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Encyclopedia > Persian rug
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A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. See special page on Isfahani rugs
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A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. See special page on Isfahani rugs

The Persian rug is an essential part of Persian art and culture. Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to the Bronze Age (c.3500-2000 BC). Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_art_collage. ... Iran is filled with tombs of poets and musicians, such as this one belonging to Rahi Moayeri. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Iranian cinema (or Persian cinema ) with thousands of International film awards became one of the finest in the world, with festivals of Iranian films being held annually throughout the world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... Persia (Iran) has an ancient tradition of its own design of motifs. ... Iran (Persia) possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry including the mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf. ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... Persian painting has several branches, one of them being Qahveh Khanehei Painting (Tea House style of painting). ... Persian embroidery is one of the many forms of the multi-faceted Persian arts. ... Download high resolution version (650x721, 570 KB)A traditional rug weaver in Isfahan. ... Download high resolution version (650x721, 570 KB)A traditional rug weaver in Isfahan. ... A traditional rug mender in Isfahan The Iranian city of Isfahan (also spelt Esfahan) has long been one of the centers for production of the famous Persian Rug. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Inkle and back strap looms workshop at Nambassa festival New Zealand 1981 Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


The earliest surviving corpus of Persian carpets come from the Safavid dynasty (1501-1736) in the 16th century. However, painted depictions prove a longer history of production. There is much variety among classical Persian carpets of the 16th and 17th century. Common motifs include scrolling vine networks, arabesques, palmettes, cloud bands, medallions, and overlapping geometric compartments rather than animals and humans. Persian Art being based in Shia Islam does not take the hard line against human representation that we see in Sunni influenced Turkish rug weaving. Figural designs are particularly popular in the Iranian market and are not nearly as common in rugs exported to the west. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... The Arabesque, an aspect of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... An antefix in the form of a palmette As an illustration of the way in which the palmette motif was seen by 19th century architects and decorators, who in Europe, America and elsewhere in colonial cities created their own unending variations on the motif as a kind of hallmark of... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...

Contents


Materials

Wool is the most common material for rugs but cotton is frequently used for the foundation of city and workshop rugs. Silk carpets date back to at least the sixteenth century in Sabzavar and the Seventeenth century in Kashan and Yezd. Silk rugs are less common than wool carpets since silk is more expensive and less durable; they tend to increase in value with age. Due to this rarity, value and their lack of durability, silk rugs are very often displayed on the wall like a tapestry rather than being used as carpets. Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ... This article is about tapestry the textile. ...


Persian Carpet

History

Some traditional tools of the craft.
Some traditional tools of the craft.

With the passage of time, the materials used in carpets, including wool and cotton, decay. Therefore archaeologists are rarely able to make any particularly useful discoveries during archaeological excavations. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1464x2170, 1599 KB) Summary This picture was improved by the Wikigraphists of the Atelier graphique. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1464x2170, 1599 KB) Summary This picture was improved by the Wikigraphists of the Atelier graphique. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


What has remained from early times as evidence of carpet-weaving is nothing more than a few pieces of worn-out rugs. Such fragments do not help very much in recognizing the carpet-weaving characteristics of pre-Seljuk period (13th and 14th centuries AD) in Persia. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Among the oldest pieces discovered are those found in Eastern Turkestan, dating back to the third to fifth centuries AD, and also some of the hand-weavings of the Seljuks of Asia Minor on exhibit in Ala’edin Mosque in Konya and Ashrafoghlu Mosque in Beyshehir, Turkey. These pieces attracted the attention of researchers earlier this century, and now they are kept in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art in Istanbul and the Mowlana Museum in Konya. Map of Turkestan (green) with borders of modern states in white Turkestan (Persian: ترکستان ) (also spelled Turkistan or Türkistan) is a region in Central Asia, which today is largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ...


In a unique archaeological excavation in 1949 however, the exceptional Pazyryk carpet was discovered among the ices of Pazyryk Valley, in Altai Mountains in Siberia. It was discovered in the grave of a Scythian prince by a group of Russian archaeologists under the supervision of Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko. Radiocarbon testing initially indicated that the Pazyryk carpet was woven in the 5th century BC but correction of a calibration error later gave a date 200 years later circa 300 BC. This carpet is 1.83×2 meters and has 36 symmetrical knots per cm². The advanced weaving technique used in the Pazyryk carpet indicates a long history of evolution and experience in this art. Most experts believe that the Pazyryk carpet is a late achievement of at least one thousand years of technique evolution and history. Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko The worlds most spectacular tattooed mummy was discovered by Russian anthropologist Sergei Ivanovich Rudenko in1948 during the excavation of a group of Pazyryk tombs about 120 miles north of the border between China and Russia. ...


According to this theory the art of carpet-weaving is at least 3500 years old.


Persian Rug

The Persian rug today

From the yarn fiber to the colors, every part of the Persian rug is traditionally hand made from natural ingredients over the course of many months. This arduous process is shown in the Japanese/Iranian film Carpet of Wind, directed by Kamal Tabrizi.
From the yarn fiber to the colors, every part of the Persian rug is traditionally hand made from natural ingredients over the course of many months. This arduous process is shown in the Japanese/Iranian film Carpet of Wind, directed by Kamal Tabrizi.

Although carpet production has mostly become mechanized today, the traditional hand woven rugs are still widely found all around the world, and usually have higher prices than their machine woven counterparts. Image File history File linksMetadata Farsh1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Farsh1. ...


Many fine pieces of the Persian carpet are to be found in The Carpet Museum of Iran in Tehran. Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran Located in Tehran, beside the Laleh Park, and founded in 1976, the Carpet Museum of Iran exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from 18th century to present. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population 7,160,094 (metropolitan: 14,000,000[citation needed]), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran and the center of Tehran Province. ...


Anatolian & Persian

The difference between Anatolian (Turkish) and Persian rugs is today largely one of tradition.


Typically, a traditional Persian carpet is tied with a single looping knot (Persian or Senneh Knot), meanwhile the traditional Anatolian carpet is tied with a double looping knot (Turkish or Ghiordes Knot). This means that for every 'vertical strand' of thread in a carpet, an Anatolian carpet has two loops as opposed to the one loop for the various Persian rugs that use a Persian 'single' knot. Ultimately, this process of 'double knotting' in traditional Anatolian/Turkish carpets results in a slightly more block like image when compared to the traditional 'single knotted' Persian carpet. The traditional Anatolian style also reduces the number of Knots per sq cm. The result of these factors has consequently created the ancient and international reputation of the 'persian carpet' in terms of quality. Knots per sq cm is a traditional measure for quality of hand-knotted carpets. ...

Turkbâf (Ghiordes)
Turkbâf (Ghiordes)
Farsbâf (Senneh)
Farsbâf (Senneh)

It is also common to see Anatolian rugs identified as longer lasting, which they probably are. However, given that a well-made and maintained carpet in either style can easily last several hundred years this is usually disregarded. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x881, 163 KB) Description Turkish node (ghiorde) Author : Dake Software : Inkscape Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian rug ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x881, 163 KB) Description Turkish node (ghiorde) Author : Dake Software : Inkscape Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian rug ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x883, 140 KB) Description Senneh node Author : Dake Software : Inkscape Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian rug ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x883, 140 KB) Description Senneh node Author : Dake Software : Inkscape Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian rug ...


Today, it is common to see carpets woven in both Turkey and Iran using either of the two knot styles. When comparing carpets the only way to definitively identify the knot used is to splay open the pile by bending the rug against itself and looking at the base of the knot.


(Also see: Knots per sq cm). Knots per sq cm is a traditional measure for quality of hand-knotted carpets. ...


Traditional Centers of carpet production in Iran (Persia)

The major classical centers of carpet production in Persia were in Tabriz (1500-1550), Kashan (1525-1650), Herat (1525-1650), and Kerman (1600-1650). Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ... Court of the Friday Mosque in Herāt. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman (in Persian: کرمان ) is a city in Iran. ...


The majority of carpets from Tabriz have a central medallion and quartered corner medallions superimposed over a field of scrolling vine ornament, sometimes punctuated with mounted hunters, single animals, or animal combat scenes. Perhaps the best-known of the Tabriz works are the twin Ardabil carpets most likely made for the shrine at Ardabil (today in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and the Los Angeles County Museum). Ardabil Carpet represents either one of the famous persian rugs that are currently held by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. ... Ardabil (in Persian: اردبیل; also known as Ardebil; ancient name: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... The Cromwell Road entrance to the Victoria and Albert Museum The Victoria and Albert Museum viewed from Thurloe Square The main interior courtyard of the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2004. ... The Los Angeles County Museum may refer to: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Los Angeles County Museum of Art This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Kashan is known for its silk carpet production. Most famously, for the three silk hunting carpet masterpieces depicting mounted hunters and animal prey (currently in the collections of the Vienna Museum of Applied Arts (aka the MAK), the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the Stockholm Museum). The Kashan rugs are among the most valuable in existence. One carpet, for example, is known to have been sold in Germany for $20,000 in 1969. Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ...


The Herat carpets, or ones of similar design created in Lahore and Agra, India, are the most numerous in Western collections. They are characterized by a red field with scrolling vine ornament and palmettes with dark green or blue borders. Lahore (Urdu: لاہور) is the second largest city of Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The seven classes of Kerman carpet were defined by May Beattie. She identified their unique structure and named it the "vase technique." Carpet types in this group include garden carpets (ornamented with formal gardens and water channels) and the ogival lattice carpets. A fine and well-known example of the later was purchased by the Victoria and Albert Museum under the guidance of William Morris. The influence of Persian carpets is readily apparent in his carpet designs. Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman (in Persian: کرمان ) is a city in Iran. ... The Cromwell Road entrance to the Victoria and Albert Museum The Victoria and Albert Museum viewed from Thurloe Square The main interior courtyard of the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2004. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris, publisher Davids Charge to Solomon (1882), a stained-glass window by Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris in Trinity Church, Boston, Massachusetts. ...


Types of carpets

Elements of the Persian rug.
Enlarge
Elements of the Persian rug.
Persian rug.
Persian rug.

Carpet dealers have developed a classification for Persian carpets based on design, type of fabric, and weaving technique. The categories are named for cities and areas associated with each design: Image File history File links Compo-tapis. ... Image File history File links Compo-tapis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1142x858, 631 KB) Persian rugs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1142x858, 631 KB) Persian rugs. ...

  • Abadeh
  • Ahar
  • Afshar
  • Arak
  • Ardebil
  • Ardestan
  • Bakhtiari see also Afghan carpet
  • Beluch
  • Birjand
  • Brujerd
  • Chelaberd
  • Dorokhsh
  • Farahan
  • Ferdos
  • Ghayen
  • Gonabad
  • Gonbad Ghaboos
  • Gorgan
  • Hariz
  • Heriz
  • Isfahan
  • Joshghan
  • Jozan
  • Kashan
  • Kashmar
  • Kerman
  • Lilian
  • Mahan
  • Mahalat
  • Maku
  • Mamasani
  • Marand
  • Mashhad
  • Meshkin Shahr
  • Moshk Abad
  • Mood
  • Nain
  • Nishaboor
  • Rafsanjan
  • Ravar
  • Saraband
  • Sarab
  • Saraband
  • Sarukh
  • Semnan
  • Sha Savan
  • Shahre Kord
  • Shiraz
  • Shahr Reza
  • Qazvin
  • Qom
  • Tabriz
  • Tehran
  • Torghabeh
  • Veramin
  • Yalameh
  • Yazd
  • Zenjan
  • Zabol

Rugs for a specific purpose include: Arak rugs are made in and around the city of Arak, Iran. ... The traditional Bokhara print of Afghanistan Afghan carpets are beautiful pieces with intricate detailing mainly using designs from Turkoman tribes such as the Ersari, Saryk, Salor, and Tekke. ... A Heriz Rug is a type of Persian rug from the area of Heriz. ... A traditional rug mender in Isfahan The Iranian city of Isfahan (also spelt Esfahan) has long been one of the centers for production of the famous Persian Rug. ... New Jozan rug Jozan rugs are made in the surroundings of the village Jozan - also spelled Josan - in the Iranian Malayer area. ... A Kashan Rug is a type of persian rug from the area of Kashan. ... Kashmar (Persian:کاشمر)is a city in Khorasan state and south of Mashad city. ... Nain is a small oasis town in the centre of Iran, within close proximity to the famous city of Esfahan. ... A Shiraz carpet is a type of Persian rug named after the city of Shiraz. ... A Qom rug. ... A Tabriz carpet with a fish design medallion. A Tabriz carpet is a type of Azerbaijani rug from the area of Tabriz. ...

  • Hunting Scene Rugs

See also

A Persian rug in a household setting
A Persian rug in a household setting

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 639 KB) Summary A picture, of an Rug taken with a digital camera. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 639 KB) Summary A picture, of an Rug taken with a digital camera. ... Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran Located in Tehran, beside the Laleh Park, and founded in 1976, the Carpet Museum of Iran exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from 18th century to present. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan, is the second largest square in the world and arguably the gem of Persian architectural masterpieces. ... Iran is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... A carpet is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor covering. ... A Kilim (or Kelim) (or berr in Kurdish), is a flatwoven rug, taking its name from the Turkish word for prayer rug. ... Gabbeh is a traditional design of Persian carpet. ... Contemporary version of the Leyla and Majnun story The war rug tradition of Afghanistan, which has its origins in the decade of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan from 1979, has continued through subsequent military, political and social conflicts. ... A magic carpet is a carpet that would transport persons who were on it instantaneously or quickly to their destination. ...

Silk Rug

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persian rugs
  • Islamic Carpets showing examples of knot patterns.
  • Origins of Carpet Weaving in Iran: A Research Article By Manouchehr Saadat Noury

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Saadat Noury, also spelled as Saadat Nouri was born in 1939 in Tehran, Iran. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Persian rug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1231 words)
The Persian rug is an essential part of Persian art and culture.
Due to this rarity, value and their lack of durability, silk rugs are very often displayed on the wall like a tapestry rather than being used as carpets.
Typically, a traditional Persian carpet is tied with a single looping knot (Persian or Senneh Knot), meanwhile the traditional Anatolian carpet is tied with a double looping knot (Turkish or Ghiordes Knot).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Afshin Nejad
6th August 2010
If you are looking to know more about Persian rugs You can look at: http://www.oldcarpet.com is dedcated website only about Persian Rugs.

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