other uses, see Game theory (disambiguation) and Game (disambiguation). ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... This list does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Francesca Lia Block (born January 3, 1962 in Los Angeles, California) is the author of many highly original young adult books, most famously the Weetzie Bat series. ... Franz Kafka approximately 1917 Franz Kafka (July 3, 1883 in Prague - June 3, 1924 in Vienna) was one of the major German language writers of the 20th century most of whose work was published posthumously. ... Huxley may refer to one of: Thomas Henry Huxley, British biologist, supporter of Darwin and inventor of the term agnosticism Leonard Huxley, British writer and editor, son of Thomas Henry Leonard Huxley Australian physicist Aldous Leonard Huxley, British writer, son of Leonard Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, British biologist and author... For other uses, see Brave New World (disambiguation). ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the Irish writer. ... Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which the characters wait for Godot, who never arrives. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This is a list of environmental issues that is due to human activity. ...


Upon broad analysis of history, some have determined that things in general are bad, and seemed to be in decline.

"I can only see emergency following up on another as wave follows up on a wave"

-- HAL Fisher

Pessimism by individual

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer's pessimism comes from his elevating of Will above reason as the mainspring of human thought and behavior. Schopenhauer pointed to motivators such as hunger, sexuality, the need to care for children, and the need for shelter and personal security as the real sources of human motivation. Reason, compared to these factors, is mere window-dressing for human thoughts; it is the clothes our naked hungers put on when they go out in public. Schopenhauer sees reason as weak and insignificant compared to Will; in one metaphor, Schopenhauer compares the human intellect to a gay man who can see, but who rides the ass of the blind giant of Will.[3] Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


Likening human life to the life of other animals, he saw the reproductive cycle as indeed a cyclical process that continues pointlessly and indefinitely, unless the chain is broken by too limited resources to make continued life possible, in which case it is terminated by extinction. The prognosis of either pointlessly continuing the cycle of life or facing extinction is one major leg of Schopenhauer's pessimism.[3] For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ...


Schopenhauer moreover considers the desires of the will to entail suffering: because these selfish desires create constant conflict in the world. The business of biological life is a war of all against all. Reason makes us suffer all the more, in that reason makes us realize that biology's agenda is something we would not have chosen if we had a choice, but is helpless to prevent us from serving it, or allow us to escape the sting of its goad (compare this to the role of desire in Buddhism).[3] Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


Schopenhauer's Proof

Instead of asserting a personal opinion or viewpoint about the appearance of this world being the worst possible, such as a glass being half full or half empty, Schopenhauer attempted to logically prove it by analyzing the concept of pessimism.

But against the palpably sophistical proofs of Leibniz that this is the best of all possible worlds, we may even oppose seriously and honestly the proof that it is the worst of all possible worlds. For possible means not what we may picture in our imagination, but what can actually exist and last. Now this world is arranged as it had to be if it were to be capable of continuing with great difficulty to exist; if it were a little worse, it would be no longer capable of continuing to exist. Consequently, since a worse world could not continue to exist, it is absolutely impossible; and so this world itself is the worst of all possible worlds.

Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. II, Ch. 46. Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ...

He claimed that a slight worsening of conditions, such as a small alteration of the planet's orbit, a small increase in global warming, loss of the use of a limb for an animal, and so on, would result in destruction. The world is essentially bad and "ought not to be".[4] These are disputable assertions, considering that the planet's orbit is not wholly consistent to begin with, global temperature fluctuates over time, and animals can still live after losing a limb. However, taking into respect the fact that major fluctuations in global temperature have typically resulted in mass extinctions in the past and an animal that loses a limb will only rarely survive long in the wild, they may appear reasonable. An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ...

Thus throughout, for the continuance of the whole as well as for that of every individual being, the conditions are sparingly and scantily given, and nothing beyond these. Therefore the individual life is a ceaseless struggle for existence itself, while at every step it is threatened with destruction. Just because this threat is so often carried out, provision had to be made, by the incredibly great surplus of seed, that the destruction of individuals should not bring about that of the races, since about these alone is nature seriously concerned. Consequently, the world is as bad as it can possibly be, if it is to exist at all. Q.E.D.

Ibid.

Freud

Sigmund Freud could also be described as a pessimist and he shared many of Schopenhauer's ideas. He saw human existence as being under constant attack from both within the self, from the forces of nature and from relations with others. The following quote, from Civilization and its Discontents, is perhaps the best example of his pessimism: Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Civilization and Its Discontents is a book by Sigmund Freud. ...

We can cite many such benefits that we owe to the much despised era of scientific and technical advances. At this point, however, the voice of pessimistic criticism makes itself heard, reminding us that most of these pleasures follow the pattern of the "cheap pleasure" recommended in a certain joke, a pleasure that one can enjoy by sticking a bare leg out from under the covers on a cold winter's night, then pulling it back in..... What good is a long life to us if it is hard, joyless and so full of suffering that we can only welcome death as a deliverer?

Oswald Spengler

The source for this is Spengler's The Decline of the West (1918 - 1923), often cited in the years following its publication. Oswald Spengler once declared, "Optimism is cowardice."[1] His description of the western civilization is where the populace constantly strives for the unattainable—making the western man a proud but tragic figure, for while he strives and creates he secretly knows the actual goal will never be reached. Arnold J. Toynbee: Toynbee wrote a similar comparative study of the rise and decline of civilizations, A Study of History, somewhat concurrently with Spengler, which was released much later, around the conclusion of World War II. Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Cover of Volume II, first edition, 1922 The Decline of the West (German: Der Untergang des Abendlandes) is a two-volume work by Oswald Spengler, the first volume of which was published in the summer of 1918. ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ... A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Others

The term has also been used to describe the position of the Norwegian philosopher Peter Wessel Zapffe, although he clearly states in his philosophical treatise Om det tragiske that pessimism is a term which cannot describe his biosophy. Peter Wessel Zapffe (December 18, 1899-October 12, 1990) was a Norwegian author and philosopher. ... Biosophy, meaning wisdom of life or worldly wisdom, is a term probably first used by Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler, a Swiss philosopher, in 1806. ...


Some works of popular literature may also exhibit pessimism, such as Stephen King's Pet Semetary. King later expressed his reservations about the work: "It seems to be saying nothing works and nothing is worth it, and I don't really believe that" (Bare Bones 144-5). For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... Pet Sematary (1983) is a novel by Stephen King. ...

For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian and playwright. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roman Polanski (born August 18, 1933) is an Academy Award-winning film director, writer, actor, and producer. ... Emil Cioran Emil Cioran (April 8, 1911 – June 20, 1995) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist. ... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834),[1] was a political economist and British demographer. ... Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon (April 25, 1862 - September 7, 1933), better known as Sir Edward Grey was a British politician and ornithologist. ... Karl Barth Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) (pronounced bart) a Swiss Reformed theologian, was one of the most important Christian thinkers of the 20th century; Pope Pius XII described him as the most important theologian since Thomas Aquinas. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... This article is about the author. ...

Pessimism by subject

Moral pessimism

Narratives of decline can be identified in morality. Friedrich Nietzsche's amorality, Freud’s description of co-operation as sublimation, Stanley Milgram shock experiments. The continued presence of war and genocide despite global interconnectedness. The continual rise of political apathy. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Sublimation has three separate meanings: Sublimation (physics), the change from solid to gas without passing the liquid state Sublimation (psychology), the transformation of emotions Dye sublimation, the transference of printed images to a synthetic substrate by the application of heat Category: ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


Intellectual pessimism

Main article: skeptical hypothesis
postmodernism, Max Weber, Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.

Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743 – 1819), characterized rationalism, and in particular Immanuel Kant's "critical" philosophy in order to carry out a reductio ad absurdum according to which all rationalism (philosophy as criticism) reduces to nihilism, and thus it should be avoided and replaced with a return to some type of faith and revelation. A skeptical hypothesis is a hypothetical situation that raises doubts about knowledge. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (January 25, 1743 - March 10, 1819), was a German philosopher who made his mark on philosophy by coining the term nihilism and promoting it as the prime fault of Enlightenment thought and Kantianism. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Kant redirects here. ... Reductio ad absurdum (Latin: reduction to the absurd) also known as an apagogical argument, reductio ad impossibile, or proof by contradiction, is a type of logical argument where one assumes a claim for the sake of argument, derives an absurd or ridiculous outcome, and then concludes that the original assumption... This article is about the philosophical position. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ...


Political pessimism

Main article: Political realism

Political realists assert that states always have and always will be amoral wealth-seekers. With the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and the shifting balance of power, we may be entering the most dangerous political times ever encountered. Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Balance of power is a central concept of realist theories of international relations. ...


Environmental pessimism

peak oil, water shortage, the depletion of the ozone layer, bioaccumulation of toxins, the population problem, the loss of biodiversity. These problems, though and not simply and knowledge but pessimists, contribute to the the belief that things are in decline, perhaps irreparably. For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Water shortage may refer either to natural or social topics, or both: Drought Water crisis Category: ... If the input of a toxic substance to an organism is greater than the rate at which the substance is lost, the organism is said to be bioaccumulating that substance. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Cultural pessimism

Main article: Cultural pessimism

Cultural pessimists feel the Golden age is in the past, and the current generation is fit only for dumbing down and cultural careerism. Some significant formulations have gone beyond this, proposing a universally-applicable cyclic model of history — notably in the writings of Giambattista Vico. Cultural pessimism is a variety of pessimism, as formulated by what is nowadays called a cultural critic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dumbing down is viewed either as a pejorative term for a perceived over-simplification of, amongst other things, education, news and television, or as a statement of truth about real cultural trends in education and culture. ... Cyclic History is a theory which dictates that the major forces that motivate human actions return in a cycle. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ...


Eschatological pessimism

Main article: Eschatology

Apocalypse predictions and the low likelihood of alien contact lead to pessimistic ideas in eschatology. For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... St. ... Green people redirects here. ...


Pessimism in culture

6teen 6teen is an animated Canadian sitcom created by Jennifer Pertsch and Tom McGillis for Teletoon as one of its original productions. ...

  • Wayne

The Banana Splits // Main article: Jonesy Garcia Jonesy Garcia One of the series main cast members, Jonesy is a good-looking and womanizing teenager. ...

The Boondocks In Norse mythology, Glúm was one of Friggs attendants. ... “Boondocks” redirects here. ...

Death of a Salesman Huey Freeman is the main character of The Boondocks comic strip as well as the main character and narrator of the animated TV series of the same name. ... For other uses, see Death of a Salesman (disambiguation). ...

  • Willy and Biff Loman

Fawlty Towers Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom made by the BBC and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975. ...

Futurama Basil Fawlty Basil Fawlty is the major character in the British sitcom Fawlty Towers, played by John Cleese. ... This article is about the television series. ...

The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy Bender, full name Bender Bending Rodríguez or designated Bending Unit 22, is a fictional robot character in the animated television series Futurama. ... The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy is an Annie- and Emmy-winning[1] American animated television series aired on Cartoon Network. ...

Hamlet This is a list of characters from the American animated television series The Grim Adventures of Billy and Mandy // Voiced by: Greg Eagles Grim is the Grim Reaper, a scythe-wielding skeleton in a black hooded robe. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...

  • Prince Hamlet
    • "'tis an unweeded garden, 136 That grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature" (I, ii, 135~136)

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Prince Hamlet is the main character in Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ...

House Information Species Android Gender Male Age Thirty-seven times older than the Universe itself Occupation Servant Created by Douglas Adams In the BBC TV series, the marketing division of the Sirius Cybernetics Corporation defines a robot [like Marvin] as Your plastic pal whos fun to be with. Marvins... House, also known as House, M.D., is an American medical drama television series created by David Shore and executive produced by Shore and film director Bryan Singer. ...

Monk Dr. Gregory House, M.D., is a fictional character and protagonist of the Fox medical drama House. ... Monk is an Emmy and Golden Globe winning U.S. television show about the private detective Adrian Monk (Tony Shalhoub). ...

NASCAR Driver Adrian Monk is the protagonist of the television series Monk, portrayed by Tony Shalhoub. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ...

  • Mark Marti

Portal For the 1986 interactive novel, see Portal (interactive novel). ...

  • GLaDOS

The Silver Chair, part six in The Chronicles of Narnia This article is about the 2007 computer game. ... The Silver Chair is part of The Chronicles of Narnia, a series of seven fantasy novels written by C.S. Lewis. ... Narnia redirects here. ...

Spongebob Squarepants Puddleglum is a Marshwiggle in C. S. Lewiss novel The Silver Chair, part of The Chronicles of Narnia. ... This article is about the series. ...

That '70s Show This is a list of characters from the Nickelodeon animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants. ... That 70s Show is an American television sitcom that centered on the lives of a group of teenagers living in the fictional town of Point Place, Wisconsin, from May 17, 1976 to December 31, 1979. ...

Paul Fomenko Reginald Albert Forman (born December 7, 1927), commonly known as Red, is a fictional character on The FOX Networks That 70s Show. ...

The original stuffed toys owned by Christopher Robin Milne and featured in the Winnie-the-Pooh stories. ...

Criticism of pessimism

As decay

Nietzsche believed that the ancient Greeks (c. 500 B.C.) created Tragedy as a result of their pessimism. "Is pessimism necessarily a sign of decline, decay, degeneration, weary and weak instincts ... Is there a pessimism of strength? An intellectual predilection for the hard, gruesome, evil, problematic aspect of existence, prompted by well-being, by overflowing health, by the fullness of existence?"[5] Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek_speaking world in ancient times. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ...


Nietzsche's response to pessimism was the opposite of Schopenhauer's. " 'That which bestows on everything tragic, its peculiar elevating force' " – he (Schopenhauer) says in The World as Will and Representation, Volume II, P. 495 – " 'is the discovery that the world, that life, can never give real satisfaction and hence is not worthy of our affection: this constitutes the tragic spirit – it leads to resignation.' " How differently Dionysus spoke to me! How far removed I was from all this resignationism!"[6] Published in 1819, The World as Will and Representation, sometimes translated as The World as Will and Idea (original German title: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer. ...


See also

This article is about the current understanding of the word cynicism. ... Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... Optimism bias is the demonstrated systematic tendency for people to be over-optimistic about the outcome of planned actions. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of a god. ... Theodicy (IPA: ) (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the belief in an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God, i. ...

External links

Notes

  1. ^ Bennett, Oliver. Cultural pessimism. Edinburgh university press. 2001.
  2. ^ Damian Thompson. The end of time. Page 90 – 94.
  3. ^ a b c Schopenhauer, Arthur (2007). Studies in Pessimism. Cosimo, Inc.. ISBN 1602063494. 
  4. ^   "Pessimism". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  5. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Birth of Tragedy Or: Hellenism and Pessimism, "Attempt at a Self-Criticism," §1
  6. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Birth of Tragedy Or: Hellenism and Pessimism, "Attempt at a Self-Criticism," §6

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... The Birth of Tragedy (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, 1872) is a 19th Century work of philosophy by Friedrich Nietzsche. ...

References

  • Dienstag, Joshua Foa, Pessimism: Philosophy, Ethic, Spirit, Princeton University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-691-12552-X
  • Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Birth of Tragedy and The Case of Wagner, New York: Vintage Books, 1967, ISBN 0-394-70369-3
The Birth of Tragedy (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik, 1872) is a 19th Century work of philosophy by Friedrich Nietzsche. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pessimism - definition of Pessimism in Encyclopedia (462 words)
Pessimism, generally, describes a belief that things are bad, and tend to become worse; or that looks to the eventual triumph of evil over good; it contrasts with optimism, the contrary belief in the goodness and betterment of things generally.
Philosophical pessimism describes a tendency to believe that the life has a negative value, or that this world is as bad as it could possibly be.
Likening human life to the life of other animals, he saw the reproductive cycle as indeed a cyclical process that continues pointlessly and indefinitely, unless the chain is broken by too limited resources to make continued life possible, in which case it is terminated by extinction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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