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Encyclopedia > Persian literature
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Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray.
Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray.

Persian literature (Persian: ادبیات پارسی) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. Its sources often come from far-flung regions beyond the borders of present-day Iran, as the Persian language flourished and survives across wide swaths of Central Asia. For instance, Rumi, one of Persia's best-loved poets, wrote in Persian but lived in Konya, now in Turkey and then the capital of the Seljuks. The Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. There is thus Persian literature from areas that are now part of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Central Asia. Not all this literature is written in Persian, as some consider works written by ethnic Persians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic, to be included. Image File history File linksMetadata Persian_art_collage. ... The Iranian Cultural Continent - consisting of the modern nations Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and surrounding regions - is home to one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stone masonry. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Persian painting has several branches, most famously the classical art of the Persian miniature, and including the modern popular form of Qahveh Khanehei Painting (Tea House style of painting). ... The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ... Iran (Persia) possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry including the mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf. ... Persian embroidery is one of the many forms of the multi-faceted Persian arts. ... Persia (Iran) has an ancient tradition of its own design of motifs. ... Pottery Vessel, Fourth Millennium BCE. The Sialk collection of Tehrans National Museum of Iran. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iranian cuisine. ... The Persian carpet (Pahlavi bōb[1] Persian farÅ¡ فرش, meaning to spread and Arabic qāli, Turkish hali)[2] is an essential part of Persian art and culture. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... This article is about Performance art. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x783, 1023 KB)This 15th century Persian mauscript is kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x783, 1023 KB)This 15th century Persian mauscript is kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul, Turkey. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Download high resolution version (912x1216, 409 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (912x1216, 409 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Nezami Mausoleum, built in 1991, stands just outside the city of Ganja, Azerbaijan. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Surviving works in Persian languages (such as Old Persian or Middle Persian) date back as far as 650 BCE, the date of the earliest surviving Achaemenid inscriptions. The bulk of the surviving Persian literature, however, comes from the times following the Islamic conquest of Persia circa 650 CE. After the Abbasids came to power (750 CE), the Persians became the scribes and bureaucrats of the Islamic empire and, increasingly, also its writers and poets. Persians wrote both in Arabic and Persian; Persian predominated in later literary circles. Persian poets such as Sa'di, Hafiz, Rumi and Omar Khayyam are well known in the world and have influenced the literature of many countries. “Farsi” redirects here. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... Rumi redirects here. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Classical Persian literature

Pre-Islamic Persian literature

See also: Pahlavi literature

Very few literary works remain from ancient Persia. Most of these consist of the royal inscriptions of Achaemenid kings, particularly Darius I (522–486 BC) and his son Xerxes. Zoroastrian writings mainly were destroyed in the Islamic conquest of Persia. The Parsis who fled to India, however, took with them some of the books of the Zoroastrian canon, including some of the Avesta and ancient commentaries (Zend) thereof. Some works of Sassanid geography and travel also survived albeit in Arabic translations. This article needs to be wikified. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


No single text devoted to literary criticism has survived from pre-Islamic Persia. However, some essays in Pahlavi such as ‘’Ayin-e name nebeshtan" and "Bab-e edteda’I-ye" (Kalile va Demne) have been considered as literary criticism (Zarrinkoub, 1959).[1] Some researchers have quoted the Sho’ubiyye as asserting that the pre-Islamic Persians had books on eloquence, such as Karvand. No trace remains of such books. There are some indications that some among the Persian elite were familiar with Greek rhetoric and literary criticism (Zarrinkoub, 1947). Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [4][5] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[6] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[7] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة Ùˆ دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[8...


Persian literature of the medieval and pre-modern periods

While initially overshadowed by Arabic during the Umayyad and early Abbasid caliphates, modern Persian soon became a literary language again of the Central Asian lands. The rebirth of the language in its new form is often accredited to Ferdowsi, Unsuri, Daqiqi, Rudaki, and their generation, as they used pre-Islamic nationalism as a conduit to revive the language and customs of ancient Persia. edit Islamization in post-conquest Iran, a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population, occurred as a result of the Islamic conquest of Persia. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Abul Qasim Hasan Unsuri (d. ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Balkhi (935/942-976/980[1]), (in Persian: ) sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی), was an early Persian (TājÄ«k) poet from Balkh[2], currently one of the cities of Afghanistan. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ...


In particular, says Ferdowsi himself in his Shahnama: بسی رنج بردم در این سال سی
عجم زنده کردم بدین پارسی
"For thirty years, I endured much pain and strife,
with Persian I gave the Ajam verve and life". Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Ajami redirects here. ...


Poetry

So strong is the Persian aptitude for versifying everyday expressions that one can encounter poetry in almost every classical work, whether from Persian literature, science, or metaphysics. In short, the ability to write in verse form was a pre-requisite for any scholar. For example, almost half of Avicenna's medical writings are in verse. (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ...


Works of the early era of Persian poetry are characterized by strong court patronage, an extravagance of panegyrics, and what is known as سبک فاخر "exalted in style". The tradition of royal patronage began perhaps under the Sassanid era and carried over through the Abbasid and Samanid courts into every major Persian dynasty. The Qasida was perhaps the most famous form of panegyric used, though quatrains such as those in Omar Khayyam's Ruba'iyyat are also widely popular. A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ... A quatrain is a poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


"Khorasani style", whose followers mostly were associated with Greater Khorasan, is characterized by its supercilious diction, dignified tone, and relatively literate language. The chief representatives of this lyricism are Asjadi, Farrukhi Sistani, Unsuri, and Manuchehri. Panegyric masters such as Rudaki were known for their love of nature, their verse abounding with evocative descriptions. Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Abu Nazar Abdul Aziz ibn Mansur Asjadi was a 10-11th century royal poet of Ghaznavid Persia. ... Abul Hasan Ali ibn Julugh Farrukhi Sistani was a 10-11th century royal poet of Ghaznavid Persia. ... Abul Qasim Hasan Unsuri (d. ... Abu Najm Abu Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchihri was a royal poet of the 11th century in Persia. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ...


Through these courts and system of patronage emerged the epic style of poetry, with Ferdowsi's Shahnama at the apex. By glorifying the Iranian historical past in heroic and elevated verses, he and other notables such as Daqiqi and Asadi Tusi presented the "Ajam" with a source of pride and inspiration that has helped preserve a sense of identity for the Iranian peoples over the ages. Ferdowsi set a model to be followed by a host of other poets later on. Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Balkhi (935/942-976/980[1]), (in Persian: ) sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی), was an early Persian (Tājīk) poet from Balkh[2], currently one of the cities of Afghanistan. ... Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ... Ajami redirects here. ... Language(s) Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Balouchi, Ossetian and various other Iranian languages. ...


The thirteenth century marks the ascendancy of lyric poetry with the consequent development of the ghazal into a major verse form, as well as the rise of mystical and Sufi poetry. This style is often called "the Eraqi style", and is known by its emotional lyric qualities, rich meters, and the relative simplicity of its language. Emotional romantic poetry was not something new however, as works such as Vis o Ramin by Asad Gorgani, and Yusof o Zoleikha by Am'aq exemplify. Poets such as Sana'i and Attar (who ostensibly have inspired Rumi), Khaqani Shirvani, Anvari, and Nezami, were highly respected ghazal writers. However, the elite of this school are Rumi, Sadi, and Hafez. This article is about the poetic form. ... Sufi poetry, for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr, has been written in many languages. ... Vis O Ramin (in Persian: ويس و رامين) is an ancient love story in Persian Literature. ... Fakhruddin Asad Gurgani (in Persian: ) was an 11th century poet of Persia (Iran). ... Shihabuddin Amaq (d. ... Hakim Sanai (Abûl-Majd Majdûd b. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Rumi redirects here. ... Afdhaluddin Badil Ibrahim ibn Ali Khaqani Shirvani (b. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Rumi redirects here. ... Sheikh Sa‘di (in Persian: , full name in English: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah) (1184 - 1283/1291?) is one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ...


Regarding the tradition of Persian love poetry during the Safavid era, Persian historian Ehsan Yarshater notes, "As a rule, the beloved is not a woman, but a young man. In the early centuries of Islam, the raids into Central Asia produced many young slaves. Slaves were also bought or received as gifts. They were made to serve as pages at court or in the households of the affluent, or as soldiers and bodyguards. Young men, slaves or not, also, served wine at banquets and receptions, and the more gifted among them could play music and maintain a cultivated conversation. It was love toward young pages, soldiers, or novices in trades and professions which was the subject of lyrical introductions to panegyrics from the beginning of Persian poetry, and of the ghazal."[2] Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Slave redirects here. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ...


In the didactic genre one can mention Sanai's Hadiqatul Haqiqah as well as Nezami's Makhzan-ul-Asrār. Some of Attar's works also belong to this genre as do the major works of Rumi, although some tend to classify these in the lyrical type due to their mystical and emotional qualities. In addition, some tend to group Naser Khosrow's works in this style as well; however the true gem of this genre is Sadi's Bustan, a heavyweight of Persian literature. The Didactic is facts based as opposed to the Dialectic which is feelings based. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye GanjavÄ« (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or NezāmÄ« (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-DÄ«n AbÅ« Muhammad Ilyās ibn-YusÅ«f ibn-ZakÄ« ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Rumi redirects here. ... ÉÀ ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... Bostan (pronounced Bustān) is a book of combined poetry and prose by Perisan writer and legend Saadi, completed in 1257CE. It is the first work of Sadi, and its title means the fruit orchard. ...


After the fifteenth century, the Indian style of Persian poetry (sometimes also called Isfahani or Safavi styles) took over. This style has its roots in the Timurid era and produced the likes of Amir Khosrow Dehlavi. Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ...

Essays

The most significant essays of this era are Nizami Arudhi Samarqandi's "Chahār Maqāleh" as well as Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi's anecdote compendium Jawami ul-Hikayat. Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir's famous work, the Qabus nama (A Mirror for Princes), is a highly esteemed Belles-lettres work of Persian literature. Also highly regarded is Siyasatnama, by Nizam al-Mulk, a famous Persian vizier. Kelileh va Demneh, translated from Indian folk tales, can also be mentioned in this category. It is seen as a collection of adages in Persian literary studies and thus does not convey folkloric notions. Ahmad ibn Umar ibn AlÄ«, known as NizamÄ«-i ArÅ«zÄ«-i SamarqandÄ« (Persian: ) was a Persian poet of the 12th century. ... Sadiduddin Muhammad Aufi (سدید الدین محمد عوفی) (1171-1242) was a Persian historian, scientist, and author. ... An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... Jawami ul-Hikayat (also transcribed Djami al-Hikayat and Jami al-Hikayat) (جوامع الحکایات) is a famous collection of Persian anecdotes written in the early 13th century. ... Shams al-Moali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir (alt. ... Seen here is the last page of a Qabus nameh manuscript located in the library of The Malik National Museum of Iran, dated 1349. ... Belles lettres literary works, esp essays and poetry, valued for their aesthetic qualities (i. ... Siyāsatnāma (Book of Kingship or Book of Politics), also known as Siyar al-muluk, is the most famous work by Nizam al-Mulk, the founder of Nizamiyyah schools in medieval Persia. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [4][5] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[6] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[7] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة Ùˆ دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[8...


Biographies, hagiographies, and historical works

Among the major historical and biographical works in classical Persian, one can mention Abolfazl Beyhaghi's famous Tarikh-i Beyhaqi, Lubab ul-Albab of Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi (which has been regarded as a reliable chronological source by many experts), as well as Ata al-Mulk Juvayni's famous Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini (which spans the Mongolid and Ilkhanid era of Iran). Attar's Tadkhirat al-Awliya ("Biographies of the Saints") is also a detailed account of Sufi mystics, which is referenced by many subsequent authors and considered a significant work in mystical hagiography. Abolfazl Beyhaghi (995-1077; Ibn Zeyd ibn Muhammad Abul-Fazl Mohammad ibn Hossein ibn Soleyman Ayyoub Ansari Evesi Khazimi BeyhaÄŸi Shafei), also known as ibn Fanduq, was a Persian historian and author. ... Lubab ul-Albab (لباب الالباب) is a famous anthology written by Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi in the early 13th century in eastern Persia. ... Sadiduddin Muhammad Aufi (سدید الدین محمد عوفی) (1171-1242) was a Persian historian, scientist, and author. ... Alaiddin Ata-ul-Mulk Juvayni (1226 - 1283) was a Persian historian who wrote the famous Tarikh-i-Jehan Ghusha (finished in 1259CE). ... Tarikh-i Jahangushay-i Juvaini (The History of Conquering The World) is a detailed historical account written by the Persian Juvayni describing the Mongol, Hulegu Khan, and Ilkhanid conquest of Persia. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


Literary criticism

The oldest surviving work of Persian literary criticism after the Islamic conquest of Persia is Muqaddame-ye Shahname-ye Abu Mansuri, which was written in the Samanid period. The work deals with the myths and legends of Shahname and is considered the oldest surviving example of Persian prose. It also shows an attempt by the authors to evaluate literary works critically. Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...


Persian story writing

One Thousand and One Nights (Persian: هزار و یک شب) is a medieval Persian literary epic which tells the story of Scheherazade (Šarzād in Persian), a Sassanid queen who must relate a series of stories to her malevolent husband, King Shahryar (Šahryār), to delay her execution. The stories are told over a period of one thousand and one nights, and every night she ends the story with a suspenseful situation, forcing the King to keep her alive for another day. The individual stories were created over many centuries, by many people and in many styles, and many have become famous in their own right. Notable examples include Aladdin, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves, and The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor. Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night... Aladdin in the Magic Garden, an illustration by Max Liebert from Ludwig Fuldas Aladin und die Wunderlampe Aladdin (an adaptation of the Arabic name , Arabic: علاء الدين literally nobility of faith) is one of the tales with an Ancient Arabian origin[1] in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights... Ali Baba by Maxfield Parrish (1909). ... “Sinbad” redirects here. ...


The nucleus of the stories is formed by a Pahlavi Sassanid Persian book called Hazār Afsānah[3] (Thousand Myths, in Persian: هزارافسانه), a collection of ancient Indian and Persian folk tales. During the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid in the eighth century, Baghdad had become an important cosmopolitan city. Merchants from Persia, China, India, Africa, and Europe were all found in Baghdad. During this time, many of the stories that were originally folk stories were thought to have been collected orally over many years and later compiled into a single book. The compiler and ninth-century translator into Arabic is reputedly the storyteller Abu abd-Allah Muhammad el-Gahshigar. The frame story of Shahrzad seems to have been added in the fourteenth century. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Persia redirects here. ... A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc. ...


Dictionaries

Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language and literature.

Dehkhoda names 200 Persian lexicographical works in his monumental Dehkhoda Dictionary, the earliest, Farhang-i Avim (فرهنگ اویم) and Farhang-i Menakhtay (فرهنگ مناختای), from the late Sassanid era. The most widely used Persian lexicons in the Middle Ages were those of Abu Hafs Soghdi (فرهنگ ابو حفص سغدی) and Asadi Tusi (فرهنگ لغت فرس), written in 1092. Also highly regarded in the Persian literature lexical corpus are the works of Mohammad Moin. Image File history File links Dehkhoda_book_cover. ... Image File history File links Dehkhoda_book_cover. ... Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ... Mohammad Moin (Born 1918 Rasht, Iran) was one of the prominent masters of Persian literature and Iranology. ...


In 1645, Ravius and Lugduni completed a Persian-Latin dictionary. This was followed by J. Richardson's two-volume Oxford edition (1777) and Gladwin-Malda's (1770) Persian-English Dictionaries, Scharif and S. Peters' Persian-Russian Dictionary (1869), and 30 other Persian lexicographical translations through the 1950s. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In 2002, Professor Hassan Anvari published his Persian-to-Persian dictionary, Farhang-e Bozorg-e Sokhan, in eight volumes by Sokhan Publications.


Currently English-Persian dictionaries of Manouchehr Aryanpour and Soleiman Haim are widely used in Iran. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Persian phrases


PERSIAN PHRASES
* Thousands of friends are far too few, an enemy is too much. *
Hezaaraan dust kam and, yek doshman ziaad ast.
* The wise enemy is better than the ignorant friend. *
Doshman daanaa behtar az dust e naadaan ast.
* The wise enemy lifts you up, the ignorant friend casts you down. *
Doshman e daanaaa bolandat mikonad. Bar zaminat mizanad naadaan e dust.

The influence of Persian literature on world literature

Sufi literature

Asrar al-Tawhid of Abusaeid Abolkheir is considered a significant work of Persian Sufi literature.
Asrar al-Tawhid of Abusaeid Abolkheir is considered a significant work of Persian Sufi literature.

William Shakespeare referred to Iran as the "land of the Sophy".[4] Some of Persia's best-beloved medieval poets were Sufis, and their poetry was, and is, widely read by Sufis from Morocco to Indonesia. Rumi (Maulānā) in particular is renowned both as a poet and as the founder of a widespread Sufi order. The themes and styles of this devotional poetry have been widely imitated by many Sufi poets. See also the article on Sufi poetry. Image File history File linksMetadata Asrar_altawheed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Asrar_altawheed. ... Asrar al-Tawhid is considered a significant work of Persian literature. ... Abusaeid Abolkheyr(966-1046) (In Persian ابوسعید ابوالخیر هجری قمری 440-357) also known as Sheikh Abusaeid , was a famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi thought. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Rumi redirects here. ... Sufi poetry, for private devotional reading and as lyrics for music played during worship, or dhikr, has been written in many languages. ...


Many notable texts in Persian mystic literature are not poems, yet highly read and regarded. Among those are Kimiya-yi sa'ādat and Asrar al-Tawhid. The book was written in Persian. ... Asrar al-Tawhid is considered a significant work of Persian literature. ...


Areas once under Ghaznavid or Mughal rule

Afghanistan and Central Asia

Afghanistan and the Transoxiana can claim to be the birthplace of Modern Persian. Most of the great patrons of Persian literature such as Sultan Sanjar and the courts of the Samanids and Ghaznavids were situated in this region, as were writers such as Rudaki, Unsuri, and Ferdowsi. As such, this rich literary heritage continues to survive well into the present in countries like Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan. Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ... Abul Qasim Hasan Unsuri (d. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


Indian subcontinent

With the emergence of the Ghaznavids and their successors such as the Ghurids, Timurids and Mughal Empire, Persian culture and its literature gradually diffused into the vast Indian subcontinent. Persian was the language of the nobility, literary circles, and the royal Mughal courts for hundreds of years. (In modern times, Persian has been generally supplanted by Urdu, a heavily Persian-influenced dialect of Hindustani.) The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids (Chaghatay/Persian: - TÄ«mÅ«rÄ«yān), self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran and modern Afghanistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21... YumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumYumvYum, Iranians were not only open to other cultures, but freely adopted all they found useful for them. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindustani (/ /; ; हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی), also known as Hindi-Urdu, is a term used by linguists to describe several closely related idioms in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and the vernacular blend between its two standardized registers in the form of the official languages of Hindi and Urdu, as...


Under the Moghul Empire of India during the sixteenth century, the official language of India became Persian. Only in 1832 did the British army force the Indian subcontinent to begin conducting business in English. (Clawson, p.6) Persian poetry in fact flourished in these regions while post-Safavid Iranian literature stagnated. Dehkhoda and other scholars of the 20th century, for example, largely based their works on the detailed lexicography produced in India, using compilations such as Ghazi khan Badr Muhammad Dehlavi's Adat al-Fudhala (اداه الفضلا), Ibrahim Ghavamuddin Farughi's Farhang-i Ibrahimi ( فرهنگ ابراهیمی), and particularly Muhammad Padshah's Farhang-i Anandraj (فرهنگ آناندراج). Famous South Asian poets and scholars such as Amir Khosrow Dehlavi and Muhammad Iqbal of Lahore found many admirers in Iran itself. Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


Western literature

History of Literature
Ancient literature
Arabic literature
Babylonian literature
Chinese literature
Hebrew literature
Indian literature
Assamese literature
Bengali literature
Bhojpuri literature
Hindi literature
Kannada literature
Kashmiri literature
Malayalam literature
Marathi literature
Nepali literature
Rajasthani literature
Sanskrit literature
Sindhi literature
Tamil literature
Telugu literature
Urdu literature
Japanese literature
Greek literature
Latin literature
Persian literature
Pahlavi literature

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Persian literature was little known in the West before the nineteenth century. It became much better known following the publication of several translations from the works of late medieval Persian poets, and it inspired works by various Western poets and writers. The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... The History of literature begins with the history of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us date to a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary authors known by... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... The Babylonians were an ancient culture located in what is now Iraq. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... The history of the Assamese literature may be broadly divided into three periods: // The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. ... The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... Hindi literature (Hindi: हिंदी साहित्य) Hindi poetry is divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti (devotional - Kabir, Raskhan); Shringar (beauty - Keshav, Bihari); Veer-Gatha (extolling brave warriors); and Adhunik (modern). ... Kannada literature refers to the literature in Kannada language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Kashmiri literature (Kashmiri: कॉशुर साहित्‍य) has a history of at least 2,500 years, going back to its glory days of Sanskrit. ... Literature written in Malayalam language. ... Marathi literature (मराठी साहित्य) is one of the most flourishing, progressive and popular elements of Indian literature. ... Nepali Literature (Nepali: ) refers to literature written in the Nepali language. ... // Rajasthani has a vast literature written in various genres starting from 1000 AD.But, it is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Suryamal Misran. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Telugu literature is the literature of the Telugu people, an ethnic group based in southern India. ... Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Persian literature has had influences on many writers and cultures outside of its boundaries. ...


German literature

  • In 1819, Goethe published his West-östlicher Divan, a collection of lyric poems inspired by a German translation of Hafiz (1326–1390).
  • The German essayist and philosopher Nietzsche was the author of the book Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883–1885),[5] referring to the ancient Persian prophet Zoroaster (circa 1700 BCE).

“Goethe” redirects here. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... “Also sprach Zarathustra” redirects here. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...

English literature

  • A selection from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh (935–1020) was published in 1832 by James Atkinson, a physician employed by the British East India Company.
  • A portion of this abridgment was later versified by the British poet Matthew Arnold in his 1853 Rustam and Sohrab.
  • The American poet Ralph Waldo Emerson was another admirer of Persian poetry. He published several essays in 1876 that discuss Persian poetry: Letters and Social Aims, From the Persian of Hafiz, and Ghaselle.

Perhaps the most popular Persian poet of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was Omar Khayyam (1048–1123), whose Rubaiyat was freely translated by Edward Fitzgerald in 1859. Khayyam is esteemed more as a scientist than a poet in his native Persia, but in Fitzgerald's rendering, he became one of the most quoted poets in English. Khayyam's line, "A loaf of bread, a jug of wine, and thou", is known to many who could not say who wrote it, or where. Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... James Atkinson is the name of: James Atkinson (software developer), founder of the phpBB project. ... The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (Persian: رباعیات عمر خیام) The Rubáiyát (Arabic: رباعیات) is a collection of poems (of which there are about a thousand) attributed to the Persian mathematician and astronomer Omar Khayyám (1048-1123). ... Edward Marlborough FitzGerald (March 31, 1809–June 14, 1883) was an English writer, best known as the poet of the English translation of Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám. ...


The Persian poet and mystic Rumi (1207–1273) (known as Molana in Iran) has attracted a large following in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Popularizing translations by Coleman Barks have presented Rumi as a New Age sage. There are also a number of more literary translations by scholars such as A.J. Arberry. Rumi redirects here. ... Coleman Barks is an American poet and renowned translator of Rumi poetry and other mystic poets of Persia. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Arthur John Arberry (1905 - 1969) was a respected scholar of Arabic and Islamic studies. ...


The classical poets (Hafiz, Sa'di, Khayyam, Rumi, Nezami and Ferdowsi) are now widely known in English and can be read in various translations. Other works of Persian literature are untranslated and little known. Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


Swedish literature

During the last century, numerous works of classical Persian literature have been translated into Swedish by baron Eric Hermelin. He translated works by, among others, Farid al-Din Attar, Rumi, Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Sa'adi and Sana'i. Influenced by the writings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg, he was especially attracted to the religious or Sufi aspects of classical Persian poetry. Eric Hermelin (1860-1944) was a Swedish translator and author. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Rumi redirects here. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Saadi may refer to one of the following: Saadi (poet), the medieval Persian Sufi poet Saadi Dynasty, the Moroccan dynasty Vicente Saadi, the Argentine politician Saïd Sadi, the Algerian political activist Abd ar-Rahman as-Saadi, Islamic scholar of fiqh and tafsir Category: ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


More recently Rumi, Hafiz and Fakhruddin 'Iraqi are available in translation by Ashk Dahlén, scholar in Iranian Studies, who has made Persian literature known to a wider audience in Sweden. Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic: حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ... Fakhruddin Iraqi (born June 10, 1213), also known simply as Iraqi or Araqi, was a Persian philosopher and mystic of the Islamic tradition. ... Ashk Dahlén Ashk Peter Dahlén (b. ... Ferdowsis Shahnameh Iranian Studies or Iranistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the Iranian cultural region (or the Iranian cultural continent). It incorporates the study of history, literature, art and culture of Iran (Persia). ...


Contemporary Persian literature

History

Some leading figures of Iranian literary intellectuals: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj
Some leading figures of Iranian literary intellectuals: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj

In the nineteenth century, Persian literature experienced dramatic change and entered a new era. The beginning of this change was exemplified by an incident in the mid-nineteenth century at the court of Nasereddin Shah, when the reform-minded prime minister, Amir Kabir, chastised the poet Habibollah Qa'ani for "lying" in a panegyric qasida written in Kabir's honor. Kabir saw poetry in general and the type of poetry that had developed during the Qajar period as detrimental to "progress" and "modernization" in Iranian society, which he believed was in dire need of change. Such concerns were also expressed by others such as Fath-'Ali Akhundzadeh, Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani, and Mirza Malkom Khan. Khan also addressed a need for a change in Persian poetry in literary terms as well, always linking it to social concerns. Image File history File linksMetadata Roshanfekran_e_Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Roshanfekran_e_Iran. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah The Shah, on his European tour, in The Royal Albert Hall, London Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar (Persian: ‎ translit: ) (July 16, 1831 - May 1, 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 17, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ... Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر in Persian), also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir_Nezam (میرزا تقی‌خان امیرنظام), was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. ... Mirza Malkom Khan was an Iranian proponent of freemasonry active during the period leading up to the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. ...


The new Persian literary movement cannot be understood without an understanding of the intellectual movements among Iranian philosophical circles. Given the social and political climate of Persia (Iran) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, which led to the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906–1911, the idea that change in poetry was necessary became widespread. Many argued that Persian poetry should reflect the realities of a country in transition. This idea was propagated by notable literary figures such as Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda and Abolqasem Aref, who challenged the traditional system of Persian poetry in terms of introducing new content and experimentation with rhetoric, lexico-semantics, and structure. Dehkhoda, for instance, used a lesser-known traditional form, the mosammat, to elegize the execution of a revolutionary journalist. 'Aref employed the ghazal, "the most central genre within the lyrical tradition" (p. 88), to write his "Payam-e Azadi" (Message of Freedom). Dariush Shayegan. ... The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ... Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ...


Some researchers argue that the notion of "sociopolitical ramifications of esthetic changes" led to the idea of poets "as social leaders trying the limits and possibilities of social change."


An important movement in modern Persian literature centered on the question of modernization and Westernization and whether these terms are synonymous when describing the evolution of Iranian society. It can be argued that almost all advocates of modernism in Persian literature, from Akhundzadeh, Kermani, and Malkom Khan to Dehkhoda, 'Aref, Bahar, and Rafat, were inspired by developments and changes that had occurred in Western, particularly European, literatures. Such inspirations did not mean blindly copying Western models but, rather, adapting aspects of Western literature and changing them to fit the needs of Iranian culture. Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, master of Persian literature and literary criticism

Following the pioneering works of Ahmad Kasravi, Sadeq Hedayat and many others, the Iranian wave of comparative literature and literary criticism reached a symbolic crest with the emergence of Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, Shahrokh Meskoob, Houshang Golshiri and Ebrahim Golestan. Image File history File links Abdolhossein_Zarrinkoub. ... Image File history File links Abdolhossein_Zarrinkoub. ... Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ... Shahrokh Meskoob(Born 1924 Babol, Iran) was an outstanding Persian writer, translator, scholar and University professor. ... Houshang Golshiri (هوشنگ گلشیری; in Persian; March 16, 1938 — June 6, 2000) was an Iranian fiction writer, critic and editor Golshiri was born in Isfahan in 1938 and raised in Abadan. ... Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure, with a career spanning half a century. ...


Persian literature in Afghanistan

Persian literature in Afghanistan has also experienced a dramatic change during last century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Afghanistan was confronted with economic and social change, which sparked a new approach to literature. In 1911, Mahmud Tarzi, who came back to Afghanistan after years of exile in Turkey and was influential in government circles, started a fortnightly publication named Saraj’ul Akhbar. Saraj was not the first such publication in the country, but in the field of journalism and literature it launched a new period of change and modernization. Saraj not only played an important role in journalism, it also gave new life to literature as a whole and opened the way for poetry to explore new avenues of expression through which personal thoughts took on a more social colour. Mahmud Tarzi(1865-1933) was a notable Persian satirist, Afghanistani intellectual and journalist. ...


In 1930 (1309 AH), after months of cultural stagnation, a group of writers founded the Herat Literary Circle. A year later, another group calling itself the Kabul Literary Circle was founded in the capital. Both groups published regular magazines dedicated to culture and Persian literature. Both, especially the Kabul publication, had little success in becoming venues for modern Persian poetry and writing. In time, the Kabul publication turned into a stronghold for traditional writers and poets, and modernism in Dari literature was pushed to the fringes of social and cultural life.


Three of the most prominent classical poets in Afghanistan at the time were Qari Abdullah, Abdul Haq Betab and Khalil Ullah Khalili. The first two received the honorary title Malek ul Shoara (King of Poets). Khalili, the third and youngest, was drawn toward the Khorasan style of poetry instead of the usual Hendi style. He was also interested in modern poetry and wrote a few poems in a more modern style with new aspects of thought and meaning. In 1318 (AH), after two poems by Nima Youshij titled "Gharab" and "Ghaghnus" were published, Khalili wrote a poem under the name "Sorude Kuhestan" or "The Song of the Mountain" in the same rhyming pattern as Nima and sent it to the Kabul Literary Circle. The traditionalists in Kabul refused to publish it because it was not written in the traditional rhyme. They criticized Khalili for modernizing his style. Khalilollah Khalili on the cover of Deewaan-e Khalilullah Khalili Khalilullāh Khalīlī (1908-1987; Persian: ‎ ; alternative spellings: Khalilollah, Khalil Ullah) was Afghanistans foremost 20th Century poet as well as a noted historian, university professor, diplomat and royal confidant. ... External links Biography of Nima Yooshij Categories: People stubs | Iranian poets ...


Very gradually new styles found their way into literature and literary circles despite the efforts of traditionalists. The first book of new poems was published in the year 1957 (1336 AG), and in 1962 (1341 AH), a collection of modern Persian poetry was published in Kabul. The first group to write poems in the new style consisted of Mahmud Farani, Baregh Shafi’i, Solayman Layeq, Sohail, Ayeneh and a few others. Later, Vasef Bakhtari, Asadullah Habib and Latif Nazemi, and others joined the group. Each had his own share in modernizing Persian poetry in Afghanistan. Other notable figures include Leila Sarahat Roshani, Sayed Elan Bahar and Parwin Pazwak. Poets like Mayakovsky, Yase Nien and Lahouti (an Iranian poet living in exile in Russia) exerted a special influence on the Persian poets in Afghanistan. The influence of Iranians (e.g. Farrokhi Yazdi and Ahmad Shamlou) on modern Afghanistani prose and poetry, especially in the second half of the twentieth century, must also be taken into consideration.[6] Wasef Bakhtari (Born 1942 in Balkh, Afghanistan) is a renowned Persian poet, literary figure and Afghan intellectual. ... Latif Nazemi (Born in Herat, Afghanistan) poet and literary now he works in dari section of radio dw in germany. ... Parwin Pazwak was born to the Pazwak literary and political family (father Nematulla Pazwak and mother Afifah Pazwak) in Kabul in 1967. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 7 (O.S.) = July 19 (N.S.), 1893 - April... Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi (1887–October 18, 1939) was a Persian/Iranian poet and senior politician of the Reza Pahlavi era. ... Ahmad Shamlou (Persian: ‎ ) (December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was a Persian poet, writer, and journalist. ...


Prominent Afghanistani writers like Asef Soltanzadeh, Reza Ebrahimi, Ameneh Mohammadi, and Abbas Jafari grew up in Iran and were influenced by Iranian writers and teachers. Although Afghanistani authors have not proven themselves in the international arena like Iranian writers, Persian literature in Afghanistan has a promising future.[7]


Persian literature in Tajikistan

The new poetry in Tajikistan is mostly concerned with the way of life of people and is revolutionary. From the 1950s until the advent of new poetry in France, Asia and Latin America, the impact of the modernization drive was strong. In the 1960s, modern Iranian poetry and that of Mohammad Iqbal Lahouri made a profound impression in Tajik poetry. This period is probably the richest and most prolific period for the development of themes and forms in Persian poetry in Tajikistan. Some Tajik poets were mere imitators, and one can easily see the traits of foreign poets in their work. Only two or three poets were able to digest the foreign poetry and compose original poetry. In Tajikistan, the format and pictorial aspects of short stories and novels were taken from Russian and European literature. Some of Tajikistan's prominent names in Persian literature are Golrokhsar Safi Eva,[8] Mo'men Ghena'at,[9] Farzaneh Khojandi[10] and Layeq Shir-Ali. Golrokhsar Safi is a prominent Iranologist, Persian literary figure and Tajikistans national poet. ... Inoyat Hojieva (Tajik/Persian: Иноят Ҳоҷиева/عنایت حاجی‌یوا), mostly known as Farzana (Tajik/Persian: Фарзона/فرزانه) is a renowned Tajik poet and writer. ... Layeq Shir-Ali (born 1940)(Tajiki/Persian: Лоиқ Шералӣ/لایق شیرعلی) was a Tajik poet, Iranologist and one of the most cellebrated Persian literary figures of Tajikistan and central Asia. ...


Novels

Laiq Sher-Ali, prominent Persian poet from Tajikistan
Laiq Sher-Ali, prominent Persian poet from Tajikistan

Well-known novelists include: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1244x1724, 549 KB) http://tg. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1244x1724, 549 KB) http://tg. ... Layeq Shir-Ali (Tajiki/Persian: Лоиқ Шералӣ/لایق شیرعلی) was a Tajik poet, Iranologist and one of the most cellebrated Persian literary figures of Tajikistan and central Asia. ...

see also Persian Novel Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ... Bozorg Alavi (بزرگ علوی in Persian) (February 2, 1904–February 18, 1997) was an influential Iranian writer, novelist, and political intellectual. ... Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure, with a career spanning half a century. ... Zoya Pirzad (born 1952 in Abadan) is a renowned Iranian writer and novelist. ...


Satire

Main article: Persian satire

Ghol-Agha magazine Persian satire refers to satires in Persian language. ... Iraj Mirza was also active in politics. ... Seyyed Ebrahim Nabavi (سید ابراهیم نبوی; born 1958) is a prolific Iranian satirist, writer, diarist, journalist and researcher of Azeri origin. ... Kioumars Saberi Foumani (1941-April 30, 2004), also known with his pen name Gol-Agha, was an Iranian satirist, writer, and teacher. ... Hadi Khorsandi is a prominent contemporary Persian poet and satirist. ... Ubayd-i Zākāni (in Persian: d. ... Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Bibi Khātoon Astarābādi [1] [2] (Persian: بی بی خاتون استرآبادی) (born 1858 or 1859 — died 1921) was a notable Iranian writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures in the womens movement of Iran. ...

Literary criticism

Shahrokh Meskoob, Prominent literary critic and Shahnameh expert

Pioneers of Persian literary criticism in nineteenth century include Mirza Fath `Ali Akhundzade, Mirza Malkom Khan, Mirza `Abd al-Rahim Talebof and Zeyn al-`Abedin Maraghe`i. Image File history File links Shahrokh_Meskoob. ... Mirza Malkom Khan was an Iranian proponent of freemasonry active during the period leading up to the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. ...


Prominent twentieth century critics include:

Saeed Nafisi analyzed and edited several critical works. He is well known for his works on Rudaki and Sufi literature. Parviz Natel-Khanlari and Gholamhossein Yousefi, who belong to Nafisi's generation, were also involved in modern literature and critical writings.[11] Natel-Khanlari is distinguished by the simplicity of his style. He did not follow the traditionalists, nor did he advocate the new. Instead, his approach accommodated the entire spectrum of creativity and expression in Persian literature. Another critic, Ahmad Kasravi, an experienced authority on literature, attacked the writers and poets whose works served despotism.[12] Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhoda (علی‌اکبر دهخدا in Persian; 1879–March 9, 1959) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published. ... Badiozzaman Forouzanfar was an oustanding master of Persian literature, Iranian linguistics and Iranian culture. ... Mohammad Taqī Bahār Mohammad-Taqī Bahār (MTB) (محمد تقی بهار in Persian) (December 8, 1886 - April 22, 1951), widely known as Malek o-Šo`arā (ملک‌ الشعراء), is considered as the greatest Twentieth Century Iranian (Persian) poet and scholar, who was also a politician, journalist, professor of literature and historian. ... Jalal Homaei was an oustanding master of Persian literature, Iranian linguistics and Iranian culture. ... Mohammad Moin (Born 1918 Rasht, Iran) was one of the prominent masters of Persian literature and Iranology. ... Saeed Nafisi Saeed Nafisi (also Naficy) (8 June 1896 - November 13, 1966) was an Iranian scholar, fiction writer and poet. ... Parviz Natel-Khanlari (Born 1941 Tehran, Iran) was an outstanding Iranologist, author, researcher and University Professor. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ... Shahrokh Meskoob(Born 1924 Babol, Iran) was an outstanding Persian writer, translator, scholar and University professor. ... Saeed Nafisi Saeed Nafisi (also Naficy) (8 June 1896 - November 13, 1966) was an Iranian scholar, fiction writer and poet. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ... Parviz Natel-Khanlari (Born 1941 Tehran, Iran) was an outstanding Iranologist, author, researcher and University Professor. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ...


Contemporary Persian literary criticism reached its maturity after Sadeq Hedayat, Ebrahim Golestan, Houshang Golshiri, Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub and Shahrokh Meskoob. Among these figures, Zarrinkoub held academic positions and had a reputation not only among the intelligentsia but also in academia. Besides his significant contribution to the maturity of Persian language and literature, Zarrinkoub boosted comparative literature and Persian literary criticism.[13] Zarrinkoub's Serr e Ney is a critical and comparative analysis of Rumi's Masnavi. In turn, Shahrokh Meskoob worked on Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, using the principles of modern literary criticism. Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure, with a career spanning half a century. ... Houshang Golshiri (هوشنگ گلشیری; in Persian; March 16, 1938 — June 6, 2000) was an Iranian fiction writer, critic and editor Golshiri was born in Isfahan in 1938 and raised in Abadan. ... Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ... Shahrokh Meskoob(Born 1924 Babol, Iran) was an outstanding Persian writer, translator, scholar and University professor. ... Comparative literature (sometimes abbreviated Comp. ... Rumi redirects here. ... Shahrokh Meskoob(Born 1924 Babol, Iran) was an outstanding Persian writer, translator, scholar and University professor. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...


Mohammad Taghi Bahar's main contribution to this field is his book called Sabk Shenasi (Stylistics). It is a pioneering work on the practice of Persian literary historiography and the emergence and development of Persian literature as a distinct institution in the early part of the twentieth century. It contends that the exemplary status of Sabk-shinasi rests on the recognition of its disciplinary or institutional achievements. It further contends that, rather than a text on Persian ‘stylistics’, Sabk-shinasi is a vast history of Persian literary prose, and, as such, is a significant intervention in Persian literary historiography.[14] Mohammad TaqÄ« Bahār Mohammad-TaqÄ« Bahār (MTB) (محمد تقی بهار in Persian) (December 8, 1886 - April 22, 1951), widely known as Malek o-Å o`arā (ملک‌ الشعراء), is considered as the greatest Twentieth Century Iranian (Persian) poet and scholar, who was also a politician, journalist, professor of literature and historian. ...


Jalal Homaei, Badiozzaman Forouzanfar and his student, Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani, are other notable figures who have edited a number of prominent literary works.[15] Jalal Homaei was an oustanding master of Persian literature, Iranian linguistics and Iranian culture. ... Badiozzaman Forouzanfar was an oustanding master of Persian literature, Iranian linguistics and Iranian culture. ... Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (Nishapur, Razavi Khorasan, Iran; 1939) is a celebrated Persian writer, poet, literary critic, editor and translator. ...


Critical analysis of Jami's works has been carried out by Ala Khan Afsahzad. His classic book won the prestigious award of Iran's Year Best book in the year 2000.[16]


Persian short stories

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The formative period

The formative period was ushered in by Mohammad Ali Jamalzadeh's collection Yak-i Bud Yak-i Nabud (1921; tr. H. Moayyad and P. Sprachman as Once Upon a Time, New York, 1985), and gained momentum with the early short stories of Sadeq Hedayat (1903–51). Jamalzadeh (1895–1997) is usually considered as the first writer of modern short stories in Persian. His stories focus on plot and action rather than on mood or character development and in that respect are reminiscent of the works of Guy de Maupassant and O. Henry. In contrast, Sadeq Hedayat, the writer who introduced modernism to Persian literature, brought about a fundamental change in Persian fiction. In addition to his longer stories, "Bgf-e kur" (his masterpiece; see above ii.) and "Haji Aqa" (1945), he wrote collections of short stories including Seh Ghatra Khun (Three Drops of Blood, 1932; tr. into French by G. Lazard as Trois gouuttes de sang, Paris 1996) and Zenda be Gur (Buried Alive, 1930). His stories were written in a simple and lucid language, but he employed a variety of approaches, from realism and naturalism to surrealistic fantasy, breaking new ground and introducing a whole range of literary models and presenting new possibilities for the further development of the genre. He experimented with disrupted chronology and non-linear or circular plots, applying these techniques to both his realistic and surrealist writings. Unlike Hedayat, who focused on the psychological complexity and latent vulnerabilities of the individual, Bozorg Alavi depicts ideologically motivated personages defying oppression and social injustice. Such characters, seldom portrayed before in Persian fiction, are Alavi's main contribution to the thematic range of the modem Persian short story. This commitment to social issues is emulated by Fereydun Tonokaboni (b. 1937), Mahmud Dawlatabadi (b. 1940), Samad Behrangi (q.v.; 1939–68), and other writers of the left in the next generation. Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh (Persian: , January 13, 1892, Isfahan, Iran — November 7, 1997, Geneva, Switzerland) was one of the most prominent writers of Iran in the 20th century, best known for his unique style of humour. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Bozorg Alavi (بزرگ علوی in Persian) (February 2, 1904–February 18, 1997) was an influential Iranian writer, novelist, and political intellectual. ... Samad Behrangi (صمد بهرنگی) (July?, 1939 – 1967) was an Azeri Iranian writer. ...


Sadeq Chubak was one of the first authors to break the taboo. Following the example of William Faulkner, John Steinbeck, Erskine Caldwell, and Ernest Hemingway, his blunt approach appears in the early short story collections Khayma Shab-bazi (The Puppet Show, 1945) and Antar-i ke Luti-ash Morda Bud (1949; tr. P. Avery as "The Baboon Whose Buffoon was Dead", New World Writing 11, 1957, pp. 14-24), Later stories like "Zir-e Cheragh-e Ghermez", "Pirahan-e Zereski", and "Chera Darya Tufani Shoda Bud" describe the naked bestiality and moral degradation of the personages with no trace of squeamishness. His short stories mirror rotting society, populated by the crushed and the defeated. Chubak picks marginal characters—vagrants, pigeon-racers, corpse-washers, prostitutes, and opium addicts—who rarely appear in the fiction of his predecessors, and whom he portrays with vividness and force. His readers come face to face with grim realities and incidents that they have often witnessed for themselves in everyday life but have shunned out of their mind through complacency. Born on August 5, 1916, Bushehr, Iran, Sadeq Chubak (Persian: ) studied in Bushehr, Shiraz, and Tehran. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... John Ernst Steinbeck (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. ... Erskine Caldwell photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1938 Erskine Preston Caldwell (December 17, 1903-April 11, 1987) was an American author born in a house in the woods outside Moreland, Georgia in Coweta County. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ...


A distinctive trait of post-war Persian fiction in all the three stages of development is the attention devoted to narrative styles and techniques. In matters of style two main trends prevail. Some authors, like Chubak and Al-e Ahmad, follow colloquial speech patterns; others, such as Ebrahim Golestan (b. 1922) and Mohammad Etemadzadeh "Behazin" (b. 1915), have adopted a more literary and lyrical tone. Although the work of all four writers stretch into later periods, some brief remarks about their differing techniques, which delineated future paths, need mentioning at the outset. Golestan experimented with different narrative styles, and it was only in two late collections of stories, Juy o Divar o Teshna (The Stream and the Wall and the Parched, 1967) and Madd o Meh (The Tide and the Mist, 1969) that he managed to find a style and voice of his own. His poetic language draws inspiration both from syntactical forms of classical Persian prose and the experiments of modernist writers, most notably Gertrude Stein. The influence of modernism is evident also in the structure of Golestan's short stories, in which the traditional linear plot line is abandoned in favor of disrupted chronology and free association of ideas. Contrary to most other modern Persian authors, Golestan pays little heed to the state of the poor and the dispossessed. Instead, his short stories are devoted to the world of Persian intellectuals, their concerns, anxieties and private obsessions. His short stories resemble well-made decorative objects d'art, pleasing perhaps to the cognoscenti but leaving the majority of readers unmoved. Golestan's brand of modernism has influenced the later generation of writers like Bahman Forsi (b. 1933) and Hooshang Golshiri (b. 1937). Although the stories of Behazin show similar indebtedness to classical Persian models, he does not follow Golestan's modernist experiments with syntax. Behazin is an author whose stories, delivered in a lucid literary style, express his leftist social beliefs. In some of his later works like the short story collection Mohra-ye Mar (The Snake Charm, 1955), he turns to literary allegory, imbuing ancient tales with a new message, a technique, which allows him to express his critical views obliquely. Behazin's predecessors in the sub-genre of the allegorical tale were Hedayat (in Ab-e Zendegi, 1931) and Chubak ("Esa'a-ye Adab" in the collection Khayma-Shab-Bazi). Ebrahim Golestan is an Iranian filmmaker and literary figure, with a career spanning half a century. ...


Period of growth and development

This second period in the development of the modern Persian short story began with the coup of 19 August 1953, and ended with the revolution of 1979. Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Dr. Mohammed Mosaddeq ( ) (Persian: Moḥammad Moá¹£addeq, also Mosaddegh or Mossadegh) (19 May 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the prime minister of Iran [1][2] from 1951 to 1953. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...

Mehdi Akhavan Sales and Fereydoon Moshiri, modern Persian poets

Jalal Al-e Ahmad is among the proponents of new political and cultural ideas whose influence and impact straddle the first and the second periods in the history of modern Persian fiction. His writings show an awareness of the works of Franz Fanon and the new generation of third-world writers concerned with the problems of cultural domination by colonial powers. Al-e Ahmad, Behazin, Tonekaboni, and Behrangi can all be described as engaged writers because most of their stories are built around a central ideological tenet or thesis and illustrate the authors' political views and leanings. Among poets of this period, Forough Farrokhzad (1935–1967) has a special place as the first female poet of the Persian language acclaimed by her contemporaries and who left a lasting legacy despite her short life. Her legacy and influence is not primarily (or uniquely) political; however, she was among the first women able to set a personal and original mark. In this sense she is elevated to iconic status. Image File history File linksMetadata Sales_Moshiri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sales_Moshiri. ... Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخوان ثالث) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Fereydoon Moshiri (Born 1926, Tehran, Iran) was one of most prominent contemporary Persian poets. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل احمد)‎ (1923-1969) was an Iranian writer and social/political critic. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ...


Another notable author from this period is Simin Daneshvar (b. 1921), the first woman writer of note in contemporary Persian literature. Her reputation rests largely on her popular novel Savusun ("The Mourners of Siyāvosh," 1969). Simin Daneshvar's short stories deserve mention because they focus on the plight and social exclusion of women in Persian society and address topical issues from a woman's point of view. Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ...


Gholam Hossein Saedi's (1935–85) short stories, which he called ghessa, often transcend the boundaries of realism and attain a symbolic significance. His allegorical stories, which occasionally resemble folkloric tales and fables, are inhabited by displaced persons, trapped in dead ends (Sepanlu, p. 117). They emphasize the anxieties and the psychological perturbations of his deeply troubled characters. Sadeghi (1936–84) was yet another author who focused on the anxieties and secret mental agonies of his characters. Gholam Hossein Saedi (January,1935 –- November,1985) was an Iranian socialist novelist and playwright best known for the screenplay of the famous Iranian movie Gaav. ...


Hooshang Golshiri (b. 1937) and Asghar Elahi (b. 1944) created memorable psychological portraits through interim monologue and stream of consciousness techniques. Golshiri, the author of the long story "Shazda Ehtejab" (Prince Ehtejab, 1968), is particularly noted for his successful experiments with extended interior monologues. A bold, innovative writer eager to explore modern methods and styles, Golshiri uses stream of consciousness narrative to reassess familiar theories and events.


Period of diversity

Poetry

Of the hundreds of contemporary Persian poets (classical and modern), notable figures include [2] Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, Simin Behbahani, Forough Farrokhzad, Bijan Jalali, Siavash Kasraie, Fereydoon Moshiri, Nader Naderpour, Sohrab Sepehri, Mohammad-Reza Shafiei-Kadkani, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yushij, Manouchehr Atashi, Houshang Ebtehaj, Mirzadeh Eshghi (classical), Mohammad Taghi Bahar (classical), Aref (classical), Parvin Etesami (classical), and Shahriar (classical). Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ... Bijan Jalali (Born 1927 Tehran Iran) is one of outstanding figures in the history of modern persian poetry. ... Siavosh Kasrai (1927 , Isfahan - 1997 , Vienna) Kasrai graduated from Tehran University, Faculty of Law. ... Fereydoon Moshiri (Born 1926, Tehran, Iran) was one of most prominent contemporary Persian poets. ... Nader Naderpour (June 6, 1929 - February 18, 2000) Born in 1929 to artistically and culturally educated parents, Naderpour traveled to Europe upon completion of his secondary education to study literature in Sorbonne University, Paris. ... Sohrab Sepehri (Persian: transliteration: ) (October 7, 1928 - April 21, 1980) was a notable modern Persian poet and a painter. ... Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (Nishapur, Razavi Khorasan, Iran; 1939) is a celebrated Persian writer, poet, literary critic, editor and translator. ... Ahmad Shamlou (Persian: ‎ ) (December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was a Persian poet, writer, and journalist. ... Nima Yoshigi (نیما یوشیج in Persian) (November 12, 1896 - January 6, 1960) shortly called Nima, born Ali Esfandiari (Persian: علی اسفندیاری), was a contemporary Tabarian and Persian poet who started the she’r-e no (new poetry) also known as she’r-e nimaai (Nimai poetry) trend in Iran. ... Manouchehr Atashi (1933 - November . ... Hushang Ebtehaj (هوشنگ ابتهاج), with the pen name of Sayeh (ه‍. ا. سایه) is an eminent Iranian poet of the 20th century, whose life and work spans Irans political, cultural and literary upheavals. ... Mirzadeh Eshghi was an emotional political poet. ... Mohammad TaqÄ« Bahār Mohammad-TaqÄ« Bahār (MTB) (محمد تقی بهار in Persian) (December 8, 1886 - April 22, 1951), widely known as Malek o-Å o`arā (ملک‌ الشعراء), is considered as the greatest Twentieth Century Iranian (Persian) poet and scholar, who was also a politician, journalist, professor of literature and historian. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azari poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ...

Nima Yushij, founder of modern Persian poetry
Nima Yushij, founder of modern Persian poetry

Image File history File links Nima_Youshij. ... External links Biography of Nima Yooshij Categories: People stubs | Iranian poets ...

Classical Persian poetry in modern times

A few notable classical poets have arisen since the nineteenth century, among whom Mohammad Taghi Bahar and Parvin Etesami have been most celebrated. Mohammad Taghi Bahar had the title "king of poets" and had a significant role in the emergence and development of Persian literature as a distinct institution in the early part of the twentieth century.[18] The theme of his poems was the social and political situation of Iran.


Parvin Etesami may be called the greatest Persian poetess writing in the classical style. One of her remarkable series, called Mast va Hoshyar (The Drunk and the Sober), won admiration from many of those involved in romantic poetry.[19]


Modern Persian poetry

Nima Yushij is considered the father of modern Persian poetry, introducing many techniques and forms to differentiate the modern from the old. Nevertheless, the credit for popularizing this new literary form within a country and culture solidly based on a thousand years of classical poetry goes to his few disciples such as Ahmad Shamlou, who adopted Nima's methods and tried new techniques of modern poetry. Nima Yoshigi (نیما یوشیج in Persian) (November 12, 1896 - January 6, 1960) shortly called Nima, born Ali Esfandiari (Persian: علی اسفندیاری), was a contemporary Tabarian and Persian poet who started the she’r-e no (new poetry) also known as she’r-e nimaai (Nimai poetry) trend in Iran. ...


The transformation brought about by Nima Youshij, who freed Persian poetry from the fetters of prosodic measures, was a turning point in a long literary tradition. It broadened the perception and thinking of the poets that came after him. Nima offered a different understanding of the principles of classical poetry. His artistry was not confined to removing the need for a fixed-length hemistich and dispensing with the tradition of rhyming but focused on a broader structure and function based on a contemporary understanding of human and social existence. His aim in renovating poetry was to commit it to a "natural identity" and to achieve a modern discipline in the mind and linguistic performance of the poet.[20]


Nima held that the formal technique dominating classical poetry interfered with its vitality, vigor and progress. Although he accepted some of its aesthetic properties and extended them in his poetry, he never ceased to widen his poetic experience by emphasizing the "natural order" of this art. What Nima Youshij founded in contemporary poetry, his successor Ahmad Shamlou continued. Ahmad Shamlou (Persian: ‎ ) (December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was a Persian poet, writer, and journalist. ...


The Sepid poem (which translates to white poem), which draws its sources from this poet, avoided the compulsory rules which had entered the Nimai’ school of poetry and adopted a freer structure. This allowed a more direct relationship between the poet and his or her emotional roots. In previous poetry, the qualities of the poet’s vision as well as the span of the subject could only be expressed in general terms and were subsumed by the formal limitations imposed on poetic expression. Sepid poetry is a type of Modern persian poetry. ...

Khalilollah Khalili on the cover of "Deewaan-e Khalilullah Khalili"
Khalilollah Khalili on the cover of "Deewaan-e Khalilullah Khalili"
Simin Daneshvar, Iran's first female novelist and short story writer.
Simin Daneshvar, Iran's first female novelist and short story writer.

Nima’s poetry transgressed these limitations. It relied on the natural function inherent within poetry itself to portray the poet’s solidarity with life and the wide world surrounding him or her in specific and unambiguous details and scenes. Sepid poetry continues the poetic vision as Nima expressed it and avoids the contrived rules imposed on its creation. However, its most distinct difference with Nimai’ poetry is to move away from the rhythms it employed. Nima Yioushij paid attention to an overall harmonious rhyming and created many experimental examples to achieve this end.[20] Image File history File links Pic-khalili. ... Image File history File links Pic-khalili. ... Khalilollah Khalili (Born 1907 Kabol, Afghanistan) was an outstanding Persian literary figure, poet and an influential Afghan politician. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Simin Daneshvar ( سیمین دانشور ;in Persian) ( 1921) was an Iranian novelist and translator . ...


Ahmad Shamlu discovered the inner characteristics of poetry and its manifestation in the literary creations of classical masters as well as the Nimai’ experience. He offered an individual approach. By distancing himself from the obligations imposed by older poetry and some of the limitations that had entered the Nimai’ poem, he recognized the role of prose and music hidden in the language. In the structure of Sepid poetry, in contrast to the prosodic and Nimai’ rules, the poem is written in more "natural" words and incorporates a prose-like process without losing its poetic distinction. Sepid poetry is a developing branch of Nimai’ poetry built upon Nima Youshij's innovations. Nima thought that any change in the construction and the tools of a poet’s expression is conditional on his/her knowledge of the world and a revolutionized outlook. Sepid poetry could not take root outside this teaching and its application.


According to Simin Behbahani, Sepid poetry did not received general acceptance before Bijan Jalali's works. He is considered the founder of Sepid poetry according to Behbahani.[21][22] Behbahani herself used the "Char Pareh" style of Nima, and subsequently turned to ghazal, a free-flowing poetry style similar to the Western sonnet. Simin Behbahani contributed to a historic development in the form of the ghazal, as she added theatrical subjects, and daily events and conversations into her poetry. She has expanded the range of traditional Persian verse forms and produced some of the most significant works of Persian literature in the twentieth century. Simin Behbahani (in Persian: سیمین بهبهانی; born in 1927, Tehran, Iran) is an Iranian poetess. ... Bijan Jalali (Born 1927 Tehran Iran) is one of outstanding figures in the history of modern persian poetry. ... This article is about the poetic form. ...


A reluctant follower of Nima Yushij, Mehdi Akhavan-Sales published his Organ (1951) to support contentions against Nima Yushij's groundbreaking endeavors. But before long he realized that Nima and the modernists emulating him had more to offer than a just a change in rhythm, rhyme, and the general application of the classical Arabic meters.[23] In Persian poetry, Mehdi Akhavan Sales has established a bridge between the Khorassani and Nima Schools. The critics consider Mehdi Akhavan Sales as one of the best contemporary Persian poets. He is one of the pioneers of free verse (new style poetry) in Persian literature, particularly of modern style epics. It was his ambition, for a long time, to introduce a fresh style to Persian poetry.[24] Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ...

M.T.Bahar, the greatest classical poet of modern times

Forough Farrokhzad is important in the literary history of Iran for three reasons. First, she was among the first generation to embrace the new style of poetry, pioneered by Nima Yushij during the 1920s, which demanded that poets experiment with rhyme, imagery, and the individual voice. Second, she was the first modern Iranian woman to graphically articulate private sexual landscapes from a woman's perspective. Finally, she transcended her own literary role and experimented with acting, painting, and documentary film-making.[25] Image File history File links Mohammad_Taghi_Bahar. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ...


Fereydoon Moshiri is best known as conciliator of classical Persian poetry with the New Poetry initiated by Nima Yooshij. One of the major contributions of Moshiri's poetry, according to some observers, is the broadening of the social and geographical scope of modern Persian literature.[26] Fereydoon Moshiri (Born 1926, Tehran, Iran) was one of most prominent contemporary Persian poets. ...


A poet of the last generation before the Islamic Revolution worthy of mention is Mohammad-Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (M. Sereshk). Though he is from Khorassan and sways between allegiance to Nima Youshij and Akhavan Saless, in his poetry he shows the influences of Hafez and Mowlavi. He uses simple, lyrical language and is mostly inspired by the political atmosphere. He is the most successful of those poets who in the past four decades have tried hard to find a synthesis between the two models of Ahmad Shamloo and Nima Youshij.[27] Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani (Nishapur, Razavi Khorasan, Iran; 1939) is a celebrated Persian writer, poet, literary critic, editor and translator. ...


Abdul Halim Shayek, whose pen name is Pendar, was born in Herat, Afghanistan, in 1938 and died in San Jose, California, USA, in 2005. His poems are available at http://www.shayekpendar.com.


Persian literature awards

  • Sadegh Hedayat Award
  • National Ferdowsi Prize
  • Houshang Golshiri Award
  • Bijan Jalali Award
  • Iran's Annual Book Prize
  • Ala Khan Afsahzad Award
  • Mehrgan Adab Prize
  • Parvin Etesami Award
  • Yalda Literary Award
  • Isfahan Literary Award

Authors and poets

A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ...

Notes and references

International conference on Homer and Ferdowsi (2006)
International conference on Homer and Ferdowsi (2006)
  1. ^ Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, Naqde adabi, Tehran 1959 pp:374-379.
  2. ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan. 1986. Persian Poetry in the Timurid and Safavid Periods, Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.973-974. 1986
  3. ^ Abdol Hossein Saeedian, "Land and People of Iran" p. 447
  4. ^ See William Shakespeare's The Twelfth Night.
  5. ^ Nietzsche's Zarathustra. Philosophical forum at Frostburg State University. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  6. ^ Latif Nazemi "A Look at Persian Literature in Afghanistan"
  7. ^ IRNA news Wednesday January 18, 2006
  8. ^ گلرخسار صفی اوا، مادر ملت تاجیک. BBC Persian. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  9. ^ مومن قناعت، شاعر و سياستمدار. BBC Persian. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  10. ^ فرزانه، صدای نسل نو. BBC Persian. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  11. ^ پویایی فرهنگ هر کشور ی در " آزادی " نهفته است. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  12. ^ A history of literary criticism in Iran (1866-1951). Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  13. ^ AH Zarrinkoub: A biography
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Luminaries - Mohammad Reza Shafiei-Kadkani. Iran Daily - Panorama (2005-09-24). Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  16. ^ همایش بزرگداشت افصح زاد at BBC Persian URL accessed on 2006-03-31
  17. ^ Houra Yavari, "The Persian Short Story"
  18. ^ Wali Ahmadi "The institution of Persian literature and the genealogy of Bahar's stylistics"
  19. ^ Parvin Etesami's biography at IRIB.com
  20. ^ a b Mansur Khaksar "Shamlu’s poetic world"
  21. ^ جايزه شعر بيژن جلالی به سيمين بهبهانی اهدا شد. BBC Persian. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  22. ^ معرفی منتقدان و پژوهشگران برگزيده شعر. BBC Persian. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  23. ^ Iraj Bashiri "A Brief Note on the Life of Mehdi Akhavan Sales"
  24. ^ Mehdi Akhavan Sales's biography at Iranchamber.com
  25. ^ Forough Farrokhzad and modern Persian poetry
  26. ^ Fereydoon Moshiri's official website
  27. ^ Mahmud Kianush, "A Summary of the Introduction to Modern Persian Poetry"
  • http://www.afghanmagazine.com/arts/khalili/khalili.html

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... For other uses of Twelfth Night, see Twelfth Night (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

International conference on Bidel Dehlavi in Tehran (2006)
International conference on Bidel Dehlavi in Tehran (2006)

Image File history File links Bidel_conference. ... Image File history File links Bidel_conference. ... Mirza Abdol-Qader Bidel Dehlavi (in Persian: ابوالمعالي ميرزا عبدالقادر بيدل دهلوي) was a Persian poet and arguably the greatest Persian poet of the land of India. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Irans Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Persian:فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی; IPA2: Farhangestán e Zabán o Adab e Fársi) is a government-controlled International body presiding over the use of the Persian language in Iran and other Persian speaking countries. ... Persianate societies are those whose linguistic, material, and artistic cultural activities derives from the Persian language and culture. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Persian literature has had influences on many writers and cultures outside of its boundaries. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Persian Mysticism or Persian Love tradition is a traditional interpretation of existence, life and love in Iran. ... The cinema of Iran (or Persian cinema) is a flourishing film industry with a long history. ... The Golha (Persian: ‎ ​,) radio programmes (Flowers of Persian Song and Poetry) comprise 1578 radio programmes consisting of approximately 847 hours of programmes broadcast over a period of 23 years – from 1956 through 1979. ...

Further reading

  • Aryanpur, Manoochehr. A History of Persian Literature. Tehran: Kayhan Press, 1973
  • Clawson, Patrick. Eternal Iran. Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6.
  • Browne, E.G.. Literary History of Persia. [3] 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X
  • Browne, Edward G.. Islamic Medicine. 2002. ISBN 81-87570-19-9
  • Rypka, Jan. History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company, 1968. OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1
  • ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn Zarrīnʹkūb (1379 (2000)). Dū qarn-i sukūt : sarguz̲asht-i ḥavādis̲ va awz̤āʻ-i tārīkhī dar dū qarn-i avval-i Islām (Two Centuries of Silence). Tihrān: Sukhan. OCLC 46632917 ISBN 964-5983-33-6. 
  • Tikku, G.L. Persian Poetry in Kashmir. 1971. ISBN 0-520-09312-7
  • Walker, Benjamin. Persian Pageant: A Cultural History of Iran. Calcutta: Arya Press, 1950.

Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Benjamin Walker (November 25, 1913) is the truncated pen name of George Benjamin Walker, who also writes under the pseudonym Jivan Bhakar. ...

External links

In English

  • The Packard Humanities Institute: Persian Texts in Translation
  • More on Persian literature
  • Another portal on Persian Literature
  • "Persian undercurrent in Islamic civilization"
  • The Persian Novel
  • The Persian Short Story
  • Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam in e-book format
  • Forough Farrokhzad Poetry in English

In Persian

  • Sokhan - Persian Books and Literature
  • Fal e Hafez - Complete database of Hafez poems and Fals.
  • Iran and Persian language in the western world
  • National Committee for the Expansion of the Persian Language and Literature (شورای گسترش زبان و ادبيات فارسی)
  • Modern Persian poetry essay by Khosro Naghed.
  • Raha - World independent writers' home
  • Ghabil - Persian literature Magazine
  • Persopedia - Comprehensive Persian Literature Reference
  • More Persian books
edit Persian literature series
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  Results from FactBites:
 
JewishEncyclopedia.com - JUDÆO-PERSIAN LITERATURE: (5905 words)
At the present stage of research it is not possible to arrange the literature of the Jews written in Persian but in Hebrew characters either in chronological or even in geographical order, because the origin of the manuscripts does not always show the origin of the works they contain.
A dream-book in Persian, a translation by Simeon Ḥakam of Nathan Amram's "Sefer ha-Aḥlama." (a compilation from the "Pitron Ḥalomot" and from the "Mefashsher Ḥelmin" of Solomon Almoli), was published in Jerusalem in 1901.
The literature of this kind contained in the manuscripts is still too little known for it to be possible to give an enumeration of the religious poetry of the Persian Jews that does not rest on a Hebrew basis.
A Brief History of Persian Literature (2568 words)
The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts).
In India, Persian language and poetry became the vogue with the ruling classes, and at the court of the Moghul emperor Akbar Persian was adopted as the official language; spreading thence and fusing later with Hindi, it gave rise to the Urdu tongue.
Though existing fragments of Persian verse are believed to date from as early as the eighth century CE, the history of Persian literature proper begins with the lesser dynasties of the ninth and tenth centuries that emerged with the decline of the Caliphate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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