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Encyclopedia > Persimmon
Persimmon

American Persimmon flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ebenaceae
Genus: Diospyros
Species

See text American persimmon blossom Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 02:50, 28 May 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text. ... Genera Diospyros Euclea The Ebenaceae are a family of flowering plants, which includes ebony and persimmon. ... Species 450-500; see text Diospyros is a genus (including what used to be Maba) of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen trees. ...

A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. The word persimmon is derived from putchamin, pasiminan, or pessamin, from Cree, an Algonquian language of the eastern United States, meaning "a dry fruit". [1]Persimmons are generally light yellow-orange to dark red-orange in color, and depending on the species, vary in size from 1.5-9 cm (0.5-4 in) diameter, and may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped.[2] The calyx often remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easier to remove as it ripens. They are high in glucose, with a balanced protein profile, and possess various medicinal and chemical uses. Species 450-500; see text Diospyros is a genus (including what used to be Maba) of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen trees. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ... Gold is a shade of the color yellow closest to that of gold metal. ... The colour orange occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum at a wavelength of about 585–620 nanometres. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

Contents

Species

Diospyros kaki 柿
Diospyros kaki

The most widely cultivated species is Kaki Persimmon or Kaki ( kaki?) (Diospyros kaki), grown for its fruit. Kaki fruit is very sweet to the taste with a soft to occasionally fibrous texture. This species, native to China, is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves. Cultivation of the fruit extended first to other parts of east Asia, and was later introduced to California and southern Europe in the 1800s, and numerous cultivars have been selected. It is edible in its crisp firm state, but has its best flavor when allowed to rest and soften slightly after harvest. The Japanese cultivar 'Hachiya' is a widely grown cultivar. The fruit has a high tannin content which makes the immature fruit astringent and bitter. The tannin levels are reduced as the fruit matures. Persimmons like 'Hachiya' must be completely ripened before consumption. When ripe, this fruit comprises thick pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin skinned shell. "Sharon Fruit" is the trade name for D. kaki fruit that has been artificially ripened with chemicals.[3] A Japanese persimmon (variety Hachiya). ... A Japanese persimmon (variety Hachiya). ... Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the legal name of a business, or the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes. ...

Nakagawa, Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan. October 2005.
Nakagawa, Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan. October 2005.

The American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) is native to eastern North America. It is the pawpaw (Asimina triloba) that is known colloquially as Indiana banana and not the American persimmon. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 501 KB) Summary Persimmons in Nakagawa, Nanyo City, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 501 KB) Summary Persimmons in Nakagawa, Nanyo City, Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. ... Binomial name Diospyros virginiana L. Diospyros virginiana, the American persimmon, is a tree native to the Eastern United States. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


The Black persimmon or Black sapote (Diospyros digyna) is native to Mexico. Its fruit has green skin and white flesh, which turns black when ripe. Binomial name Diospyros digyna Jacq. ...


The Mabolo or Velvet-apple (Diospyros discolor) is native to the Philippines. It is bright red when ripe. Binomial name Mabolo or Velvet Apple (Diospyros discolor) is a plant closely related to the ebony tree and the persimmon. ...


The Date-plum (Diospyros lotus) is native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe. It was known to the ancient Greeks as "the fruit of the Gods", i.e. Dios pyros (lit. "the wheat of Zeus"), hence the scientific name of the genus. Its English name is derived from the small fruit, which has a taste reminiscent of both plums and dates. This species is mentioned in the Odyssey; it was so delicious that those who ate it forgot about returning home and wanted to stay and eat lotus with the lotus-eaters.[4] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ...


There are many other species of persimmon that are inedible to humans, and thus have little or no commercial value for their fruit.


Fruit

Japanese Persimmon (cultivar 'Hachiya') - watercolor 1887

Commercially, there are generally two types of persimmon fruit; astringent and non-astringent. Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of soluble tannins and are unpalatable if eaten before ripening. The astringency of tannins is removed by ripening by exposure to light over several days, or artificially with chemicals. This bletting process is sometimes jumpstarted by exposing the fruit to cold or frost which hastens cellular wall breakdown. These astringent persimmons can also be prepared for commercial purposes by drying. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (525x825, 52 KB) [edit] Summary Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki), Hachiya variety. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (525x825, 52 KB) [edit] Summary Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki), Hachiya variety. ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... Bletting (or blet) is a process certain fleshy fruits undergo when, beyond ripening, they have started to decay and ferment. ...


Non-astringent persimmons are not actually free of tannins as the term suggests, but rather are far less astringent before ripening, and lose more of their tannic quality sooner. Non-astringent persimmons may be consumed when still very firm to very very soft.

  • Astringent
    • Korean
    • Hachiya
  • Nonastringent
    • Fuyu (Fuyugaki)
    • Jiro
    • Hanagosho
Persimmons
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal   290 kJ
Carbohydrates     18.59 g
- Sugars  12.53 g
- Dietary fiber  3.6 g  
- Dietary fibre  3.6 g  
Fat .19 g
- saturated  .02 g
Protein .58 g
Folate (Vit. B9)  8 μg  2%
Vitamin C  7.5 mg 13%
Calcium  8 mg 1%
Iron  .15 mg 1%
Sodium  1 mg 0%

Diospyros kaki, raw
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...

Culinary uses

Persimmons are eaten fresh or dried, raw or cooked. When eaten fresh the peel is usually cut/peeled off and the fruit is often cut into quarters or eaten whole like an apple. The flesh ranges from firm to mushy and the texture is unique. The flesh is very sweet and when firm possesses an apple-like crunch. You can avoid the bitterness by soaking the persimmon in salt water for a minute before you eat it. The salt will remove most of the bitter taste in your mouth. In China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam after harvesting, 'Hachiya' persimmons are prepared using traditional hand-drying techniques, outdoors for two to three weeks. The fruit is then further dried by exposure to heat over several days before being shipped to market. In Japan the dried fruit is called Hoshigaki (干し柿), and is eaten as a snack or dessert. The dried persimmon is also used to make the traditional Korean spicy punch, sujeonggwa, while the matured, fermented fruit is used to make a vinegar that is thought to have a wide variety of holistic properties.[5] In some areas of Manchuria and Korea, the dried leaves of the fruit are used for making tea. The Korean name for this tea is ghamnip cha (감잎차). A raw food diet consists of uncooked and unprocessed, and often organic foods. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... For the Swedish liquor, see Punsch. ... Sujeonggwa is a Korean traditional fruit punch. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Approximate extent Northeast China (Simplified Chinese: 东北; Traditional Chinese: 東北; pinyin: Dōngběi; literally east-north), historically known as Manchuria, is the name of a region (ca. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ...

干し柿 Hoshigaki, Japanese Dried Persimmon
干し柿 Hoshigaki, Japanese Dried Persimmon

The persimmon also figures prominently in American culinary tradition. It can be used in cookies, cakes, puddings, salads and as a topping for breakfast cereal. Persimmon pudding is a dessert using fresh persimmons. An annual persimmon festival, featuring a persimmon pudding contest, is held every September in Mitchell, Indiana. Persimmon pudding is a baked pudding that has the consistency of pumpkin pie but resembles a brownie and is almost always topped with whipped cream. Persimmons may be stored at room temperature (20°C) where they will continue to ripen. It is also a native plant in Brazil, South America, where it is called Caqui. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1466 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persimmon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1466 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persimmon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Persimmon Pudding is a traditional American dessert made with persimmons. ... Mitchell is a city in Lawrence County, Indiana, United States. ... Pumpkin pie Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Pumpkin Pie Pumpkin pie is a traditional North American dessert usually made in the late fall and early winter, especially for Halloween, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. ... A plate of frosted chocolate brownies In American cooking, a chocolate brownie, also known as a brownie or a Boston brownie, is a small, rich, chocolate, baked cake-slice, named after its rich brown color. ... Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-fat layer skimmed from the top of raw milk before homogenization. ...


Ethnomedical Uses

  • In traditional Chinese medicine the fruit regulates ch'i
  • The raw fruit is used to treat constipation and hemorrhoids, and to stop bleeding. As such, it is not a good idea to consume too many persimmons at once- they can induce diarrhea.
  • The cooked fruit is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery

Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Qi, also commonly spelled chi, chi or ki, is a fundamental concept of everyday Chinese culture, most often defined as air or breath (for example, the colloquial Mandarin Chinese term for weather is tiān qi, or the breath of heaven) and, by extension, life force or spiritual energy... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ...

Medical precaution

The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy notes that persimmons have been identified as causing epidemics of intestinal bezoars and that up to ninety percent of the food bolus that occur from eating too much of the fruit, require surgery for removal.[6] Horses may develop a taste for the fruit growing on a tree in their pasture and overindulge also, making them quite ill. A bezoar or enterolith is a sort of calculus or concretion, a stone found in the intestines of mostly ruminant animals, but occurring among others including humans. ...


Wood

An example of persimmon wood furniture
An example of persimmon wood furniture

Though persimmon trees belong to the same genus as ebony trees, persimmon tree wood has a limited use in the manufacture of objects requiring hard wood. Persimmon wood is used for paneling in traditional Korean and Japanese furniture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1123 KB)[edit] Summary Korean chest with persimmon wood panels. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1123 KB)[edit] Summary Korean chest with persimmon wood panels. ... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ...


In North America, the lightly colored, fine-grained wood of D. virginiana is used to manufacture billiard cues and shuttles (used in the textile industry). Persimmon wood was also heavily used in making the highest-quality heads of the golf clubs known as "woods," until the golf industry moved primarily to metal woods in the last years of the 20th century. Persimmon woods are still made, but in far lower numbers than in past decades. Over the last few decades persimmon wood has become popular among bow craftsmen, especially in the making of traditional longbows. This article is about the various cue sports. ... Some golf clubs Golf clubs are used in the sport of golf to hit a golf ball. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf / 200 N draw force. ...


Like some other plants of the genus Diospyros, older persimmon heartwood is black or dark brown in color, in stark contrast to the sapwood and younger heartwood, which is pale in color.


References

  1. ^ Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachuetts, U.S.A.:1984--Merriam-Webster Page 877
  2. ^ General Crop Information: Persimmon. University of Hawaii, Extension Entomology & UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  3. ^ Persimmon Fruit Facts. California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.,. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  4. ^ The Odyssey by Homer, p.76 of this public domain e-text. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  5. ^ Food for Health, Produces Most Honestly [sic]. Korea Agro-Fisheries Trade Corp.. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  6. ^ Merck Manual, Rahway, New Jersey, Sixteenth Edition, Gastrointestinal Disorders, Section 52, page 780

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persimmon

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese Persimmon (4814 words)
Large quantities are cured by exposure to the fumes of alcohol (aguardiente), acetylene gas from combustion of calcium carbonate, or gas from burning sawdust, in hermetically sealed chambers at temperatures between 68º and 82.4º F (20º and 28º C) at relative humidity of 80%.
Tree-ripe persimmons are sought by all kinds of birds, especially by parrots and crows in India, where flying foxes are a nocturnal menace.
Juice of small, inedible wild persimmons, crushed whole, calyx, seeds and all, is diluted with water and painted on paper or cloth as an insect- and moisture-repellent.
Persimmon (1786 words)
Persimmon was a lovely bay colt with a highly-charged nervous disposition, a characteristic of the St. Simon progeny.
Persimmon and St. Frusquin met again at Royal Ascot, in the Princess of Wales Stakes, and the crowd was treated to another thrilling duel between these two superb colts.
Persimmon's other classic champions were: Keystone II, winner of the Oaks and Coronation Stakes; Your Majesty, winner of the St. Leger; Perola, winner of the Oaks; and PRINCE PALATINE, winner of the St. Leger.
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