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Encyclopedia > Personal water craft
Pump-jet PWCs such as this Yamaha Waverunner are extremely popular for their speed and maneuverability.
Pump-jet PWCs such as this Yamaha Waverunner are extremely popular for their speed and maneuverability.

A personal water craft (PWC) is a recreational watercraft that the rider sits or stands on, rather than inside of, as in a boat. Models have an inboard engine driving a pump jet that has a screw-shaped impeller to create thrust for propulsion and steering. They are often referred by the names WaveRunner, Jet Ski, or Sea-Doo, which are brand names owned by Yamaha, Kawasaki, and Bombardier, respectively. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2192x1574, 1837 KB)Pump jet driven PWC during a high-speed turn. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2192x1574, 1837 KB)Pump jet driven PWC during a high-speed turn. ... Categories: Marine propulsion | Stub ... Yamaha Motor Corporation (ヤマハ発動機株式会社) is a motorized vehicle-producing company, initially part of the Yamaha Corporation. ... People participating in summer luge as a form of recreation, in the Vosges. ... A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or through) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. ... A boat is a craft or vessel designed to float on, and provide transport over, water. ... An inboard motor is a propulsion system for boats. ... An engine is something that produces an effect from a given input. ... Typical jet ski pump jet A pump-jet or water jet is a marine system that creates a jet of water for propulsion. ... An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid. ... WaveRunner is a brand name for Yamaha Motor Corporations popular line of personal water craft (PWC). ... Jet ski is the brand name of Kawasaki Heavy Industries personal water craft. ... Sea-Doo is a brand name for Bombardier Recreational Products popular line of personal water craft (PWC). ... Yamaha Motor Company Limited ) (TYO: 7272 ), a Japanese motorized vehicle-producing company (whose HQ is at 2500 Shingai, Iwata, Shizuoka), is part of the Yamaha Corporation. ... Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. ... Bombardier Recreational Products or BRP is a Canadian company, which was founded by Joseph-Armand Bombardier as LAuto-Neige Bombardier Limitée in 1942 at Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. ...


Because of their relatively low cost and the freedom they afford to owners, PWC are widely used for recreation. However, many U.S. states require safety training for personal watercraft operators. Modern PWC include a lanyard attached to a dead man's switch, to turn off the vessel if the operator falls off -- provided the lanyard is attached to the operator. A lanyard (sword knot) fixed to an infantry sword handle A lanyard, also spelled laniard, is a rope or cord often worn around the neck or wrist to carry something. ... A dead mans switch (for other names, see Alternative names), as its name suggests, is a device intended to stop a machine in case the human operator becomes incapacitated, and is a form of fail-safe. ...


Most are designed for two or three people, though four-passenger models exist. Stand-up PWCs were first to see mass production and are still popular for single riders. The invention of both major types of PWC is usually credited to Clayton Jacobsen II of Arizona, originally a motocross enthusiast. Stand-up PWC are a type of personal watercraft (PWC) available since the 1970s. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


Lake Havasu, Arizona, is a favorite for PWC riders and racers alike, and hosts the IJSBA World Finals for personal watercraft racing each October since 1982. Lake Havasu is the reservoir behind Parker Dam on the Colorado river. ...


Some surfers use PWCs to get to the waves and get up to speed with them; this is known as tow-in surfing. They can also be used for towing water skiers on flat water. See World Wide Web for surfing the web; see also Wind surfing Surfing at Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. ... Tow-in surfing is a surfing technique pioneered by Laird Hamilton, Buzzy Kerbox, Dave Kalama and others in the late 1990s where a surfer is towed into a breaking wave by a partner driving a personal watercraft or a helicopter with an attached tow-line. ... It has been suggested that Water Ski Racing be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Non-recreational uses

Although most PWCs are purchased by individuals for recreational use, they are also used for more serious purposes. PWCs are small, fast, easily handled, fairly easy to use, affordable and their propulsion systems, which do not have external propellers, are safer for swimmers and wildlife. For these reasons, they are sometimes used in preference to small motorboats. A 1962 Rebel. A wooden speedboat with an outboard engine. ...


Lifeguards in some areas use PWCs equipped with rescue platforms to rescue water users who get into difficulties and carry them back to shore. Rescuers have also used personal watercraft to pick up flood survivors. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


PWCs have been used by biologists studying marine life.


PWCs are also used for law enforcement. Due to their high speed and excellent maneuverability, police and rangers use them to enforce laws on lakes and rivers.


A PWC combined with a wash-reduction system, carrying waterproof loudspeaker equipment and GPS for instructions and distance measurement, has purportedly been used by assistant coaches for rowing sports on the River Tyne.


Emissions

Some personal watercraft carry as many as four passengers, contain up to 215 hp (160 kW) engines, reach speeds of up to 70 miles per hour (113 kilometers per hour), carry 25 U.S. gallons (95 liters) of fuel, and feature amenities such as sun pads and extra padded cruising seats.
Some personal watercraft carry as many as four passengers, contain up to 215 hp (160 kW) engines, reach speeds of up to 70 miles per hour (113 kilometers per hour), carry 25 U.S. gallons (95 liters) of fuel, and feature amenities such as sun pads and extra padded cruising seats.

Before 1990, personal watercraft emissions were unregulated in the United States. Many were powered by two-stroke cycle engines, which are smaller and lighter than four-stroke cycle engines but much more polluting. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated on a "total loss" method, mixing lubricating oil with their fuel; they are estimated to exhaust in excess of 25% of their fuel and oil unburned in addition to the products of incomplete and complete combustion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1720, 545 KB) Summary A child rides and plays on a Yamaha SUV Personal water craft. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1720, 545 KB) Summary A child rides and plays on a Yamaha SUV Personal water craft. ... hp, see HP (disambiguation) The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... U.S. customary units, commonly known in the United States as English units or standard units, are units of measurement that are currently used in the U.S., in some cases alongside units from SI (the International System of Units—the modern metric system). ... The litre or liter (U.S. spelling, see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Despite the risks, many female teens said in a survey with Seventeen that they look better with a tan and feel healthier, more sophisticated Sun tanning describes a darkening of the skin (especially of fair-skinned individuals) in a natural physiological response stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunshine... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by completing the same four processes (intake, compression, power, exhaust) in only two strokes of the piston rather than four. ... Today Internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, motorcycles, construction machinery and many others, most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. ...


The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act allowed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to begin regulating personal watercraft and other off-road internal combustion engines. The agency began a dialog with manufacturers in 1991, resulting in regulations that were enacted in 1996. These regulations, set to phase in between 1998 and 2006, are averaging standards, allowing manufacturers to offset more polluting engines in their range by selling other engines that exceed the standard. The U.S. state of California has adopted more stringent regulations than the federal standard. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... EPA redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital  Sacramento Largest city  Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

Even the largest PWC, the Sea-Doo LRV, can be easily loaded onto a trailer and transported from one body of water to another.
Even the largest PWC, the Sea-Doo LRV, can be easily loaded onto a trailer and transported from one body of water to another.

To meet these regulations, manufacturers have adopted a variety of improvements, including increased use of four-stroke engines, the use of direct injection for two-strokes and the use of catalytic converters and other pollution-curbing measures that overall have reduced emissions by approximately 75% compared to pre-regulation models. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1064, 1421 KB) Summary Ar over thirteen feet in legnth, the Sea Doo LRV is the largest Personal Water Craft ever mass-produced. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1064, 1421 KB) Summary Ar over thirteen feet in legnth, the Sea Doo LRV is the largest Personal Water Craft ever mass-produced. ... Sea-Doo is a brand name for Bombardier Recreational Products popular line of personal water craft (PWC). ... A custom made camper trailer A boat on a trailer The same trailer empty A Trailer is an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. ... Catalytic converter on a Saab 9-5. ...


In some areas, only new personal watercraft that meet the current regulations are permitted; an example is Lake Tahoe. Tahoe redirects here. ...


Environmental groups such as the Surfrider Foundation and the Bluewater Network claim that more rapid progress could be made and the large numbers of older watercraft in use continue to emit substantial pollution. The Surfrider Foundation Logo The Surfrider Foundation USA is a U.S. 501(3)(c) non-profit environmental organization working to preserve oceans, waves, and beaches. ...


Against this, industry groups such as the Personal Watercraft Industry Association point out that environmental groups continue to cite pollution levels of pre-regulation watercraft and ignore the improvements made to newer models; and furthermore, that personal watercraft are unfairly singled out when they are no more polluting than other powered boats. The Personal Watercraft Industry Association (PWIA) is an American association of personal watercraft (PWC) manufacturers. ...


Hazards

Apart from the obvious hazards of collisions and mechanical breakdowns common to all vehicles, personal watercraft feature the unique hazard of orifice injuries. Such injuries are the logical result of the unusually close proximity of PWC riders to the output end of the pump jet, as well as the fact that personal watercraft are usually not enclosed. A rider who falls (or is ejected) off the back can land directly in the path of the PWC's high-pressure jet of water. Unless a rider is appropriately dressed in garments made out of a strong, thick substance like neoprene (as is commonly found in wetsuits), the jet will easily penetrate any orifice it reaches. The consequences include permanent disability or death. For example, in 2006, the California Court of Appeal (First District) upheld a $3.7 million Napa County jury verdict against Polaris Industries arising out of one such incident (which had devastating effects on the victim's lower abdomen).[1] The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) This article is about the means of transport. ... In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the body orifices are: the nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell the mouth, for eating and vocalizations such as speech the ear canals, for the sense of hearing the anus, for defecation the urethra, for urination (and... Neoprene is the DuPont Chemical trade name for a family of synthetic rubbers based on polychloroprene. ... A surfer in a wetsuit. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ... Napa County is in north-central California Napa Valley is most famous for its wine. ... Polaris Industries manufactures a full line of all-terrain vehicles , snowmobiles, , Ranger 4wd or 6wd ATV, Victory Motorcycles and EU Rated quadcycles. ...


List of popular brands

logo Bombardier Inc. ... Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. ... Polaris Industries manufactures a full line of all-terrain vehicles , snowmobiles, , Ranger 4wd or 6wd ATV, Victory Motorcycles and EU Rated quadcycles. ... Arctic Cat is a producer of all-terrain vehicles and Snowmobiles in the United States. ... Yamaha Motor Corporation (ヤマハ発動機株式会社) is a motorized vehicle-producing company, initially part of the Yamaha Corporation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Jet ski is the brand name of Kawasaki Heavy Industries personal water craft. ... A jetboat is a boat propelled by a jet of water ejected from the back of the craft. ... Typical jet ski pump jet A pump-jet or water jet is a marine system that creates a jet of water for propulsion. ... The Superjet is a personal watercraft (PWC) made by Yamaha Motor Corporation. ... The 550 is a personal water craft made by Kawasaki. ... The Jet Ski 400 or JS400 was the first mass-produced stand-up personal water craft produced by Kawasaki. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ford v. Polaris Industries, Inc., 139 Cal. App. 4th 755 (2006).

References

EPA redirects here. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Surfrider Foundation Logo The Surfrider Foundation USA is a U.S. 501(3)(c) non-profit environmental organization working to preserve oceans, waves, and beaches. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... logo Bombardier Inc. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Personal water craft - Biocrawler (557 words)
A personal watercraft (PWC) is a recreational watercraft that the rider sits or stands on, rather than inside of, as in a boat.
Personal water craft are small, easily handled, fairly easy to use, affordable, and their propulsion systems are safer for swimmers and wildlife.
Against this, industry groups such as the Personal Watercraft Industry Association point out that environmental groups continue to cite pollution levels of pre-regulation watercraft and ignore the improvements made to newer models; and furthermore, that the personal watercraft is unfairly singled out when they are no more polluting than other powered boats.
Folding auxiliary seat for personal water craft - Patent 5570654 (2472 words)
These types of water craft are driven by a small engine and have an elongate bench-type seat which seats a driver and one or two passengers.
Accordingly, there is a need for an accessory or auxiliary seat that is attachable to a personal water craft to provide additional seat space for the passenger which seat is retractable when not in use or to allow a rider to board the water craft from the rear of the craft.
For example, with a driver or operator and a passenger on a two seat water craft, the operator is placed in a position forward of a comfortable and safe position for operation of the water craft.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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