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Encyclopedia > Persians
Persians
Total population: c. 37 million
Significant populations in: Iran:
34,000,000

United States:
   913,000
Turkey:
   821,000
Iraq:
   343,000
United Arab Emirates:
   188,000
Pakistan:
   146,000
Canada:
   128,000
Saudi Arabia:
   122,000
Germany:
   110,000
Kuwait:
   107,000
Afghanistan:
   99,000
Australia:
   81,000
Bahrain:
   80,000
Tajikistan:
   78,000
Qatar:
   73,000
Oman:
   25,000

Language: Farsi (Western dialect of Persian)
Religion: Islam, Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Bahá'í Faith, agnosticism, atheism, Others
Related ethnic groups: Indo-European

  Iranian
Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... // Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... See also: Timeline of Christianity Beliefs Jesus crucifixion as portrayed by Diego Velázquez. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... ... Agnosticism is the philosophical view that the truth values of certain claims—particularly theological claims regarding the existence of God, gods, or deities—are unknown, inherently unknowable, or incoherent, and therefore, (some agnostics may go as far to say) irrelevant to life. ... Atheism, in its broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of gods. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...

The Persians of Iran (officially named "Persia" by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. Religiously, most of the Persians in Iran follow the Shia sect of Islam, while small minorities of Sunni Muslims, Persian Jews, Persian Christians, Zoroastrians, and Bahá'ís remain. The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Islām is described as a dÄ«n, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Persian Jews, Iranian Jews or Parsim (as commonly called in Israel), are a group of ancient Jewish communities living throughout the former greatest extents of the Persian Empire. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... ...


The ancient Persians from the province of Pars (Fars) became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty (The Persian pronunciation is Ha-Khuh-Manesh-ee-yun) in the sixth century BC. Over the centuries Persia was ruled by various dynasties; some of them were ethnic Persians (the Sassanids, Buwayhids, Samanids, Safavids and others), and some of them were not (the Seleucids, Seljuk Turks, Mongols, and others). // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Sassanid Empire at the reign of Shapur I; the conquests west of the Euphrat were only temporally Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (819-999) was a Iranian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks... Mongol Empires largest extent outlined in red; Timur-i-Lenks empire is shaded The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous land empire in world history ruling 35 million km² (13. ...


The Persian civilization spawned three major religions: Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Manichaeanism. All of these reflect the extreme dualism of Persian culture which has also significantly influenced Judeo-Christianity and Western civilization. In addition, Persian civilization has affected its neighbors through culture, religion, and language. Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... Mithraism (in Persian: مهرپرستی) was an ancient mystery religion prominent from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD. It was based on worship of the god Mithras and derives from the Persian and Indic god Mithra and other Zoroastrian deities. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... The opposition and combination of the universes two basic principles of Yin and Yang is a large part of Taoist philosophy. ... Judeo-Christian tradition (also spelled Judaeo-Christian) is the body of concepts and values held in common by Christianity and Judaism. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook, 51% of Iran's current population is ethnically Persian. Other estimates put the figure as high as 60%.[Citation needed] A number of other ethnic groups are represented in Iran, including the distantly related group the Kurds; the Turkic Azerbaijanis and Turkmen; and a few Arabs (approximately 3%), Baluchis, and other minorities. See Demographics of Iran for more detail. 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large ethnic group widespread in the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... The Baluch (alternative spelling Baloch) are an ethnic group of Iranian origin. ... The statistics in this article come from the CIA World Factbook, 2005 edition. ...


Significant numbers of Persians reside outside of Iran with the largest communities found in the United States, Turkey, and Iraq. Smaller communities are also found in surrounding countries and the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...

Contents


Origins and roots

The Persians of Iran are mainly descended from the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranians, an Indo-European people that migrated to the region between 2000-1000 BCE as well as indigenous populations such as the Elamites. The Persians have been, over time, genetically and/or socially modified and impacted by various groups including the Greeks, Scythians, Parthians, ancient Hebrews, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and various other Eurasian invaders.[1][2] The Persian Jews are a good example of a Hebrew population that moved to Iran about 2,700 years ago and assimilated and mixed with the Persians so that today they speak Persian and are virtually identical to other Persians except for religion. Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The ancient Elamite Empire lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Hebrews (syns. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... Persian Jews, Iranian Jews or Parsim (as commonly called in Israel), are a group of ancient Jewish communities living throughout the former greatest extents of the Persian Empire. ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis...


The Persian language and other Iranian tongues all arrived with the Aryans. The first record of the Persians comes from an Assyrian inscription from the 800s BCE which calls them the Parsu and mentions them alongside another Aryan group, the Madai (Medes). See also Persian Empire and History of Iran. This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Ashur. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period beginning with the year 1 onwards. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The historyof Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilaztion in Iranian plateau, Mani civilization in Azarbaijan and Shar-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft, followed by established kingdom of Elam to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Related sub-groups

Ethnic Persians can also be found outside of Iran and include the Tajiks and Parsiwan (also known as the Farsiwan) who can be found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, and Xinjiang, China while another group called the Tats lives mainly in the Caucasus region concentrated in Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Russian Dagestan. The Parsis of India and eastern Pakistan are also largely descended from Persian Zoroastrian refugees who fled from Persia following the Arab conquests. In addition, a group called the Hazara are a Persianized Turkic-Mongol ethnic group. The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... The Parsiwan, or simply Parsi (Persian), are found mainly in western Afghanistan and are generally distiguished from the Tajiks by their adherance to Shia Islam as opposed to the Sunni sect favored by the Tajiks. ... The Parsiwan, or simply Parsi (Persian), are found mainly in western Afghanistan and are generally distiguished from the Tajiks by their adherance to Shia Islam as opposed to the Sunni sect favored by the Tajiks. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: (Shinjang)), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Tat are an Iranian ethnic group from the Caucasus. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The Republic of Dagestan (Russian: ), older spelling Daghestan, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called Hazarajat. They make up anywhere between 9-20% of Afghanistans population, but an accurate census has not been taken in decades so there is little information to verify at present. ...


Persian language

Main article: Persian language. Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ...


The Persian language is one of the world's oldest languages still in use today. It is called Farsi in Iran and Dari or Tajiki east of Iran. It is part of the Iranian sub-section of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Persian-speakers are today in the majority in Iran, Tajikistan, and possibly Afghanistan[3], and form a large minority in Uzbekistan as well. Smaller groups of Persian speakers are found in western Pakistan and western China, as well as in Bahrain and Iraq and Azerbaijan. Farsi may refer to: Farsi is the native name for the modern Persian language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and some other parts of the Caucasus and Central Asia (Ossetians speak Ossetic, which also is a branch of Iranian languages). ... The term Dari derives from Fârsi-e Darbâri which means Persian of the (royal) courts. It developed at the royal courts of the Samanids (980 AD) in Central Asia and became the major language of Persia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...

Persian Art

"Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects." Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist.
"Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects." Richard Frye. Example of a modern Persian Miniature by a contemporary artist.

Image File history File links Persian Art. ... Image File history File links Persian Art. ...

Persian Music

Main article: Music of Iran. Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millenia BC. Iran National Museum. ...


The music of Persia goes back to the days of Barbod in the royal Sassanid courts, and even earlier. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


Persian Architecture

Main article: Iranian architecture. House of Haj Ali Khan Zand, Qajar era, Qom. ...


Architecture is one of the areas where Persians have made outstanding contributions.


Persian rugs

Main article: Persian rug. // Introduction A traditional rug weaver in Isfahan. ...


Gottfried Semper called rugs "the original means of separating space". Rug weaving was thus developed by ancient civilizations as a basis of architecture. Persian rugs have a history as old as humanity itself. Gottfried Semper Gottfried Semper (1803-1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Oper in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. ...


Persian Gardens

Main article: Persian Gardens. Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia (more commonly known today as Iran). ...


The Persian Garden was designed as a reflection of paradise on earth; the word "garden" itself coming from Persian roots.


Persian Women

Main article: Persian Woman. A Persian woman here as depicted during the Safavi period of Iran. ...


She is the star of 1001 Nights. She is the source of color and life in Persia. Who is the Persian woman? Oriental, yet markedly distinguishable. (Redirected from 1001 Nights) The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, 1001 Arabian Nights, or simply the Arabian Nights, is a piece of...


Persian contributions to humanity

Main article: Culture of Iran. Persian art continues to evolve, fusing modern and traditional elements. ...


From the humble brick, to the windmill. Persians have strived to create a better world by mixing creativity with art. This page is about bricks used for construction. ... Pitstone Windmill, believed to be the oldest windmill in the British Isles A windmill is an engine powered by the energy of wind to mill grain, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ...


See also

The statistics in this article come from the CIA World Factbook, 2005 edition. ... Persian art continues to evolve, fusing modern and traditional elements. ... The historyof Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilaztion in Iranian plateau, Mani civilization in Azarbaijan and Shar-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft, followed by established kingdom of Elam to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia (13539 words)
Persians were vigorous and hardy, simple in manners, occupied in raising cattle and horses in the mountainous regions, and agriculture in the valleys and plains.
Persian forces and raised the siege, but soon afterwards, when the turks had retired, there was a general engagement in which the Romans inflicted a crushing defeat upon their adversaries, and compelled them to sue for peace.
Persian troops on the border of the Euphrates valley.
Cat Fanciers' Association: Breed Profile: Persian (774 words)
Persians, with their long flowing coats and open pansy-like faces are the number one breed in popularity.
Persians are tremendously responsive and become a constant source of joy and delight to their owners.
Persian breeders dedicate themselves to breeding healthy cats, availing themselves of the latest in veterinary screening procedures to test for any heritable disease conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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