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Encyclopedia > Persona
Persona literally means "mask ", although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the "social masks" all humans supposedly wear.

A persona, in the word's everyday usage, is a social role, or a character played by an actor. The word derives from the Latin for "mask" or "character", derived from the Etruscan word "phersu", with the same meaning. Mask from Guatemala More pictures of Guatemala can be found here : http://www. ... Mask from Guatemala More pictures of Guatemala can be found here : http://www. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


The Persona in literature

In the area of literature, the term is sometimes used in the criticism of poetry and fiction to refer to a "second self" created by the author and through whom the narrative is related. Importantly, attributes and attitudes associated with the persona are understood to be separate from authorial intentions, per se, though there may in fact be some overlap between the two. For instance, in Dostoevsky's novel, Notes from Underground (generally considered to be the first existentialist novel), the narrator ought not to be conflated with Dostoevsky himself, despite the fact that Dostoevsky and his narrator may or may not have shared much in common. In this sense, the persona is basically a mouthpiece for a particular worldview. Another instance of this phenomenon can be found in Brett Easton Ellis' novel, American Psycho, the story of a sociopathic murderer living in New York City, who is a successful, if very troubled, Wall Street executive by day. The work is one of social satire, and as such may well reflect a good deal of authorial intention, but the persona of Patrick Bateman (the novel's first-person narrator) ought not to be conflated with the novel's author. Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky or Dostoievsky  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) is considered one of the greatest writers of Russian literature, whose works have had a profound and lasting effect on twentieth-century world literature. ... Notes from Underground (also translated in English as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld) (1864) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... Worldview is Chicago Public Radios daily international-affairs radio show, hosted by Jerome McDonnell. ... Bret Easton Ellis (born March 7, American author. ... American Psycho is a 1991 novel by Bret Easton Ellis. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a personality disorder which is often characterised by antisocial and impulsive behaviour. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Christian Bale as Patrick Bateman. ...

In both of the examples just given, the persona is an active participant in the story he is narrating — it is his own story — but this need not be the case. To take another example from Dostoevsky's work, the narrator of The Brothers Karamazov is not an active participant in the story, but nevertheless presents a clear perspective on the events concerned therein. In other words, the invisible and omniscient narrator of Dostoevsky's novel gives the reader the impression of taking a definite attitude toward the proceedings being related, albeit subtly so, and mainly by tone of description and idiosyncratic phrasing. The Brothers Karamazov (Братья Карамазовы in Russian, ) is the last novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, generally considered the culmination of his lifes work. ...

Finally, the twentieth century has provided us with many intermediate instances. One example is Faulkner's novel As I Lay Dying, a story told entirely via the interior monologues of fifteen different first person narrators, and thus from the same number of differing perspectives. Another example of a vague or undefined relationship between narrator, protagonist, and persona--perhaps the preeminent such example in the English language--can be found in James Joyce's novel, Ulysses. Here we find instances of direct first person narration, third person narration mixed with first person stream of consciousness, dozens of pages of catechismic question-and-answer, a surrealistic stageplay-like episode with dialogue and stage directions, and finally the famous extended first person stream of consciousness soliloquy that closes the book. Examples such as these tend to blur or call into question the role of a persona, at the same time as they supply rich fodder for academic analyses of the works themselves. William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... As I Lay Dying is an American novel written by William Faulkner. ... A monologue, pronounced monolog, is a speech made by one person speaking his or her thoughts aloud or directly addressing a reader, audience, or character. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Ulysses is a 1922 novel by James Joyce, first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from 1918 to 1920, and published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ... Soliloquy is an audible oratory or conversation with oneself. ...

To sum up, a persona can, broadly-speaking, be understood as the "organizing consciousness" of the narrative. This clearly differentiates it from any characters, even major and well-developed ones, who do not steer the reader's perspective on the proceedings. However, in some very well-defined cases, the question might arise: Why bother positing an organizing consciousness, understood on some level to be separate from that of the author, at all? Different schools of criticism will have differing answers to this question, and some — the post-structuralist school, for instance — might take issue with the very notion of a single organizing consciousness. But in general, the practice is adopted as a handy way of understanding the guiding principles of a work without treading too far into disputes about what a particular author was "really like" or "really thought about things" in his or her own personal life. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Charles Dickens and William Blake, for instance, were widely known to have progressive attitudes regarding the difficulties faced by the working classes in Victorian England and the effect of England's industrial revolution on contemporary life, respectively, and their attitudes were clearly reflected in their work. But other cases are not so clear-cut. Very little is known about the life of Thomas Pynchon, but his books, in particular, Gravity's Rainbow, have achieved iconic status in modern Western literature. Furthermore, if the interpretation of a work is taken to be fundamentally the process of deciphering an author's personal feelings about various subjects — an attempt to understand the mens auctoris (mind of the author) — then it might be argued that literary criticism thereby degenerates into a kind of pseudo-psychoanalysis, leaving little room for consideration of the works themselves. Finally, and for similar reasons, the narrator-as-persona approach to literary interpretation allows for greater interpretive latitude, and thus arguably richer interpretive possibilities, than a more strictly authorially-centered approach might. Dickens redirects here. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... redirect Victorian eramonkey ... A Watt steam engine. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... Gravitys Rainbow is an epic postmodern novel written by Thomas Pynchon and first published on February 28, 1973. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...

The Persona in psychology

The persona is also the mask or appearance one presents to the world. It may appear in dreams under various guises (see Carl Jung and his psychology). Importantly, the persona, used in this sense, is not a pose or some other intentional misrepresentation of the self to others. Rather, it is, as it were, the self as self-construed, and may change according to situation and context. A dream is the experience of envisioned images, sounds, or other sensations during sleep. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ... Jungian psychology refers to a school of psychology originating in the ideas of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and advanced by many other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ...

The Persona in design

As used in the design field, the Persona is an artifact that consists of a narrative relating to a desired user or customer's daily behavior patterns, using specific details, not generalities. A very popular artifact is the 'persona poster' that is usually presented in an 18 inch format with photo and text. For more details see Personas.. Fictitious characters that are created to put a face on the different user types that might use a site within a targeted demographic. ...

The Persona in communication studies

The term is given to describe the versions of the self that we all possess. We can select our behaviours in order to create a desired impression in other people. Goffman believed the persona we present to others is different from when we're alone. It can be split into Front Stage= Public & Back Stage= Private

See also

  Results from FactBites:
Kinoeye | Swedish film: Ingmar Bergman's Persona (2913 words)
As Kelly Oliver writes, alluding to the enigmatic opening sequence with its images of sacrifice, vampirism, crucifixion and death, "in their exchange, Alma is figured as the sacrificial lamb of the opening visual poem, while Elisabeth...is figured as the vampire."[1] However, the potentially devastating results of this psychological vampirism are insufficiently appreciated by most critics.
Even Oliver claims that, at the end of the film, "they each go back to their respective lives to take up their duties, their personae, as they did before." [2] For Alma, at any rate, that is not likely to be as easy as it sounds.
The factors alluded to in Persona that contribute to this "damming up" in Elizabeth include her great beauty, her choice of profession and her oversensitivity to the horrors of the objective world (as revealed in her reaction to the newsreel footage of the self-immolation of a Vietnamese monk).
Persona - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (131 words)
A persona is a social role, or a character played by an actor.
In archetypal psychology, the Persona is the mask or appearance one presents to the world.
As used in the design field, the Persona is an artifact that consists of a narrative relating to a desired user or customers daily behavior patterns, using specific details, not generalities.
  More results at FactBites »



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