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Encyclopedia > Personal name

A personal name is the proper name identifying an individual person. It is nearly universal for a human person to have a name; the rare exceptions occur in the cases of mentally disturbed parents, or feral children growing up in isolation.[citation needed] A personal name is usually given at birth or at a young age. The Convention on the Rights of the Child endorses personal names as a human right.[1] The details of naming are strongly governed by culture; some are more flexible about naming than others, but for all cultures where historical records are available, the de facto rules are known to change over time. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the philosophical issues relating to a certain class of nominative words. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... This article is about the feral child. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Structure

Common components of true names given at birth include:

  • Given name: Universal.[citation needed] In most of Western culture, the given name precedes the family name; some other cultures place it after the family name, or use no family name.
  • Patronymic: A surname based on the given name of the father.
  • Matronymic (also Metronymic): A surname based on the given name of the mother.
  • Family name: A name used by all members of a family. In Europe, after the loss of the Roman system, the common use of family names started quite early in some areas (France in the 13th century, and Germany in the 16th century), but it often did not happen until much later in areas that used a patronymic naming custom, such as the Scandinavian countries, Ukraine, Russia, Wales, and some areas of Germany. The compulsory use of surnames varied greatly. France required a priest to write surnames in baptismal records in 1539 (but did not require surnames for Jews, who usually used patronymics, until 1808). On the other hand, compulsory surnames in the Scandinavian countries did not happen until the 20th century (1923 for Norway), and Iceland still does not use surnames for its native inhabitants. Before the use of family names, people were often referred to by a description or nickname, their place of birth or former place of residence, their occupation, or their parent's name. Many modern family names derive from one of these.
  • Middle name: Least common. In royal or aristocratic families, several middle names honoring ancestors, relatives, or political allies are commonly given. In many families, single middle names are simply alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, occasionally their maiden names. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves. Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will often give middle names to distinguish between two similarly named people: e.g. Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Guðmundur Stefánsson. This is especially done in Iceland (as shown in example) where people are known and referred to almost exclusively by their given name/s.

Some people (called anonyms) choose to be anonymous, that is, to hide their true names, for fear of governmental prosecution or societal ridicule of their works or actions. Another method to disguise one's identity is to employ a pseudonym. Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Last name redirects here. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A matronymic is a personal name based on the name of ones mother. ... A matronymic is a personal name based on the name of ones mother. ... Last name redirects here. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Last name redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Icelandic names differ from most Western family name systems by being patronymic (and sometimes matronymic) in that they reflect the immediate father (or mother) of the child and not the historic family lineage. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Saints redirects here. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... A patronymic is a personal name based on the name of ones father. ... A matronymic is a personal name based on the name of ones mother. ... Look up anonymous, anon, anonymity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Alias. ...


Occasionally, a person is referred to by a single name. For example, Teller, of the magician duo Penn and Teller, has no given names. (His parents named him Raymond Joseph Teller but he legally changed his name to "Teller".) In official government documents (such as his driver's license) his given name is listed as NFN, meaning "no first name". Arvind of MIT CSAIL is another example. Teller (born Raymond Joseph Teller February 14, 1948) is an American illusionist, comedian and writer best known as the silent half of the comedy magic duo known as Penn & Teller, along with Penn Jillette. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ... First German driving school in 1906, Aschaffenburg Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ... Arvind is the Johnson Professor of Computer Science and Engineering in the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...


The Inuit believe that the souls of the namesakes are one, so they traditionally refer to the junior namesakes, not just by the names (atiq), but also by kinship title, which applies across gender and generation without implications of disrespect or seniority. In Judaism, someone's name is considered intimately connected with his fate, and adding a name (e.g. on the sickbed) may avert a particular danger. Among Ashkenazi Jews it is also considered bad luck to take the name of a living ancestor, as the Angel of Death may mistake the younger person for his namesake (although there is no such custom among Sephardi Jews). Jews may also have a Jewish name for intra-communitary use and use a different name when engaging with the Gentile world. Chinese children are called insulting names to make them appear worthless to evil spirits. They receive a definitive name as they grow up.[citation needed] Chinese and Japanese emperors receive posthumous names. In some Polynesian cultures, the name of a deceased chief becomes taboo. If he is named after a common object or concept, a euphemism has to be used for it. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... If a person, place, or thing is named after a different person, place, or thing, then one is said to be the namesake of the other. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... A Western depiction of Death as a skeleton carrying a scythe. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Goy is a Hebrew word meaning nation or people. The first use of Goy (plural, Goyim) in the Hebrew Bible is in Genesis 10:1, in reference to non-Israelite nations. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... Polynesian culture refers to the aboriginal culture of the Polynesian-speaking peoples of Polynesia and the Polynesian outliers. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


Depending on national convention, additional given names (and sometimes titles) are considered part of the name. Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ...


Feudal names

The royalty, nobility, and gentry of Europe and Britain traditionally have many names, including phrases for the lands that they own. An example is that of Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch Gilbert du Motier, who is known as the Marquis de Lafayette. Notice that he possessed the lands both of Motier and Lafayette. The French developed the method of putting the term by which the person is referred in small capital letters. It is this habit which transferred to names of the Far East, as seen below. Another example is Don Quixote de la Mancha, who is never referred to in literature by the disguising phrase used as the title of the musical comedy, Man of La Mancha. This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lafayette, LaFayette, or La Fayette may refer to: // General Lafayette (initially Marquis de Lafayette until June 1790 when he abolished and permanently renounced nobility title), French general and revolutionary Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette (Madame de Lafayette), French author James Lafayette was the pseudonym of... In typography, small capitals, or small caps, are uppercase (capital) characters that are printed in a smaller size than normal uppercase characters of the same font. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Man of La Mancha is a 1965 Broadway musical in one act which tells the story of the classic novel Don Quixote as a play within a play, performed by Miguel de Cervantes and his fellow prisoners as he awaits a hearing with the Spanish Inquisition. ...


The bare place name was used formerly to refer to the person who owned it, rather than the land itself (e.g., "What will Gloucester do?" meant the Duke of Gloucester). As a development, the bare name of a ship in the Royal Navy meant its captain (e.g., "Cressy didn't learn from Aboukir") while the name with an article referred to the ship (e.g., "The Cressy is foundering"). This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


Naming convention

In contemporary Western societies (except for Iceland and Hungary), the most common naming convention is that of a given name, usually indicating the child's sex, followed by the parents' family name. In earlier times, Scandinavian countries followed patronymic naming, with people effectively called "X's son/Y's daughter"; this is now the case only in Iceland and on the Faroe Islands. Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Last name redirects here. ...


Different cultures have different conventions for personal names. This is a list of articles about particular cultures' naming conventions.

The Akan people frequently name their children after the day of the week they were born and the order in which they were born. ... The tughra (stylized signature) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. ... Compared to other systems, the Bulgarian name system can be said to be rather simple. ... Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. ... Dutch names consist of one or several given name(s) and a surname. ... Naming conventions in Fiji differ greatly, both between and within ethnic groups. ... This article describes the conventions for using peoples names in France, including the norms of custom and practice, as well as the legal aspects. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Hawaiian name is a name in the Hawaiian language. ... Hebrew names are names that have a Hebrew language origin, classically from the Hebrew Bible. ... // Orthography Modern Hungarian orthography is slightly different (simpler) than that of 18th or 19th century, but many Hungarian surnames retain their historical spelling. ... Icelandic names differ from most Western family name systems by being patronymic (and sometimes matronymic) in that they reflect the immediate father (or mother) of the child and not the historic family lineage. ... Indian names are based on a variety of systems and naming conventions, which vary from region to region. ... Indonesia is an archipelago of over 17,000 islands, only 6,000 of which are inhabited, that extends in an arc along the equator. ... A formal Irish-language name consists of a given name and a surname, as in English. ... Yamada Tarō (), a typical Japanese name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. ... Javanese people typically have three-part names, each part of which is a personal name. ... The Jewish name has historically varied, encompassing throughout the centuries several different traditions. ... A Korean personal name consists of a family name followed by a given name. ... Since Malaysia comprises of many cultures and races, different race have different ways of expressing their names. ... In the Philippines, all Filipinos, Spaniards, and Americans follow the conventional American form: First name-Middle name-Surname. ... A Polish personal name, like names in most European cultures, consists of two main elements: imię, or the given name, followed by nazwisko, or the family name. ... A typical Portuguese name is composed of one or two given names, and two family names. ... By the Republican era and throughout the Imperial era, a name in ancient Rome for a male citizen consisted of three parts (tria nomina): praenomen (given name), nomen (gentile) (name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (name of a family line within the gens). ... This article gives the general understanding of naming conventions in the Russian language as well as in languages affected by Russian linguistic tradition. ... In Spanish-speaking countries (exception made of Argentina), people normally have at least two surnames. ... Vietnamese names generally consist of three parts: a family name, a middle name, and a given name, used in that order. ...

Name order

Since a name is made up of several parts, the order in which those parts are arranged can be significant. The order family-name given-name is commonly known as the Eastern order and is used in Africa, East Asia (for example in China, Japan, Korea, Malaysian Chinese, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam), and Hungary. Eastern order is also common in Slovenia, Ukraine, Russia, and a few other ex-USSR countries, especially in official contexts. Because such variation may create ambiguity, last names are often capitalized (e.g., OZVALD Branko or Branko OZVALD). The order given-name family-name is commonly known as the Western order and is usually used in most Western European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by Western Europe (North and South America and Australia). In these countries, the family name is often used first in lists and catalogues, with the family and given names separated with a comma (e.g. Smith, John). For example, most Western libraries use this order. This article is about the geographical region. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Malay name Malay: Orang Cina Malaysia A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The term comma has various uses; comma is the name used for one of the punctuation symbols: , The term comma is also used in music theory for various small intervals that arise as differences between approximately equal intervals. ...


When East Asian names are transliterated into the Latin alphabet, some prefer to convert them to the Western order at the same time, while others leave them in the Eastern order but write the family name in capital letters. To avoid confusion, some always write a family name in capital letters, especially when writing for an international audience. This habit has become very common also in the international language Esperanto. Japanese names of contemporary individuals and Hungarian names are usually "switched" when individuals who have such names are mentioned in media in Western countries; for example, Koizumi Jun'ichirō is known as Junichiro Koizumi in English, and Puskás Ferenc is known as Ferenc Puskás. But Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese names and Japanese names of historical figures are usually left in East Asian order; for instance, Máo Zédōng is known as Mao Zedong in English. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Capital letters or majuscules (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... This article is about the language. ... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... Ferenc Puskás (April 2, 1927–November 17, 2006) (Hungarian: Puskás Ferenc, nickname Puskás Öcsi, Spanish: Ferenc Puskas Biro), was a legendary Hungarian football forward and coach. ... Mao redirects here. ...


Names of Japanese or Chinese sportspeople generally follow the above conventions. For Japanese examples, see Ichiro Suzuki instead of Suzuki Ichirō (although he is widely known simply as "Ichiro"), or Hidetoshi Nakata instead of Nakata Hidetoshi. As for Chinese sportspeople, Yáo Míng is Yao Ming and Liú Xiáng is Liu Xiang in the West. Ichiro Suzuki ), often known simply as Ichiro ), (born October 22, 1973, in Toyoyama, Nishikasugai, Aichi Prefecture, Japan) is a Japanese outfielder for the Seattle Mariners Major League Baseball team. ... Hidetoshi Nakata (中田 英寿 Nakata Hidetoshi; born January 22, 1977 in Yamanashi Prefecture), is a Japanese former football player. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yao (姚) Yao Ming (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (born September 12, 1980, in Shanghai, China) is a Chinese professional basketball player and is arguably the best center in the National Basketball Association (NBA) today. ... For other uses, see Liu Xiang (disambiguation). ...


Names of Korean sportspeople may be rendered in East Asian or Western order in Western countries, apparently depending on the sport. For example, names of Korean footballers and athletes are usually left in East Asian order (e.g. Ahn Jung-Hwan, Hong Myung-Bo, Park Ji-Sung, Sohn Kee-Chung, Hwang Young-Cho). Baseball players' names are usually changed to Western order; for example Park Chan-Ho is referred to in the West as Chan-Ho Park. Golfers' names are also typically switched to Western order; the female golfer Pak Se-Ri is known in the West as Se Ri Pak. Confusion can be avoided by noticing that in all the above cases, the words linked by a hyphen are the given name. Soccer redirects here. ... A sportsperson (British and American English) or athlete (principally American English) is any person who participates regularly in a sport. ... Ahn Jung-Hwan (born January 27, 1976 in Paju, Gyeonggi) is a South Korean football player; he made world headlines by scoring the winning golden goal for Korea against Italy in the 2002 World Cup second round and sending Korea into the quarterfinals. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Parks image projected onto a building in South Korea Park Ji-Sung (Hangul: 박지성) (born February 25, 1981 in Goheung, Jeollanam-do) is a professional South Korean footballer who plays for the English football club Manchester United in the Premier League, as well as the South Korean national football team. ... Sohn Kee-chung (August 29, 1912 – November 15, 2002) became the first medal-winning Korean Olympian when he won the gold medal in the Marathon at the 1936 Berlin Olympics as a member of the Japanese delegation, under the name of Son Kitei, which is the Japanese pronunciation of the... Hwang Young-Cho (born March 22, 1970) is a former South Korean athlete, winner of the marathon race at the 1992 Summer Olympics. ... This article is about the sport. ... Chan-ho Park (born June 30, 1973 in Kongju, South Korea) is a Major League Baseball starting pitcher. ... This article is about the game. ... Se Ri Pak (born September 28, 1977 in Daejeon, South Korea) is a professional golfer. ...


Nonhuman personal names

Apart from the Linnaean taxonomy, some humans give individual nonhuman animals and plants names, usually of endearment. Title page of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758. ...


In some cultures, pets or sporting animals are sometimes given names similar to human names. Other cultures, such as the Chinese, give the animals nonhuman names, because it would be seen as offensive and disrespectful to the person of the same name. In Japan, dogs are often given non-Japanese first names, such as "John" or "Charley." This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


A study recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences claims that humans are not the only animals that use personal names. Researchers from the University of North Carolina Wilmington studying bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida found that the dolphins had names for each other.[2] A dolphin chooses its name as an infant.[3]


See also

Anthroponomastics (or Anthroponymy), a branch of onomastics, is the study of anthroponyms (<Gk. ... Last name redirects here. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Legal name is the name with which an individual is registered at birth or which appears on their birth certificate. ... The following is a partial list of Queer forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of the places. ... The following is a list of people who have received media attention because of their name, or are otherwise widely recognized as having names that are unusual. ... The most popular given names vary nationally, regionally, and culturally. ... For other uses, see Name (disambiguation). ... The name at birth of a child is his or her name as given by the parents, according to an apparently universal custom. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The name letter effect is the hypothesis that the probability of certain actions can be influenced by the first letter of the name of the person performing the action. ... A calendar page from 1712 with namesdays Namesdays or name days are a tradition, found in various Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries, of attaching personal names to each day of the year, and celebrating the association of particular days with those for whom that day is named. ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... This article is about the philosophical issues relating to a certain class of nominative words. ... A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Mongolian name Mongolian: Номын Нэр Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Ly, Tran, and Le) royalty. ... A unisex name, also known as an epicene name, is a given name that is often given to either a boy or a girl. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Text of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  2. ^ CNN article about dolphin names
  3. ^ livescience.com

External links

  • The use of personal names


  Results from FactBites:
 
ICANN | Proposed Unsponsored TLD Agreement: Appendix L (.name) (2968 words)
A "name by which a person is commonly known" includes, without limitation, a pseudonym used by an author or painter, or a stage name used by a singer or actor.
Personal Name domain name and SLD E-mail registrations in the Registry TLD (collectively, "Personal Name Registrations") will be granted on a first-come, first-served basis, except for registrations granted as a result of a dispute resolution proceeding or during the landrush procedures in connection with the opening of the Registry TLD.
The ICANN-Accredited Registrar sponsoring a Personal Name Registration shall be responsible for (1) ensuring that all registrants agree to be bound by the ERDRP and the UDRP and (2) implementing remedies under the ERDRP and UDRP according to the terms of those policies.
Summa Theologica | Christian Classics Ethereal Library (867 words)
Now a divine person is said to belong to another, either by origin, as the Son belongs to the Father; or as possessed by another.
Other creatures can be moved by a divine person, not, however, in such a way as to be able to enjoy the divine person, and to use the effect thereof.
Nor does it follow that it is an essential name because it imports relation to the creature; but that it includes something essential in its meaning; as the essence is included in the idea of person, as stated above (Q[34], A[3]).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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