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Encyclopedia > Persian Gulf
Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from larger map of the Middle East.
Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from larger map of the Middle East.

The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran (Persia) and the Arabian Peninsula.[1] Image File history File links Template:PD-US-Gov Cut and edited from Image:MiddleEast. ... Image File history File links Template:PD-US-Gov Cut and edited from Image:MiddleEast. ... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalīj ʿumān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye ʿomān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Download high resolution version (1827x1662, 1616 KB)Subject: Middle East map Source: NIMA [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Middle East Categories: United States government images ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Arabia redirects here. ...


The Persian Gulf was the focus of the Iraq-Iran War that lasted from 1980 to 1988, with each side attacking the other's oil tankers. In 1991, the Persian Gulf again was the background for what was called the Persian Gulf War or the "Gulf War" when Iraq invaded Kuwait and was subsequently pushed back, despite the fact that this conflict was primarily a land conflict. Iranian troops in the northern front. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs, and abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has become increasingly under pressure from the heavy industrialisation and in particular the repeated major petroleum spillages associated with recent wars fought in the region. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Species See text. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...

Contents

Geography

This inland sea of some 251,000 km² is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz; and its western end is marked by the major river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Its length is 989 kilometres, separating mainly Iran from Saudi Arabia with the shortest divide of about 56 kilometres in the Strait of Hormuz. The waters are overall very shallow and have a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres. Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... Historical map of the area (1892) Map Of Strait of Hormuz Satellite image The Strait of Hormuz (Arabic: ‎, Persian: ‎) is a narrow, strategically important stretch of ocean between the Gulf of Oman in the southeast and the Persian Gulf in the southwest. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are (clockwise, from the north): Iran, Oman (exclave of Musandam), United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar on a peninsula off the Saudi coast, Bahrain on an island, Kuwait and Iraq in the northwest. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf. The Musandam peninsula is a region of Oman that is separated from the rest of the country by the United Arab Emirates. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ... // Amwaj Islands Bahrain Hawar Islands Al Muharraq Sitrah Abbasak Abu Musa island Buneh island Dara island Farsi island Forur Bozorg island Forur Koochak island Forurgan island Germ island Greater and Lesser Tunbs Hendurabi island gghItalic textLink titlelink title{| class=wikitable |- ! MAYBE BYRON WILL LKE ME 1 ! header 2 ! header 3...


Oil and gas

The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil and related industries dominate the region. Al-Safaniya, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian gulf. Large gas finds have also been made with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line (North Field in the Qatari sector; South Pars Field in the Iranian sector). Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquified natural gas (LNG) and petrochemical industry. Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) is natural gas which has been artificially condensed into a liquid form by a combination of pressurisation and cryogenic cooling. ...


The oil-rich countries (excluding Iraq) that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and easily blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Arvand River, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers, where the left (East) bank is held by Iran. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Etymology

The experts, who have worked on the name of Persian Gulf, became unanimous considering the name of Persian Gulf as the correct term. For at least during the past 2500 years, i.e. from the rise of the Achaemenid dynasty (550-330 B.C.) there has never been seen such a consensus in the Middle East among writers and historians on one name during the past twenty-five centuries. The rise of the Achaemenid dynasty, and center of power which was from the province of Pars (Persis, or modern Fars) in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau. Consequently in the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the Persian Gulf.[2] Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Considering the historical background of the name Persian Gulf, Sir Arnold Wilson mentions in a book, published in 1928 that: There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

No water channel has been so significant as Persian Gulf to the geologists, archaeologists, geographers, merchants, politicians, excursionists, and scholars whether in past or in present. This water channel which separates the Iran Plateau from the Arabia Plate, has enjoyed an Iranian Identity since at least 2200 years ago.[3]

No written deed has remained since the era before the Persian Empire, but in the oral history and culture, the Iranians have called the southern waters: "Jam Sea", "Iran Sea", "Pars Sea".


During the years: 550 to 330 B.C. coinciding with sovereignty of the first Persian Empire on the Middle East area, especially the whole part of Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" has been widely written in the compiled texts.[4] Persia redirects here. ... Arabia redirects here. ...


In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, and the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the great, installed at junction of waters of Arabian Gulf (Ahmar Sea = Red sea) and Nile river and Rome river (current Mediterranean) which belongs to the 5th century BC where, Darius, the king of Achaemenid Empire has named the Persian Gulf Water Channel: Pars Sea.[5] Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... This article is about the ancient city. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Naming dispute

A historical map is altered to erase the word "Persian" from the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum, United Arab Emirates.
A historical map is altered to erase the word "Persian" from the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum, United Arab Emirates.

Since the 1960s with the rise of Arab nationalism (Pan-Arabism), starting with Gamal Abdel Nasser's Arab Republic of Egypt, some Arab countries, including the ones bordering the Persian Gulf, have adopted the term "Arabian Gulf" (in Arabic: الخلیج العربي al-khalīj al-ʿarabī) to refer to the waterway.[6] This is controversial and not commonly used outside of the Arab world, nor is it recognized by the United Nations[7][8][9] and other international organizations. The United Nations on many occasions has requested that only "Persian Gulf" be used as the official and standard geographical designation for the body of water.[10] "Arabian Gulf" is also an ancient name for the Red Sea.[11] Hecataeus (472 to 509 B.C.) can be stated where Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf (Red Sea) have been clearly shown. Also a map has remained from Herodotus, the great Greek historian (425-484 B.C.) which introduces Red Sea as the Arabian Gulf. [12] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1254x813, 86 KB) Martin, R.M. ; Tallis J. & F. Arabia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1254x813, 86 KB) Martin, R.M. ; Tallis J. & F. Arabia. ... Sheikh Saeed House is a historical building located on Dubai Creek in Shandagah area in the city of Dubai. ... Sheikh Saeed House, Dubai, UAE. A historic map is altered to erase the word Persian from the Persian Gulf. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Arabic redirects here. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Hecataeus (c. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


In the world map of Diseark (285-347 B.C.) too, Persian Gulf and Arabian Gulf have been clearly distinct. At the same time, many maps and deeds prepared up to the 8th century by the historians such as Arrian[13] Hecataeus, Herodotus, Hiparek, Claudius Batlamious, Krats Malous,…… and in the Islamic period, Khwārizmī, Abou Yousef Eshagh Kandi, Ibn Khordadbeh, Batani (Harrani), Mas'udi, Balkhi, Estakhri, Ibn Houghal, Aboureyhan Birouni and others, mention that there is a wide sea at south of Iran named “Pars Sea”, “Pars Gulf”, “Fars Sea”, “Fars Gulf”, “Bahre Fars”, “Sinus Persicus” and “Mare Persicum” and so on. In a book, named “Persilus Aryateria”, the Greek traveller of the 1st century A.D. has called the Red Sea as Arabian gulf; the Indian ocean has been named Aryateria Sea; the waters at Oman Coast is called Pars Sea; Barbarus region (between Oman and Yemen coast are called belonging to Pars, and the Gulf located at south side of Iran is named: Persian Gulf. By describing the water body, the life of Persians living at both sides have also been confirmed.[14] Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Hecataeus (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... (Arabic: ) was a Persian[1] mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer. ... Abul Qasim UbaidAllah ibn Khordadbeh (c. ... Al Battani (c. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (أبو الحسن ØŒ علي بن الحسين المسعودي) (?, Baghdad , Iraq - 956, Cairo,Egypt), was an Arab historian, geographer and philosopher. ... Abu Zaid Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi was a Persian mathematician who lived in the 10th century. ... A map by Istakhri from the text Al-aqalim. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ...


Most recently, at the Twenty-third session of United Nation in March-April 2006, the name 'Persian Gulf' was confirmed again as the legitimate and the official term to be used by members of United Nation.[15]


British residency

From 1763 until 1971, the United Kingdom maintained varying degrees of political control over some Persian Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (originally called the "Trucial Coast States") and at various times Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Qatar. Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, (Persian Sea) in Arabic, from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by Persian geographer Istakhri. ...


Britain still keeps a high profile in the region even today. In 2006, for example, over 1 million Britons visited Dubai alone.[16] Coordinates: , Emirate Government  - Emir Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Area [1]  - Metro 4,114 km² (1,588. ...


References

  1. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([1]); accessed February 09, 2007
  2. ^ Touraj Daryaee, The Persian Gulf Trade in Late Antiquity, Journal of World History, Vol. 14, No. 1., March 2003, (LINK); accessed Fenruary 09, 2007
  3. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([2]); accessed February 09, 2007
  4. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([3]); accessed February 09, 2007
  5. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([4]); accessed February 09, 2007
  6. ^ Niusha Boghrati, Omission of 'Persian Gulf' Name Angers Iran, World Press.com, dated December 28, 2006 (LINK)
  7. ^ UN Map (LINK)
  8. ^ UN Map of Iran([5])
  9. ^ UN Map Map of Western Asia, ([6])
  10. ^ ([7])
  11. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006, p.2 ([8])
  12. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([9]); accessed February 09, 2007
  13. ^ Arriann, "Alexander Fleet in the Persian Gulf", in Anabasis Alexandri: Book VIII (INDICA)
  14. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006 ([10]); accessed February 09, 2007
  15. ^ Working Paper No. 61, UNITED NATIONS GROUP OF EXPERTS ON GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES, dated March 28, April 4, 2006, p.2 ([11])
  16. ^ Peter Beaumont, Blair was dangerously off target in his condemnation of Iran, The Guardian dated December 24, 2006, (LINK)

See also

Look up Persian Gulf in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Sheikh Saeed House, Dubai, UAE. A historic map is altered to erase the word Persian from the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

External links

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Coordinates: 26°54′17″N, 51°32′51″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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