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Encyclopedia > Personal video recorder

A digital video recorder (DVR) is a device that records video to a digital storage medium in digital form. The term DVR may be used to describe a piece of equipment such as a Personal Video Recorder (PVR) or a CCTV DVR. It may also be used to reference a function in a piece of equipment such as a digital video camera that has a DVR function built into it.


Television and video are terms that are sometimes used interchangeably but in their narrow definitions are different. Video is the visual portion of television where as television is video and audio modulated onto, (combined with), a carrier frequency, (television channel), so that it may be transported either wirelessly or over cables with many other frequencies, (channels). Look up Video in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Video is the technology of capturing, recording, processing, transmitting, and reconstructing moving pictures, typically using celluloid film, electronic signals, or digital media. ... Modulation is the process of varying a carrier signal, typically a sinusoidal signal, in order to use that signal to convey information. ... Carrier frequency is the fundamental frequency used in both amplitude modulation and frequency modulation i. ...

Contents


History

The first disk recording of video was tested on July 8th, 1965, when CBS explored the possibilities of instant freeze-frame and rewind for sporting event broadcasts. Ampex released the first commercial hard disk video recorder in 1967. The HS-100 recorded analog video onto a digital hard disk and could store a maximum of 30 seconds. Kicking Bird


Personal Video Recorder (PVR)

The personal video recorder (PVR) or digital personal video recorder, is a consumer electronics device that records television shows to a hard disk in digital format. Consumer electronics is electronic equipment intended for use by everyday people. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ...


The two earliest consumer DVRs, ReplayTV and TiVo, were launched at the 1999 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. Ironically, although ReplayTV won the "Best of Show" award in the video category, it was Tivo that went on to much greater commercial success. The devices have steadily developed complementary abilities, such as recording onto DVDs, commercial skip, sharing of recordings over the Internet, and programming and remote control facilities using PDAs, networked PCs, or web browsers. ReplayTV is a brand of digital video recorder (DVR), a term synonymous with personal video recorder (PVR). ... TiVo (tē-vō) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR), a term synonymous with personal video recorder (PVR). ... DVD (sometimes called Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


This makes the "time shifting" feature (traditionally done by a VCR) much more convenient, and also allows for "trick modes" such as pausing live TV, instant replay of interesting scenes, and skipping advertising. Most DVR recorders use the MPEG format for encoding analog video signals. Time shifting is the recording of television shows to some storage medium to be viewed at a time convenient to the consumer. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually by an identified sponsor. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ...


The most popular PVRs on the market in the United States are the TiVo and DNNA's ReplayTV, although most home electronics manufacturers now offer models. In the UK Sky Plus dominates the digital satellite market, though TiVO have a small presence; Thomson, Fusion, Pace and Humax also supply digital terrestrial (DTT) DVRs. Many satellite and cable companies are incorporating DVR functions into their set-top box, such as with DirecTiVo, Motorola 6xxx from Comcast, Moxi Media Center by Digeo (available through Charter, Adelphia, Sunflower, Bend Broadband, and soon Comcast and other cable companies), or Sky Plus. In this case there is no encoding necessary in the DVR, as the satellite signal is already a digitally encoded MPEG stream. The DVR simply stores the digital stream directly to disk. Having the broadcaster involved with (subsidizing) the design of the DVR, and directly recording encrypted digital streams can lead to fancy features - like the ability to use interactive TV on recorded shows, pre-loading of programs; but can also lead to too much control by the broadcaster - like denying the ability to skip adverts and automatically expiring recordings after a time determined by the broadcaster. Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... DTT is a three-letter abbreviation for: Digital Terrestrial Television Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The term set-top box describes a device that connects to a television and some external source of signal, and turns the signal into content then displayed on the screen. ... DirecTiVo is an informal term for the implemented combination of DIRECTV satellite television programming service and the TiVo digital video recorder service. ... The Motorola 6000 series of HDTV cable boxes includes several models: Motorola 6200: HDTV Cable Box with no recording capabilities Motorola 6208: Single tuner box with 80 GB hard drive Motorola 6412: Dual tuner box with 120 GB hard drive ... Moxi is a PVR from Digeo, Inc. ...


Other entrants into the market include products such as Microsoft's Media Center. Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEx: 4338) is the worlds largest software company, with 2005 global annual sales of 40 billion US dollars and more than 55,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... A typical Windows Media Center Edition 2005 Menu Windows XP Media Center Edition (codename eHome) is a version of Windows XP designed to serve as a home entertainment hub. ...


In 2003, the Yakima, Washington Police Department began using DVRs in their patrol cars to record the activities of officers and suspects. Since then, many other police departments have followed suit, due to the increased reliability and decreased cost compared to analog video systems. 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City seal Yakima is a city in central Washington and the county seat of Yakima County, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 71,845. ... Constables and Police Community Support Officer of the Metropolitan Police Royal Canadian Mounted Police Police forces are government organisations charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order. ...


There are ways to make one's own DVR using software and hardware available for Microsoft Windows, Linux and Macintosh operating systems. There are even people working on turning the Xbox into a DVR with a modchip. Microsoft Windows refers to a series of operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Mac OS, which stands for Macintosh Operating System, is a range of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Computer for the Macintosh computers. ... The Microsoft Xbox is a sixth generation era video game console first released on November 15, 2001 in North America, then released on February 22, 2002 in Japan, and on March 14, 2002 in Europe. ... A modification chip or modchip is a device used to play import, backup, or homebrew games and/or circumvent the digital rights management of many popular game consoles, including the Xbox and PlayStation. ...


How a personal digital video recorder works

Analog television

Analog television in NTSC, PAL or SECAM formats, analog cable, or regular VHS tapes use a signal that is fed directly to the electron beam within the television set. There are a number of details on how this is done, but in essence each line in each frame corresponds to a specific fraction of time within the signal. Analog television encodes picture information by varying the voltages and/or frequency of the signal. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Japan, United States and certain other places, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ... SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for sequential colour with memory) is an analog color television system first used in France. ... Top view VHS cassette with U.S. Quarter for scale Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed The Video Home System, first released in 1976, better known by its acronym VHS, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (with some of... A charged particle beam is a group of electrically charged particles that have approximately the same kinetic energy and move in approximately the same direction. ...


To record an analog signal a few steps are required. A TV tuner card tunes into a particular frequency and then functions as a frame grabber, breaking the lines into individual pixels and quantizing them into a format that a computer can comprehend. Then the series of frames along with the audio (also sampled and quantized) are compressed into a manageable format, like MPEG-2, or WMF, usually in software. Some TV tuner cards like the DVR-250/350 or the TiVo chip deliver an MPEG-2 or other compressed stream directly to the computer, performing both the frame grabbing and compression in silico. This greatly reduces the load on the CPU allowing an overall cheaper implementation. tv-card A TV tuner card is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. ... The Sansui TU-X1, considered by many the mother of all stereo FM tuners. A tuner is an adjustable device which passes one radio frequency, or band of frequencies, and excludes others, by using electrical resonance. ... Quantization of x using Q(x) = floor(Lx)/L. In digital signal processing, quantization is the process of approximating a continuous signal by a set of discrete symbols or integer values; that is, converting an analog signal to a digital one via analog-to-digital conversion. ... A sample refers to a value or set of values at a point in time and/or space. ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of coding standards for digital audio and video, agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ... What is IVTV ? The primary goal of the IVTV project is to provide a clean room Linux Open Source driver implementation for video capture cards based on the iCompression iTVC15 or Conexant CX23415/CX23416 MPEG codec. ... in silico is an expression used to mean performed on computer or via computer simulation. ... Load, in computing, is a measure of the amount of processing a computer system is currently performing, usually in the form of a scalar and as some variation on a percentage. ...


Analog Broadcast Copy Protection

Many mass-produced consumer DVRs implement a copy-protection system called CGMS-A (Copy Generation Management System--Analog). This encodes a pair of bits in the VBI of the analog video signal that specify one of the following settings: The vertical blanking interval (VBI) is an interval in a television or VDU signal that temporarily suspends transmission of the signal for the electron gun to move back up to the first line of the television screen to trace the next screen field. ...

  • Copying is freely allowed
  • Copying is prohibited
  • Only one copy of this material may be made
  • This is a copy of material for which only one copy was allowed to be made, so no further copies are allowed.

CGMS-A information may be present in analog broadcast TV signals, and is preserved when the signal is recorded and played back by analog VCRs, which of course don't understand the meanings of the bits. But the restrictions still come into effect when you try to copy the tape onto a PVR. The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ...


Digital television

Digital television are audio/visual signals that are broadcast over the air in a digital rather than analog format. Recording digital TV is generally a straightforward capture of the binary MPEG-2 data being received. No expensive hardware is required to quantize and compress the signal (as the television broadcaster has already done this in the studio). The MythTV DVR supports both European DVB signals and American ATSC signals while the HDTV Tivo supports the ATSC signals. In the US, the FCC attempted to place a road-block before digital DVRs with its "Broadcast flag" regulation. Digital video recorders which had not won prior approval from the FCC for implementing "effective" digital rights management would have been banned from interstate commerce as of July 2005. The regulation was struck down on 6 May 2005. Digital television (DTV) uses digital modulation and compression to broadcast video, audio and data signals to television sets. ... A digital system is one that uses numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons. ... An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of coding standards for digital audio and video, agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ... Generally, quantization is the state of being constrained to a set of discrete values, rather than varying continuously. ... Categories: Disambiguation | Software stubs | Data compression software ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ... MythTV is a GPL open source application for Linux designed to allow any computer (that meets the specified minimum requirements) to function as a personal video recorder. ... DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... The Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) is the group that helped to develop the new digital television standard for the United States, also adopted by Canada, Mexico, and South Korea and being considered by other countries. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... The FCCs official seal. ... A broadcast flag is a set of status bits (or flags) sent in the data stream of a digital television program that indicates whether or not it can be recorded, or if there are any restrictions on recorded content. ... The acronym DRM can stand for: Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft (German: German Racing Championship), 70s national racing series, best known as the father of DTM Design Reference Mission - A template for a NASA mission to Mars. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. The Commerce Clause has been the subject of intense constitutional and political disagreement centering on the extent to...


Satellite or Digital Cable

Recording satellite or digital cable signals on a digital video recorder is more complex than recording analog signals or broadcast digital signals. This is so because the MPEG-2 stream is usually encrypted to prevent people from viewing the content without paying for it (usually via subscription to a valid satellite decryption box and a decoder card). A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... Digital cable is a term for a type of cable digital television that delivers more channels than possible with analog cable by using digital video compression. ... MPEG-2 (1994) is the designation for a group of coding standards for digital audio and video, agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group), and published as the ISO/IEC 13818 international standard. ...


The satellite or cable decoder box does two things. First it decrypts the signal. Second, it decodes the MPEG-2 stream into an analog signal for play on the television. In order to record cable/satellite digital signals you would need to get the signal after it is decrypted but before it is decoded (between steps one and two).


An alternative is that some satellite/cable decoder boxes have a FireWire port that can be connected to a computer. The MPEG stream could be relayed to the computer via this firewire port although there is as yet few, if any, current cards or devices that allow for a firewire connection to the computer from this box. A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ...


PVR software

There is DVR software available for Linux and Windows for people who make their own homemade recorders. Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Microsoft Windows refers to a series of operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ...


Linux

Three DVR applications for Linux are VDR, MythTV and Freevo; they use GPL open source software. Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... MythTV is a GPL open source application for Linux designed to allow any computer (that meets the specified minimum requirements) to function as a personal video recorder. ... Freevo is a GPL open source application for Linux and BSD designed to run a homemade personal video recorder. ... The GNU logo For other uses of GPL, see GPL (disambiguation). ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Brightbox, a consumer electronics device, uses an OEM Linux solution from SageTV. Consumer electronics is electronic equipment intended for use by everyday people. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ...


Macintosh

Elgato makes a series of DVR devices called EyeTV (400 / 500 / DTT etc.). The software supplied with each device (but available separately) is also called EyeTV.


Apple provides applications in the FireWire software developer kit which allows any Macintosh with a FireWire port to record the MPEG2 transport stream from a FireWire equipped cable box. Only broadcast channels can be recorded as the rest of the channels are encrypted.


Windows

Microsoft Windows has several free DVR applications including GB-PVR and MediaPortal. DScaler has also DVR support in works. Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEx: 4338) is the worlds largest software company, with 2005 global annual sales of 40 billion US dollars and more than 55,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... Microsoft Windows refers to a series of operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ... GB-PVR is a free Personal Video Recorder (PVR) software program for Microsoft Windows that allows a computers TV tuner card to be used to record and pause live TV, much like a PVR box such as TiVo. ... MediaPortal is a free, open source Personal Video Recorder (PVR) software program for Microsoft Windows that allows a computers TV tuner card to be used to record and pause live TV, much like a PVR box such as TiVo. ...


There also are several proprietary applications including SageTV, SnapStream Beyond TV, ChrisTV, Showshifter, Meedio, InterVideo WinDVR and Recordit Plus. Proprietary indicates that a party exercises private ownership, control or use over an item of property, usually to the exclusion of other parties. ... SageTV is a popular PVR software package for windows. ... SnapStreams Beyond TV software lets you convert your Windows PC into a Personal Video Recorder enabling it to perform functions like the popular TiVo set-top box. ...


There is also a separate version of Microsoft Windows called Windows XP Media Center Edition which has DVR capabilities. A typical Windows Media Center Edition 2005 Menu Windows XP Media Center Edition (codename eHome) is a version of Windows XP designed to serve as a home entertainment hub. ...


Security application of DVRs

Digital video recorders configured for physical security applications record video signals from closed circuit television cameras for detection and documentation purposes. Many are designed to record audio as well. DVRs have evolved into devices that are feature rich and provide services that exceed the simple recording of video images. Physical security describes measures that prevent or deter attackers from accessing a facility, resource, or information stored on physical media. ... The two-year-old Jamie Bulger being led away by his killers, recorded on shopping centre CCTV. Closed-circuit television (CCTV), as a collection of surveillance cameras doing video surveillance, is the use of television cameras for surveillance. ...


Security DVRs may be categorized as being either PC based or embedded. A PC based DVR’s architecture is a classical personal computer with video capture cards designed to capture video images. An embedded type DVR is specifically designed as a digital video recorder with its operating system and application software contained in firmware or read only memory. An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system, which is completely encapsulated by the device it controls. ... A video capture card is a computer expansion card that allows the connection of a digital or analogue source of video to a computer for the purpose of importing video into the computer and editing it. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... Application software is a loosely defined subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. ... In computing, firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. ... Rom is also the name of a toy and comic book character Rom (Spaceknight). ...


Hardware Features

Hardware features vary between manufactures and may include but are not necessarily limited to: Computer hardware is the physical parts of a computer, as distinguished from the computer software or computer programs and data that operate within the hardware. ...

  • Designed for rack mounting or desktop configurations.
  • Single or multiple video inputs with connector types consistent with the analog or digital video provided such as coaxial cable, twisted pair or optical fiber cable. The most common number of inputs are 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32. Systems may be configured with a very large number of inputs by networking or bussing individual DVRs together.
  • Looping video outputs for each input which duplicates the corresponding input video signal and connector type. These output signals are used by other video equipment such as matrix switchers, multiplexers, and video monitors.
  • Controlled outputs to external video display monitors.
  • Front panel switches and indicators that allow the various features of the machine to be controlled.
  • Network connections consistent with the network type and utilized to control features of the recorder and to send and/or receive video signals.
  • Connections to external control devices such as keyboards.
  • A connection to external pan-tilt-zoom drives that position cameras.
  • Internal CD, DVD, VCR devices typically for archiving video.
  • Connections to external storage media.
  • Alarm event inputs from external security detection devices, usually one per video input.
  • Alarm event outputs from internal detection features such as motion detection or loss of video.

Equipment mounted in several 19-inch racks A row of 19-inch racks in a modern server farm A 19-inch rack is a standardized (EIA 310-D, IEC 60297 and DIN 41494 SC48D) system for mounting various electronic modules in a stack, or rack, 19 inches (482. ... Coaxial cable is an electrical cable consisting of a round conducting wire, surrounded by an insulating spacer, surrounded by a cylindrical conducting sheath, and usually surrounded by a final insulating layer. ... 25 Pair Color Code Chart 10BASE-T UTP Cable Twisted pair cabling is a common form of wiring in which two conductors are wound around each other for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference known as crosstalk. ... Optical fibers Optic Fibres are a crazy new invention by the famous physics geniusDr Hartnett, born in a barn, Dr Hartnett is a dirty Liverpool fan, but one who is much loved by his pupils especially his best friend Carl Roberts!!He loves optic fibres and has them all... An electrical bus (sometimes spelled buss) is a physical electrical interface where many devices share the same electric connection. ... A multiplexer combines more than one input into a single output. ... The word monitor derives from the Latin word for warner or warning. ... A computer keyboard is a peripheral modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ...

Software Features

Software features vary between manufactures and may include but are not necessarily limited to:

  • User selectable image capture rates either on an all input basis or input by input basis. The capture rate feature may be programmed to automatically adjust the capture rate on the occurrence of an external alarm or an internal event
  • Selectable image resolution either on an all input basis or input by input basis. The image resolution feature may be programmed to automatically adjust the image resolution on the occurrence of an external alarm or an internal event.
  • Motion detection: Provided on an input by input basis, this feature detects motion detection in the total image or a user definable portion of the image and usually provides sensitivity settings. Detection causes an internal event that may be output to external equipment ans/or be used to trigger changes in other internal features.
  • Lack of motion detection. Provided on an input by input basis, this feature detects the movement of an object into the field of view and remaining still for a user definable time. Detection causes an internal event that may be output to external equipment and/or used to trigger changes in other internal features.
  • Direction of motion detection. Provided on an input by input basis, this feature detects the direction of motion in the image that has been determined by the user as an unacceptable occurrence. Detection causes an internal event that may be output to external equipment and/or be used to trigger changes in other internal features.
  • Routing of input video to video monitors based on user inputs or automatically on alarms or events.
  • Input, time and date stamping.
  • Alarm and event logging on appropriate video inputs.
  • Alarm and event search routines.
  • One or more sound recording channels.
  • Archiving routines.
  • Remote control routines.

Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ...

See also

A hard disk recorder is a type of recording system that utilizes a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or digital video. ... A DVD recorder is a consumer electronics device that records analog or digital audio/visual (A/V) signals in a digital format onto a digital video disc (DVD). ... MythTV is a GPL open source application for Linux designed to allow any computer (that meets the specified minimum requirements) to function as a personal video recorder. ... Freevo is a GPL open source application for Linux and BSD designed to run a homemade personal video recorder. ... MediaPortal is a free, open source Personal Video Recorder (PVR) software program for Microsoft Windows that allows a computers TV tuner card to be used to record and pause live TV, much like a PVR box such as TiVo. ... GB-PVR is a free Personal Video Recorder (PVR) software program for Microsoft Windows that allows a computers TV tuner card to be used to record and pause live TV, much like a PVR box such as TiVo. ...

External links

  • PVR Wire Blog covering TiVo and other DVRs/PVRs.
  • PVR Spot Blog covering DIY PVR
  • Urgence of Convergence A video blog providing details on TV/Internet/Phone technological convergence.
  • Digital Insurrection DVR Introduction, forums and more.
  • PVR Guide - How to guides for installing DVR software
  • Video Disk Recorder - Open source Linux DVR software for Digital television
  • Dreambox - DVR for Digital television
  • Diamond PVR TV Tuner Products - PCI and USB DVR products and RF remote controls
  • Nokia Mediamaster 260T - DVR for terrestrial Digital television
  • Brightbox - An OEM Linux DVR with a unique advantage
  • Freevo - Open-source Linux DVR
  • MythTV - Yet Another Linux DVR
  • InteractTV Telly - A Linux-based DVR appliance with a loyal developer following
  • PVR Resource - great resource on open source DVR's
  • DVD Recorders w/ TiVo
  • Recordit Plus - DVR software for windows
  • GBPVR - Another free media center style application for windows
  • MOXI Tips - The Complete Collection - MOXI Tips and Tricks
  • Build Your Own PVR - DIY DVR Community & Forum
  • PVR Information - review of DVR products on the UK market
  • NTSC
  • Bosch Security DVRs
  • Pelco Security DVRs
  • Security Camera World DVRs

  Results from FactBites:
 
Personal video recorder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1275 words)
Recording digital TV is generally a straightforward capture of the binary MPEG-2 data being received.
Personal Video Recorders which had not won prior approval from the FCC for implementing "effective" digital restrictions management would have been banned from interstate commerce as of July 2005.
Recording satellite or digital cable signals on a personal video recorder is more complex than recording analog signals or broadcast digital signals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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