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Encyclopedia > Peshawar
Peshawar
پشاور
General Information
Country Pakistan
Province North-West Frontier Province
Coordinates 34°00′″N 71°30′″E / Expression error: Unexpected / operator, Expression error: Unexpected / operatorCoordinates: 34°00′″N 71°30′″E / Expression error: Unexpected / operator, Expression error: Unexpected / operator
Altitude 347 m AMSL
Area 2257 km²
Calling code 091
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
No. of Towns
Population 2.98 million 1998
Estimate 3.242 million 2006
Government
No. of Union Councils 25
Emblem
Website
Peshawar Local Government

Peshāwar  (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. It is the provincial capital of Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province as well as the capital of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.[1] Located on the edge of the Khyber Pass, Peshawar is the commercial, economic, political and cultural capital of the Pakistani frontier and, particularly, of the Pashtuns. In ancient times the city was known as Purushapura (Sanskrit: पुरुशपुरा) when it was officially founded by the Kushans. For much of its history, it was one of the main trading centres on the ancient Silk Road and was a major crossroads for various cultures between the Indian subcontinent and Central Asia. Image File history File links Islamiacollegepesh. ... In political geography and international politics, a country is a political division of a geographical entity, a sovereign territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation and government. ... Currently, Pakistan is subdivided into four provinces, two territories, and also portions of Kashmir that are administered by the Pakistani government. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Pakistan Standard Time (PST) is the time zone for Pakistan. ... UTC +5 is the timezone for : Pakistan Standard Time in Pakistan. ... A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Union Council Union Council is a sub part of a district, usually it is a large village also including the nearby small villages. ... Image File history File links Emblem_Pakistan. ... Image File history File links Peshawar_pronunciation. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas of Pakistan outside the four provinces, comprising a region of some 27,220 km² (10,507 mi²). // The FATA are bordered by: Afghanistan to the west with the border marked by the Durand Line, the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Purushapura (Peshawar), Ghandara Kashmir and parts of Punjab were the springboard for Buddhism to Afghanistan, parts of Iran and Central Asia and further to the north and to the east. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Peshawar

Peshawar occupies a region that was dominated by various tribal groups of Aryan origin. The region was part of Gandhara, and had links to the Harappan civilization of the Indus river valley and to Bactria and Ariana, an ancient name for regions now encompassing Afghanistan. According to the historian Tertius Chandler, Peshawar had a population of 120,000 in the year 100 C.E., making it the seventh most populous city in the world.[2] The known history of Peshawar, a region of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Ariana is a feminine name (also spelled Arianna). ...


It has been argued that an ancient city named Pushkalavati, founded by Bharat's son Pushkal, may have existed in this general area during ancient times before the Persian invasion of South Asia.[3] The city that would become Peshawar, called Purushapura, was actually founded by the Kushans, a central Asian tribe of Tocharian origin, over 2,000 years ago. Prior to this period the region was affiliated with Gandhara and was annexed first by the Persian Achaemenid empire and then the Hellenic empire of Alexander the Great. The city passed into the rule of Alexander's successor, Seleucus I Nicator who ceded it to Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya empire. Buddhism was introduced into the region at this time and claimed the majority of Peshawar's inhabitants before the coming of Islam.[4] Pushkalavati is an ancient site situated in Peshawar valley on the banks of River Swat, near its junction with River Kabul, now it is known as [Charsadda]]. Puskalavati meaning Lotus City was the capital of ancient kingdom Gandhara from the 6th century BC to 2nd century AD. The ruins of... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Peshāwar (known as Purushapura in the old days of South Asian history) is a city in Pakistans North-West Frontier Province (pop. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ...


The area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king, Eucratides (c. 170 - c. 159 BCE), and was controlled by a series of Greco-Bactrian kings who ruled the Indo-Greek kingdom in ancient Pakistan and North India. It was later held for some time by several Indo-Parthian kings, another group of Iranic invaders from Central Asia, the most famous of whom, Gondophares, was still ruling c. 46 CE, and was briefly followed by two or three of his descendants before they were displaced by the first of the "Great Kushans", Kujula Kadphises, around the middle of the 1st century. Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... King Eucratides (171-145 BC) Obv: Bust of Eucratides. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Motto: Iman, Ittehad, Nazm (English: Faith, Unity, Discipline) Anthem: Qaumi Tarana (National Anthem)[1][2] Capital Islamabad Largest city Karachi Official language(s) Urdu, English Government Federal Republic  - President Pervez Musharraf  - Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz Independence From United Kingdom   - Declared 1947-08-14   - Republic 1956-03-23  Area    - Total 803... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Iranian may refer to: Citizens of Iran Of or relating to Iran, a country in West Asia Iranian peoples Iranian languages Iranian cuisine Category: ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ...


Peshawar formed the eastern capital of the empire of Gandhara under the Kushan king Kanishka I who reigned from at least 127 CE and, perhaps, for a few years prior to this. Peshawar also became a great centre of Buddhist learning. Kanishka built what was probably the tallest building in the world at the time, a giant stupa, to house the Buddha's relics, just outside the Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar. Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ...

Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, now in Mandalay, Burma. Teresa Merrigan, 2005
Buddha relics from Kanishka's stupa in Peshawar, now in Mandalay, Burma. Teresa Merrigan, 2005

Kanishka's stupa was said to be an imposing structure as one travelled down from the mountains of Afghanistan onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building is by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk, Faxian, who visited it in 400 and described it as being over 40 chang in height (probably about 120 m. or 394 ft) and adorned "with all precious substances". "Of all the stûpas and temples seen by the travellers, none can compare with this for beauty of form and strength." It was destroyed by lightning and repaired several times. It was still in existence at the time of Xuanzang's visit in 634. From the ruined base of this giant stupa there existed a jewelled casket containing relics of the Buddha, and an inscription identifying Kanishka as the donor, and was excavated from a chamber under the very centre of the stupa's base, by a team under Dr. D.B. Spooner in 1909. The stupa was roughly cruciform in shape with a diameter of 286 ft (87 m.) and heavily decorated around the sides with stucco scenes. Download high resolution version (1473x993, 173 KB)This picture is of the ruby and gold relic casket holding a crystal reliquary with three fragments of bone believed to be true relics of Gautama Buddha, buried by the Kushan Emperor Kanishka in the 2nd century A.D. at his stupa in... Download high resolution version (1473x993, 173 KB)This picture is of the ruby and gold relic casket holding a crystal reliquary with three fragments of bone believed to be true relics of Gautama Buddha, buried by the Kushan Emperor Kanishka in the 2nd century A.D. at his stupa in... Kanishka made a profound contribution to Buddhist architecture. ... Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... Media:Example. ...


Sometime in the 1st millennium BCE, the group that now dominates Peshawar began to arrive from the Suleiman Mountains to the south and southwest, the Pashtuns. Whether or not the Pashtuns existed in the region even earlier is debatable, as evidence is difficult to attain. Some writers such as Sir Olaf Caroe write that a group that may have been the Pakhtuns existed in the area and were called the Pactycians by Herodotus and the Greeks, which would place the Pakhtuns in the area of Peshawar much earlier along with other Aryan tribes. Ancient Hindu scriptures such as the Rig-Veda, speak of an Aryan tribe called the Pakht, living in the region. Regardless, over the centuries the Pakhtuns would come to dominate the region and Peshawar has emerged as an important center of Pakhtun culture along with Kandahar and Kabul as well as Quetta in more recent times. Muslim Arab and Turkic arrived and annexed the region before the beginning of the 2nd millennium. The Pakhtuns began to convert to Islam following early annexation by Arab empire from Khurasan (in what is today western Afghanistan and northeastern Iran).[5] Satellite image of a part of the Sulaiman Range. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit á¹›gveda from á¹›c praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...


Peshawar was taken by Turkic Muslims in 988 and was incorporated into the larger Pakhtun domains by the 16th century. The founder of the Mughul dynasty that would conquer South Asia, Babur who hailed from what is today Uzbekistan, came to Peshawar and found a city called Begram and rebuilt the fort there, in 1530. His grandson, Akbar, formally named the city Peshawar which means "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian and expanded the bazaars and fortifications. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and many settled in the Pashawar region.[6] This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


The city has been known both as the "City of Flowers" and the "City of Grain". In the days of the Kushan King, it was called the "Lotus Land".

Colour lithograph of Peshawar during 1857
Colour lithograph of Peshawar during 1857
Bacha Khan leads Mahajireen to Kabul. Peshawar Street 1920 (Mela Ram & Sons)
Bacha Khan leads Mahajireen to Kabul. Peshawar Street 1920 (Mela Ram & Sons)

The Pakhtun conqueror Sher Shah Suri, turned Peshawar's renaissance into a boom when he ran his Delhi-to-Kabul Shahi Road through the Khyber Pass and Peshawar. Thus the Mughals turned Peshawar into a "City of Flowers" by planting trees and laying out gardens similar to those found to the west in Persia. Khushal Khan Khattak, the Pakhtun/Afghan warrior poet, was born near Peshawar and his life was intimately tied to the city. He was also an implacable foe of the Mughal rulers, especially Aurangzeb. Khattak was an early Pakhtun nationalist, who agitated for an independent Afghanistan including Peshawar. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under Persian control during the reign of Nadir Shah by the 18th century. Image File history File links Peshawarlithograph1857. ... Image File history File links Peshawarlithograph1857. ... Image File history File links Pesh_muhajireengoingtokabul_1920. ... Image File history File links Pesh_muhajireengoingtokabul_1920. ... Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545) (Pashto/Persian: - Šīr-Šāh Ṣūrī) also known as Sher Khan and as The Lion King, was founder of the Sur Dynasty of northern Indian rulers. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Khushal Khan Khattak Khushal Khan Khattak (1613 - 1690) was a famous Afghan warrior, poet, and tribal chief of the Khattak tribe. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


Peshawar would also join, following a loya jirga as a Pakhtun region, the Afghan/Pakhtun empire of Ahmad Shah Durrani by 1747. Pakhtuns from Peshawar took part in incursions of South Asia during the rule of Ahmad Shah Durrani and his successors. The Sikhs, who were oppressed under the Mughal rule then invaded and conquered Peshawar in 1834 after wresting it from Afghanistan. In the wars between to two nations, Peshawar's own Shalimar Gardens were destroyed, not to mention the dwindling of the city's population by almost half. Loya Jirga (June 13, 2002) Loya jirga, occasionally loya jirgah, is a large meeting held in Afghanistan, originally attended by Pashtun groups but later including other ethnic groups. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


With the rapid collapse of the Sikh Empire caused by internal fighting after the Kings death and its defeat in the second Anglo-Sikh War, the British eventually occupied the city. They continued to rule from 1849 to 1947, when the city became part of the new nation of Pakistan.


Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central, South, and West Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a centre of trade between Afghanistan, South Asia, and Central Asia as well as the Middle East. Its famed markets such as the Qissa Khawani Bazaar (market of story tellers) are emblematic of this mixture of cultures. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Qissa Khawani Bazaar (Urdu: قصه خواني بازار ) (or Market of Story-tellers ) is famous bazaar of Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan. ...


Peshawar emerged as a centre of both Hindko and Pakhtun intellectuals. Its dominant culture for much of British rule was that of the hindko speakers, also referred to as "Khaarian" ('city dwellers' in Pashto).[7]


Its unique culture, distinct from the surrounding Pashtun areas, led to the city being romanticized by Pashto singers, with songs like larsha Pekhwar tha (let us go to Peshawar) and more recently Pekhawar kho pekhawar dhay kana.


This culture has gradually disappeared with the massive influx of Afghan refugees and the increasing migration of Pashtuns into the city, its demographics have now changed and Pashto is now the dominant language of the city.


After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 Peshawar served as a political centre for anti-Soviet Mujahideen, and was surrounded by huge camps of Afghan refugees. Many of the refugees remained there through the civil war which broke out after the Soviets were defeated in 1989, the rule of the Taliban, and the invasion by American and allied forces in late 2001. Peshawar would replace Kabul and Qandahar as the centre of Pakhtun cultural development during this tumultuous period. Additionally, Peshawar managed to assimilate many of the Pakhtun Afghan refugees with relative ease, while many other Afghan refugees remained in camps awaiting a possible return to Afghanistan. Soviet redirects here. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Mujahideen (Arabic: , ; Turkish: , literally strugglers) is a term for Muslims fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Taliban (Pashto: , stupid or seekers of ignorance) are a fundamentalist Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by American aerial bombardment and Northern Alliance ground forces. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... For the hamlet in Saskatchewan, Canada; see Kandahar, Saskatchewan. ...


Until the mid-fifties Peshawar was enclosed within a city wall and sixteen gates. Of the old city gates the most famous was the Kabuli Gate but only the name remains now. Peshawar has not grown as much in size or capacity as the population has. As a result it has become a polluted and overcrowded city.[8] However, despite turmoil in Pakistan and intense turmoil in Afghanistan, Peshawar has remained a relatively quiet and peaceful city, compared to the violence in Karachi or Balochistan, and the civil war in Afghanistan.   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the largest city in Pakistan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ...


Peshawar continues to be a city that links Pakistan to Afghanistan as well as Central Asia and has emerged as an important regional city in Pakistan and remains a focal point for Pakhtun culture. The Bakhshali Manuscript used in the Bakhshali approximation was found here, and the Shi'a apologetic work Peshawar Nights uses the city as its setting. The Bakhshali Manuscript is a mathematical manuscript written on birch bark which was found near the village of Bakhshali in what is now Pakistan in 1881. ... This article presents and explains several methods which can be used to calculate square roots. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Peshawar Nights is a Shia book depicting a imaginary argument between a Shia and a Sunni Muslim. ...


Geography and climate

Location of Peshawar in Pakistan
Location of Peshawar in Pakistan
Bab-e-Khyber (Entrance to Khyber Pass)
Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass

Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau along with the rest of the NWFP. Peshawar is literally a frontier city of South-Central Asia and was historically part of the Silk Road. Image File history File links Peshawar. ... Image File history File links Peshawar. ... Image File history File links Khyber_pass. ... Image File history File links Khyber_pass. ... Image File history File links Khyber_Pass. ... Image File history File links Khyber_Pass. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


The Peshawar valley is covered with consolidated deposits of silt, sands and gravel of recent geological times. The flood Plains/Zones are the areas between Kabul River and Budni Nala. The meander flood plain extends from Warsak in the Northwest towards Southeast in the upper Northern half of the district. The Kabul river enters the district in the Northwest. On entering the Peshawar Plain, the Kabul River is divided into several channels. Its two main channels are the Adizai River Eastward flows along the boundary with Charsadda District. Another channel branching from the right bank of the Naguman River is the Shah Alam, which again merges with Naguman River further in the East. In general the sub-soil strata is composed of gravels, boulders, and sands overlain by silts and clays. Sand, gravel and boulders are important aquifer extends to a depth of about 200 feet. As further confined water bearing aquifer occurs at depths greater than 400 feet. Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Kabul River or Kabal River (Persian: دریای کابل) is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. ...


Winter in Peshawar starts from mid November to the end of March. Summer months are May to September. The mean maximum temperature in summer is over 40 °C and the mean minimum temperature is 25 °C. The mean minimum temperature during winter is 4°C and maximum is 18.35 °C.


Rainfall is received both in winter and in the summer. The winter rainfall due to western disturbances shows a higher record during the months of February and April. The highest winter rainfall has been recorded in March, while the highest summer rainfall in the month of August. The average winter rainfall is higher than that of the summer. Based on a 30-year record, the average 30-year annual precipitation has been recorded as 400 millimetres. Wind speeds vary during the year from 5 knots in December to 24 knots in June. The relative humidity varies from 46% in June to 76% in August.


Peshawar’s environment has suffered tremendously due to an ever increasing population, Afghan influx, unplanned growth and a poor regulatory framework. Air and noise pollution is a significant issue in several parts of the city, and the water quality, once considered to be exceptionally good, is also fast deteriorating.[9]


In addition the city has lost 2700 acres of agriculture land during the two decades (1965-85). This in the addition to 400 of acres of vacant land that has been also eaten up by expending urban functions. In the same period, the land under parks and green space has shrunk from 163 to 75 acres. [10]


Demographics

People from Peshawar
People from Peshawar

Peshawar is a rapidly growing city with a population of 982,816 in 1998. The current population growth rate is 3.29% per year, which is higher than the average of many other Pakistani cities. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 155 KB) Three men sitting on a bench in Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 155 KB) Three men sitting on a bench in Pakistan. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Peshawar's inhabitants consist mainly of three groups, namely; the majority Pashtuns (including recent Afghan Pakhtun refugees) and minority Peshawaris (Hindko-speakers who are often referred to as "Khaarian", 'city dwellers'). In addition, thousands of Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Persians, Panjabis and Gypsies can be found in the city. Languages Pashto (plus second languages from countries of residence) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... Languages Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajik) Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni) Related ethnic groups Other Iranian peoples Tājīk (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Cyrillic: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...

  • Urban Population: 48.68% (983,000 persons)
  • Rural Population: 51.32% (1,036,000 persons)
  • Male/Female ratio: 1.1:1
  • Average annual growth rate 3.56%

In 2002, on the growth rate of 3.56% population doubled in 20 years from 1.1 million in 1981 to 2.242 million in 2002. Peshawar District covers a large area extending over 50 km from north to south and over 30 km from east to west. It is situated at an altitude of 347 m (1138 ft) above sea level. The Peshawar valley is nearly circular, extending from the Indus to the Khyber Hills. It is bounded on the North and North East by hills, which separate it from the Valley of Swat. In the Northwest are the rugged mountains of Khyber and to the South is the continuation of spur which branches off from Safed Koh (the famous white mountain on the Afghan border) and runs to Indus. The lower portion of this branch separates the district of Peshawar and Kohat. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Peshawar District is a district in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan that contains the city of Peshawar, the capital of the province. ... Do you mean: The Khyber Pass, which links Pakistan to Afghanistan Carry On Up the Khyber, the 1966 Carry On film about the British on the Northwest Frontier ... Kohat (Urdu: کوہاٹ) is a medium sized town in central North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. ...


Over 99% of the Peshawar population is Muslim. Despite the overwhelmingly Islamic nature of modern Peshawar, the city was previously home to other smaller communities such as Afghan Jews, Zorastrian, Bahais, Hindus and Sikhs. The Partition of India and the creation of Israel resulted in the virtual elimination of some of these groups, particularly Sikh and Hindu from Peshawar, but there are still Christian, Zorastrian, Bahai and Sikh communities present in the region.[11] Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Zoroastrianism (IPA:) is the Western given name for the ancient monotheistic religion and philosophy based on teachings ascribed to Zoroaster (or Zarathushtra, Zartosht, ca. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... This article is under construction. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Zoroastrianism (IPA:) is the Western given name for the ancient monotheistic religion and philosophy based on teachings ascribed to Zoroaster (or Zarathushtra, Zartosht, ca. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...


Culture

Mosque in Peshawar

Peshawar is the centre of Pashtun culture and arts as well as a major centre of Hindko culture. With the Russian invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the influx of millions Afghan Refugees into Pakistan, Peshawar became the home for Afghan musicians and artists as well. The city has become the centre for Pashto music and cinema as well Dari music from neighbouring Afghanistan. However, the election of the MMA Islamic coalition in 2002 has resulted in restrictions on public musical performances, as well as a ban on playing recorded music on public transports. Despite these restrictions, Peshawar has become host to a thriving underground scene.[12] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Hindko is an ancient language spoken in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Muhajir or Mohajir Afghans are the Afghan refugees that fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion in 1979. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Dari is a term used to denote one of several closely related Persian dialects spoken in what used to be Greater Khorasan: The official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan; see Dari (Afghanistan) One name used by Zoroastrians (the others being Gabri and Yazdi) to refer to the Northwestern... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Educational institutions

With the level of higher education on the rise, there has been a surge of educational institutions numbers in Peshawar. Edwardes College Peshawar Islamia College Peshawar Army Public School

There are many schools, colleges and universities in Peshawar; some of them are Peshawar model Public schools. ... This is a List of Universities in Peshawar. ...

Sites of interest

Peshawar, as a traditional city with a rich history, offers everything from goldsmiths and silversmiths, traditional carpets (one of the big exports of Pakistan today), pottery, and clothing to artwork in wood, brass or semi-precious stones. The old walled city, was known for its 16 gates — Bijouri, Kabuli, Aasamai, Kutcheri, Rampura, Hasht Nagri, Toot, Kohati, Sirki, Thandi Khoi, Barzaqan, Ganj, Ramdas, Dabgari and Lahore Gate. The names given to these gates are significant. They trace the historical connections — both cultural and commercial — of a city that used to be a sanctuary for raiders, rulers, travellers, caravans, adventure seekers and literary people since times immemorial. Most of them unfortunately no longer exist. A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


There are many bazaars with different goods and souvenirs for travellers. The main ones include the historic Qissa Khawani Bazaar, the Copper market, Chowk Yadgar and Andarsheher Bazaar. Qissa Khawani Bazaar (Urdu: قصه خواني بازار ) (or Market of Story-tellers ) is famous bazaar of Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan. ...

  • General
    • Governor's House
    • Mattani
    • Dean Center
    • Peshawar Garrison Club
    • Aviator's Station - The site where freedom fighters of the 1857 independence movement were blown from guns.
    • Hayatabad
    • Kotla Mohsin Khan - The residence of Mazullah Khan, seventeenth century Pashtu poet.
    • Durrani Graveyard
    • Para Training School
  • Colonial Monuments
    • Bara Bridge built by Mughal rulers in 1629.
    • Chowk Yadgar - Formerly Hastings memorial
    • Cunningham clock tower built in 1900. Called Ghanta Ghar
    • Avitabile's Pavilion
    • Edwardes School - The residence of Yar Mohammad Khan, the last Durrani Governor of Peshawar
  • Buddhist
    • Gor Khuttree - An ancient site of Buddha's alms or begging bowl. Headquarter of Syed Ahmad Shaheed, Governor Avitabile
    • Pakhtu Academy - The site of an ancient Buddhist University
    • Shah Ji Ki Dheri - The site of Kanishka's famous Buddhist monastery.
  • Hindu/Sikh
    • Panch Tirath - An ancient Hindu site now converted into a park
    • Sikh Temple at Jogan Shah
  • Mausoleums
    • Tomb of Sheikh Imamuddin (d.1650) at Palosi Piran.
    • Tomb of Rahman Baba (d.1706)
    • Tomb of Akhund Darweza (d.1638)
    • Tomb of Sheikh Sultan Baba
    • Mausoleum of Nawab Sayed Khan
    • Ziarat of Ashab Baba
    • Burj-e-Roshnai
  • Parks
    • Wazir Bagh - Laid in 1802, by Fatteh Khan, Prime Minister of Shah Mahmud Khan.
    • Ali Mardan Khan Gardens - Formerly Company Bagh now Khalid bin Waleed Park.
    • Shahi Bagh - A small portion of which constitutes the current site of Arbab Niaz Stadium.
  • Mosques

[[1]]Mattani pronounced as Mathanni is situated at Kohat road Peshawar. ... The Peshawar Garrison Club in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan is situated on Sir Syed Road near the Mall. ... Hayatabad is a modern residential area at south-eastern fringe of Peshawar the capital of the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. ... Kotla Mohsin Khan was constructed in the mid 16th century in the old city of Peshawar, and today consists of two domed tombs and the famous majestic gateway through which, historically, invaders would enter the walled city it was also the residence of Mazullah Khan, seventeenth century Pashtu poet. ... Bala Hisar is one of the most historic places of Peshawar. ... Hari Singh Nalwa (1791-1837?), an Uppal Khatri born at Gujranwala, was the Commander-in-chief of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Chowk Yadgar or “The Square of Remembrance” is a famous landmark of Peshawar. ... The Cunningham Clock Tower in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan, was built in 1900 in Commemoration of the Diamond jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress, but it is named after Sir George Cunningham, former British governor and political agent in the province. ... The Cunningham Clock Tower in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan, was built in 1900 in Commemoration of the Diamond jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Empress, but it is named after Sir George Cunningham, former British governor and political agent in the province. ... Gor Khuttree in Peshawar old city, Pakistan was identified by Sir Alexander Cunningham with Kanishka Vihara (the Great Stupa of King Kanishka) while Professor Dr Ahmad Hassan Dani identified it with the place where the famous tower of the Buddha bowl once stood. ... Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Southall, UK. A Gurdwara (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ, often incorrectly called a Gurudwara), meaning the doorway to God, is the Sikh place of worship and may be referred to as a Sikh Temple. ... Known as the Nightingale of Pashtuns, Rahman Baba is a legendary Pashto Sufi poet. ... There are two historical tombs located in Kotla Mohsin Khan, Peshawar, they are called Burj-e-Roshnai. ... Arbab Niaz Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Peshawar, Pakistan. ... Mohabbat Khan Mosque is 17th century Mosque in Peshawar city is named after Mughal governor Nawab Mohabbat Khan who was governor of Peshawar and was the grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan, who remained for some time the governor of Lahore. ... Peshawar Museum situated in the historical city of Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. ... Exterior of Victoria Theatre The Victoria Theatre and Concert Hall (Chinese: 维多利亚剧院及音乐会堂) is a complex of two buildings and a clock tower joined together by a common corridor and located in the civic district of Singapore. ... Qissa Khawani Bazaar (Urdu: قصه خواني بازار ) (or Market of Story-tellers ) is famous bazaar of Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan. ... Khan Klub is popular hotel based in Peshawar, Pakistan. ... Pearl Continental Hotels are one of the best in hotels Pakistan. ... For other Grand Hotels, see Grand Hotel. ...

Notable people

General Yahya Khan (President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan) Jahangir Khan Jahangir Khan (born December 10, 1963, sometimes spelled Jehangir Khan) is a former World No. ... Jansher Khan (born 15 June 1969, in Peshawar, Pakistan) is a former World No. ... Ghulam Ishaq Khan (abbreviated as GIK) (Urdu: غلام اسحاق خان) (January 20, 1915 - October 27, 2006) was President of Pakistan from August 17, 1988 until July 18, 1993. ... Syed Ahmed Shah Patras Bokhari (Urdu: سید احمد شاہ پطرس بخاری) (commonly known as Patras Bokhari) was a Pakistani educationist, essayist, humourist, broadcaster and diplomat. ... Rahim Shah (Urdu: رحیم شاہ) is a Pakistani pop singer. ... Raj Kapoor (Hindi: राज कपूर, Urdu: راج کپور, Rāj KapÅ«r, December 14, 1924 - June 2, 1988) was a legendary Indian actor, director, and producer of Bollywood movies. ... Yusuf Khan (Hindi: यूसुफ़ ख़ान ; Urdu: یوسف خان ; IPA: ) (born December 11, 1922), also commonly known as Dilip Kumar (Hindi: दिलीप कुमार ; Urdu: دِلِیپ کُمار) is an Indian Bollywood film actor and a former Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha). ... Saeed Khan Rangeela (1937 - 2005) was a famous Pakistani comedian, who was featured in nearly 300 Urdu and Punjabi-language films. ... Umar Gul (born April 14, 1984 in Peshawar) is a Pakistani cricketer who has played five Test matches and 15 one-day internationals for Pakistan as a specialist fast bowler. ... Yasir Hameed Qureshi (Urdu: یاسر حمید قریشی) (born 28 February 1978 in Peshawar) is a Pakistani cricketer. ... Ismail Gulgee (born 1926) is an award winning globally famous Pakistani artist. ... Sharbat Gula (Pashto: شربت ګلهflower-juice girl) (Sharbat is pronounced ) (born ca. ... Steve McCurry (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1950) is an American photojournalist best known for his photograph, Afghan Girl that originally appeared in National Geographic magazine. ... The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ...


Transport

The Peshawar International Airport serves the city and the province of the North-West Frontier as the main international airport in the region. It is served by all airlines of Pakistan as well as many major airlines including Emirates and Qatar Airways who have regular flights to the Gulf and forward connections to Europe. The city is linked to the main motorway as well as the Karakorum Highway from which it is connected to all of the major cities of Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad and Multan. The roads are also linked to Afghanistan and China. Afghanistan is linked through the Khyber Pass, which the main gateway for most cargo and passenger travel. There is also a central railway station run by Pakistan Railways, the largest operator of rail companies in Pakistan, with connections to all parts of Pakistan as well as Afghanistan. In the city, there are all sorts of methods to travel around the city, from coaches, buses, rickshaws (Auto rickshaws), yellow and black taxis as well as traditional methods such as horse and carts. Peshawar International Airport is an airport located in the North West Frontier Province in Peshawar. ... The Pakistani aviation market has seen many airlines come and go. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest international road in the world. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the largest city in Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. ... (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Pakistan Railways is the state-owned railway company of Pakistan. ... Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ See [1]
  2. ^ 10 Cities of the Year 100, Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census by Tertius Chandler. 1987, St. David's University Press.
  3. ^ The Pathans – 550 BC - AD 1957 by Sir Olaf Caroe, 1958, Macmillan Company, Reprinted Oxford University Press, 2003
  4. ^ Buddhist Past By Fidaullah Sehrai
  5. ^ of Peshawar By Asghar Javed
  6. ^ The Pathans – 550 BC - AD 1957 by Sir Olaf Caroe, 1958, Macmillan Company, Reprinted Oxford University Press, 2003
  7. ^ The Frontier Town of Peshawar A Brief History by Sayed Amjad Hussain.
  8. ^ Peshawar: The city of contrasts by S.A. HussainLink
  9. ^ Times. Monday, October 16, 2006 Pollution reaches alarming level throughout Peshawar
  10. ^ History of Peshawar By Asghar Jaaved August 06, 2007 Monday
  11. ^ Statistics Division[2] | Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics Government of Pakistan
  12. ^ underground: Rocking against all odds August 06, 2007 Monday. The Frontier post. Retrieved 8th August 2007
  13. ^ of some Historical Monuments of Peshawar By Prof Mohd Said

Further reading

  • Ahmad, Aisha and Boase, Roger. 2003. "Pashtun Tales from the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier: From the Pakistan-Afghan Frontier." Saqi Books (March 1, 2003). ISBN 0-86356-438-0.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. "Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang." 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. "The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing". Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1985. "Peshawar: Historic city of the Frontier" Sang-e-Meel Publications (1995). ISBN 969-35-0554-9.
  • Dobbins, K. Walton. 1971. "The Stūpa and Vihāra of Kanishka I". The Asiatic Society of Bengal Monograph Series, Vol. XVIII. Calcutta.
  • Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1815. "An account of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India,: comprising a view of the Afghaun nation." Akadem. Druck- u. Verlagsanst (1969).
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322-369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910-11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910-11, pp. 25-32.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition.[3]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. "The Peoples of the West from the Weilue" 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [4]
  • Hopkirk, Peter. 1984. "The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia." Kodansha Globe; Reprint edition. ISBN 1-56836-022-3.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. "Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825", Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Reeves, Richard. 1985. "Passage to Peshawar: Pakistan: Between the Hindu Kush and the Arabian Sea." Holiday House (September, 1985. ISBN 0-671-60539-9.
  • Baghaat-i-Peshawar By Imran Rashid Imran

Sarhad Conservation Network, Farman Manzil, Warsak Road, Peshawar Ahmad Hassan Dani (born 1920) is a Pakistani archaeologist and linguist, and is considered to be one of the foremost authorities on South Asian archaeology and history. ... William Moorcroft (c. ... George Trebeck (1800-1825) ...was born in Middlesex, England in the year 1800. ...

See also

HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past... The known history of Peshawar, a region of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. ... Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institute and others suggests that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in Afghanistan were among the earliest in the world. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Grand Trunk Road (abbreviated to GT Road in common usage) is one of South Asias oldest and longest major roads. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... An old red shirt activist, picture taken by Mukulika Banerjee: The Pathan Unarmed Khudai Khidmatgar (Pashto: خدای خدمتگر) literally translates as the servants of God. ... The Indian independence struggle incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (Pashto/Arabic: خان عبد الغفار خان) (b. ... Pashtunistan (Pashto, Persian: پشتونستان) or Pakhtunistan (Pashto, Persian: پختونستان), is what many Pashtun nationalists call the Pashtun-dominated areas of Pakistan. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Nazim (Urdu: ناظم ) is the Coordinator of cities and towns in Pakistan. ... The University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... History The history of NWFP Agricultural University can be traced to the College of Agriculture established in 1957 as a constituent college of the University of Peshawar. ... NWFP University of Engineering and Technology is a university in Peshawar, Pakistan. ... Islamia College, Peshawar Islamia College is an educational institution located in the city of Peshawar of the North West Frontier Province NWFP, Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Edwardes College was established in 1900 with the efforts of Sir Herbert Edwardes Commissioner of Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province. ... Government College University Lahore is a co-educational public university located in Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan. ... The University of Peshawar (UOP) was established in October 1950 by the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... The Grand Trunk Road (abbreviated to GT Road in common usage) is one of South Asias oldest and longest major roads. ... Peshawar International Airport is an airport located in the North West Frontier Province in Peshawar. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Karakoram Highway route map The highest point on the highway: the Khunjerab Pass The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest paved international road in the world. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Arbab Niaz Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Peshawar, Pakistan. ... Qissa Khawani Bazaar (Urdu: قصه خواني بازار ) (or Market of Story-tellers ) is famous bazaar of Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan. ... Famous people from the city of Peshawar in Pakistan include: Raj Kapoor Amjad Khan Dilip Kumar Prithviraj Kapoor Taj Khan (father of Shah Rukh Khan) Hashim Khan Jahangir Khan Jansher Khan Shahid Afridi Younis Khan Category: ... News Sites DAWN English Daily The News International The Daily Times Business Recorder - Leading financial daily Pakistan News Services Urdu Daily News for Pakistan Following is a list of the major cities in Pakistan organized by subnational entities: // Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad Plandri Rawlakot Main listing: List of cities... There are many schools, colleges and universities in Peshawar; some of them are Peshawar model Public schools. ... News Sites DAWN English Daily The News International The Daily Times Business Recorder - Leading financial daily Pakistan News Services Urdu Daily News for Pakistan Following is a list of the major cities in Pakistan organized by subnational entities: // Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad Plandri Rawlakot Main listing: List of cities... Abbottabad (Urdu: ایبٹ آباد) is the principal city of the Abbottabad District in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Akbars Fort at Attock Attock (Urdu: اٹک) is a city located in the northern border of the Punjab province of Pakistan, and also a border district on the river Indus. ... Bahawal Pur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (Urdu: بہاولپور ) is a city of (1998 pop. ... Chitral Valley and Tirich Mir, 7,708 m (25,289 ft) Chitral, or Chatrāl (Urdu: چترال),in native language kalasha its pronounced chetrar(chetr meaning field) is the name of a town , valley, river, district, and former princely state in the former Malakand Division of the Northwest Frontier Province of...   (Urdu: فیصل آباد) is a city located in Punjab, Pakistan. ... An afternoon scene in Gilgit Gilgit (Urdu: گلگت) is the capital city of Northern Areas, Pakistan. ... Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about Hyderabad, Pakistan. ... (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is located in the Potohar Plateau in the northwest of the country. ...   (Urdu: , Sindhi: ) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the largest city in Pakistan. ... Khanewal (Urdu: خانیوال) is a Mega City which is almost one hour drive from Multan in Punjab, Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. ... Structure dubbed the great bath in the excavated Mohenjo-daro ruins. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nawabshah Mudjamrao Road Nawabshah (Urdu: نوابشاہ) city (established in 1912) is located in the centre of Sindh,Along With Left Bank Of River Indus Near Sakrand Tehsel, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rawalpindi (Urdu: راولپنڈی) is a city in the Potwar Plateau near Pakistans capital city of Islamabad, in the province of Punjab. ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Sukkur (Urdu: سکھر, Sindhi:سکر) is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus River (Pakistan) in Sukkur District. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... Thatta, or Tatta, is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan. ... A relief map of Pakistan showing historic sites. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... A series of three wars between Britain and the Afghans in the 19th century and early 20th century was formerly called the Afghan Wars but is now referred to as the Anglo-Afghan wars perhaps to distinguish them from the civil strife in the 1980s. ... There have been two Anglo-Sikh wars: The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846) The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-1849) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ashoka (DevanāgarÄ«: अशोकः, IAST: , IPA: , Prakrit Imperial title: Devanampriya Priyadarsi, He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably) (304 BCE – 232 BCE) was an Indian emperor, of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled from from 273 BCE to 232 BCE. Often cited as one of India... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, the successor to the Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iraq, Turkey, Iran, as well as United States chose not to initially participate as to avoid alienating Arab states with... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Aided By  Soviet Union Pakistan Aided By United States People’s Republic of China Commanders • Col. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ... Pakistani Baluchistan was conquered by the British Empire on October 1, 1887. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) Indo-Pakistani wars and... The // (c. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... Combatants India Pakistan, Kashmiri secessionists, Islamic militants (Foreign Fighters) Strength 30,000 5,000 Casualties Indian Official Figures: 527 killed,[1][2][3] 1,363 wounded[4] 1 POW Pakistani Estimates: 357–4,000+ killed[5][6] (Pakistan troops) 665+ soldiers wounded[5] 8 POWs. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Minar-e-Pakistan, where Pakistan Resolution was passed The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution,[1] was the National documentation and a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22-24 March 1940 that called... Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed east into what is today Pakistan and India. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Muhammad of Ghor (Persian,Urdu: محمد شہاب الدین غوری), also Muhammad Ghori or Mohammad Ghauri, originally named Muizz-ad-din, b. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... This article is under construction. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Pakistan Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, al-Qaeda, Taliban, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Commanders Commander XI Corps Haji Omar, Abu Faraj al-Libbi(captured), Tohir Yo‘ldosh Strength 80,000[2] 40,000[3] Casualties 700[4] - 3,000[5] Pakistan military and paramilitary killed 1,000[6] - 3,000... In recent history, the Pakistani political processes have taken place in the framework of a federal republic, where the system of government has at times been parliamentary, presidential, or semi-presidential. ... The Chief Justice of Pakistan heads the Supreme Court of Pakistan. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Districts of Pakistan form the third tier of government in Pakistan, ranking as subdivisions of the provinces of Pakistan. ... Government of Sindh is based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan. ... At the national level, Pakistan elects a bicameral legislature, the Parliament of Pakistan, which consists of a directly-elected National Assembly of Pakistan and a Senate whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Pakistan was designed by Syed Amir-ud-Din Kedwaii based on the 1906 flag of the All-India Muslim League. ... Pakistan is the second largest Muslim country in terms of population, and its status as a declared nuclear power, being the only Islamic nation to have that status, plays a part in its international role. ... A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ... Pakistan had a parliamentary system of government that has been modified several times since its inception. ... Political parties in Pakistan lists political parties in Pakistan. ... List of Mayors (Nazims) during 20th Century Karachi City Municipal Act was promulgated in 1933. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Parliament of Pakistan is known as the Majlis-e-Shoora (Council of Advisors). ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is Head of State of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... The Supreme Court (Urdu: عدالت اعظمیٰ ) is the apex court in Pakistans judicial hierarchy, the final arbiter of legal and constitutional disputes. ... Terrorism in Pakistan has been prevalent since the 1980s following the breakup of the nation into modern Pakistan and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh Liberation War. ... The Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) is the national governing body for field hockey in Pakistan. ... The Pakistan Cricket Board is responsible for all first class and Test cricket played in and by the Pakistan cricket team Pakistan was admitted to the International Cricket Council in July 1953 after having been a part of India prior to partition in 1947. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... This is a list of those people who have umpired at least one Test match in Pakistan between Pakistan and other Test cricket nations. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... The Pakistan Premier League (PPL) is the first division of Pakistani football. ... The Pakistan National Football Challenge Cup is the national knockout cup competition in Pakistani football, run by Pakistan Football Federation. ... Gilli िगल्ली -danda डन्डा is a game popular across the length and breadth of India and Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Pakistan Open golf tournament was first played in 1967. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... K2 from Concordia The Baltoro Glacier, at over 70 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. ... Broghol, also spelled Boroghil and several other ways, is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... Broghol is a high mountain pass that crosses the Pamir and connects the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Clifton beach seafront, Karachi Clifton Beach, on the Arabian Sea, is a beach in Clifton, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, one of the neighborhoods of Saddar Town, Karachi. ... Demographics of Pakistan, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The Dorah Pass, also spelled and pronounced Durah Pass, connects Badakshan in Afghanistan with Chitral in Pakistan. ... The Durand Line is the term for the poorly marked 2,640 kilometer (1,610 mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Guddu Barrage is a barrage across river Indus, near Sukkur in Pakistan. ... Gumal Pass is a pass on the border of Afganistan and the southeastern portion of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Hawkes Bay or Hawkesbay is a popular beach and a neighborhood located in Kiamari Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Pakistan. ... The Indus Waters Treaty Historical context The partition of the Indian subcontinent created a conflict over the waters of the Indus basin. ... K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth. ... The Kalabagh dam is a mega water reservoir that Government of Pakistan planning to develop across the Indus River, one of the worlds largest rivers. ... Karakoram is a mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, China, and India, located in the regions of Gilgit, Ladakh and Baltistan. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Lowarai Pass is located between the Panjkora and Chitral valleys in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Lowari Top is a pass that connects Chitral with Dir in Pakistan. ... News Sites DAWN English Daily The News International The Daily Times Business Recorder - Leading financial daily Pakistan News Services Urdu Daily News for Pakistan Following is a list of the major cities in Pakistan organized by subnational entities: // Bagh Bhimber Kotli Mirpur Muzaffarabad Plandri Rawlakot Main listing: List of cities... K2, the 2nd highest of the world Broad Peak, the 12th highest of the world Pakistan contains five of the highest fourteen independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) and many other high peaks, in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Hindu Raj ranges. ... Mazar-e-Quaid - the icon of Karachi Mazar-e-Quaid is referred to mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. ... National Parks of Pakistan There are 14 National Parks in Pakistan. ... Nanga Parbat (also known as Nangaparbat Peak or Diamir) is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and the second highest in Pakistan. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... The Salt Range is a hill system in the Punjab region of India, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock-salt. ... Sandspit Beach is situated north west of Karachi. ... The Sarpo Laggo Glacier (Sarpo Laggo: young husband) is a glacier in Pakistan, in the Karakoram mountain range of the Himalayas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shandur Top is a high mountain pass that connects Chitral to Gilgit. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains in India at approximately . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Airblue is a private airline based in Islamabad, Pakistan. ... The Pakistani aviation market has seen many airlines come and go. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 2. ... Islamabad Stock Exchange is the three largest stock exchange of Pakistan located in the capital, Islamabad. ... The Karachi Stock Exchange (Guarantee) Limited (colloquially known as the Karachi Stock Exchange) is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan. ... This organization, company, or building article needs to be wikified. ... This is a list of companies from Pakistan. ... History (First Project, Al Azam Square, Site Office, Karachi-1966). ... Pakistan International Airlines or PIA (Urdu: Ù¾ÛŒ آئی اے يا پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایرلاینز), is the national flag carrier airline of Pakistan, based in Karachi. ... The Pakistani rupee (PKR) is the currency of Pakistan. ... The logo of the Karachi Port Trust. ... Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan located at , (24. ... A slum in Karachi, Pakistan with an open sewer running along the lane Poverty in Pakistan, is a major economic issue. ... // Saudi-Pak Tower, Islamabad GIK Institute Clock Tower, Topi With many towers currently under construction, there are many towers still awaiting to be approved by the city government. ... The 17th Century Badshahi Mosque built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore The culture of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافت پاکستان ), although relatively diverse depending on which one of Pakistans provinces, has been greatly influenced by the cultures of Central Asia and the Middle East. ... A1GP (formerly A1 Grand Prix) is an open-wheel auto racing series. ... The A1 Team Pakistan is the Pakistani team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series dubbed as the world cup of motorsport. ... Basant, sometimes called Jashan-e Baharaan (Urdu:جشن بهران or Spring Festival), is a Pakistani festival celebrating the arrival of Spring. ... In Islamic Pakistani culture Chand Raat or night of the moon as it translates marks the end of Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان ) and the start of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر). Since the Islamic Calendar is lunar the advent of... Pakistani cuisine is generally similar to that of India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Holidays in Pakistan: Category: ... Over 98% of 166 million peoples of Pakistan are Muslims and Islam is the State religion of Pakistan. ... The Kara Film Festival is the only internationally recognized film festival of Pakistan, to represent Lollywood annually held in Karachi. ... This is a list of musicians from Pakistan listed in alphabetical order. ... Pakistan has many radio and TV channels. ... Lollywood refers to the Pakistani film industry, based in the city of Lahore. ... This is a list of mosques in Pakistan. ... Murree Beer is Pakistans leading beer brand made by Murree Brewery. ... The music of Pakistan is probably one of the most diverse selection of music in the whole world within one country; being at the crossroads of Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and India. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Pakistan national cricket team is a national cricket team representing Pakistan. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... A sari / saree is the traditional female garment in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Maldives. ... An old-fashioned Hyderabadi gentleman wearing a formal Sherwani and Fez hat, that is designed by a designer in Lahore, Pakistan Sherwani (Urdu: شیروانی ) is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet. ... Sikhism is a very small minority religion in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan but has many cultural, historical and political ties to the country, and to the historical region of Punjab. ... The term Sufi rock describes the sound of famous Pakistani rock band Junoon. ... Lahore Museum, established in 1894, when Lahore (currently a part of Pakistan) was a part of Undivided India, is a major museum of the Indian subcontinent. ... The following is a list of major universities in Pakistan, organized by subnational entities. ... The National library was established after almost 46 years of independence. ... Pakistani literature, that is, the literature of Pakistan, as a distinct literature came into being when Pakistan gained its nationhooood as a sovereign state in 1947. ... Pakistani poetry as a tradition partakes of Urdu poetry, which see. ... The Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (also Inter-Services Intelligence or ISI) is the among the top well organised,resourceful,largest and most powerful intelligence service in the world. ... Pakistan is the sixth most populous nation in the world. ... Branches of Service Pakistan Army Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan Coast Guard Pakistan Paramilitary Forces Pakistan Strategic Nuclear Command Leadership Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff General Ehsan ul Haq Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf Chief of Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Ahmed Chief of Naval... Membership badge of the Pakistan Boy Scouts Association The Pakistan Boy Scouts Association (PBSA) is the national Scouting organization of Pakistan and has 516,891 members (as of 2002). ... This page lists articles on Wikipedia that are related to Pakistan. ...

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Provincial and Territorial Capitals of Pakistan Flag of Pakistan
Sindh: Karachi | Punjab: Lahore | NWFP: Peshawar | Balochistan: Quetta
Northern Areas: Gilgit | Federally Administered Tribal Areas: Peshawar | Azad Kashmir: Muzaffarabad
Federal Capital: Islamabad
Administrative Divisions of North-West Frontier Province Flag of Pakistan
Capital Peshawar
Districts Abbottabad | Bannu | Batagram District | Buner | Charsadda | Chitral | Dera Ismail Khan | Hangu | Haripur | Karak | Kohat | Kohistan | Lakki Marwat | Lower Dir | Malakand | Mansehra | Mardan | Nowshera | Peshawar | Shangla District | Swabi | Swat | Tank | Upper Dir 
Administrative Divisions of Federally Administered Tribal Areas Flag of Pakistan
Agencies Bajaur | Khyber | Kurram | Mohmand | North Waziristan | Orakzai | South Waziristan |

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peshawar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3432 words)
Peshawar occupies a region that was dominated by various tribal groups of Indo-Iranian origin and a variety of other groups, possibly of Dravidian origin, maybe prior to invasion of Aryan tribes and their settlement.
Peshawar is situated near the eastern end of the Khyber Pass and sits mainly on the Iranian plateau along with the rest of the NWFP.
Peshawar is a rapidly growing city with a population of 982,816 according to 1998 census that was 566,248 in 1981.
Peshawar (1777 words)
The Peshawar 'Saddar' (Cantonment) is a sapciously laid out neat and clean township with avenues of tall trees, wide tarred roads, large single-storeyed houses with large lawns and a pervading scent of rare shrubs and flowers that is Peshawar's own.
The Peshawar of the hoary past is the old city, the Peshawar of the British period (1849-1947) is the Cantonment but the Peshawar of independent Pakistan is the vast extension of the city west and east.
You may travel by road from Peshawar via Jamrud Fort, low stony hills capped with pickets manned by Khyber Rifles, Ali Masjid and the fort, insignia of the regiments that have served in the Khyber, remains of Sphola stupa of Buddhist period (2nd-5th centuries A.D.), Landikotal Bazaar and to the border post at Torkham.
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