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Encyclopedia > Persian empire
See also: History of Iran
History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
Pre-modern
Modern

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The Persian Empire (Persian: امپراتوری ایران) was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. Persia may refer to the following: Persia is the Western historical name for Iran. ... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... BCE redirects here. ... Zayandeh River Civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is supposed to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 5th millennium BC.[1] During the 2006 excavations, the Iranian archaeologists uncovered some artifacts that they linked to those from Sialk and Marvdasht. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... Bowl depicting scorpions. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Linear-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Mede nobility. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... BCE redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Mirwais Khan Hotak, an Afghan of ethnic Tatar[1] [2]and chief of the Ghilzai clan of Kandahar province in modern-day Afghanistan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Anthem بحريننا Bahrainona Our Bahrain Capital (and largest city) Manama Official languages Arabic Government Constitutional Monarchy  -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah  -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah Independence from UK   -  Date 15 August 1971  Area  -  Total 665 km² (189th) 253 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0 Population  -  2007 estimate 708,573... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... edit The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: - or دودمان قاجار) was a ruling Persian dynasty[1] of Turkic descent[2], that ruled Iran (Persia) from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


The most widespread entity considered to have been a Persian Empire was the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC) under Darius and Xerxes (or Xerkes) — famous in antiquity as the foe of the classical Greek states (See Greco-Persian Wars) — a united Persian kingdom that originated in the region now known as Pars province (Fars province) of Iran. Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


It was formed under Alexander the Great, who overthrew the empire of the Medes, and conquered much of the middle east, including the territories of the Babylonians, Assyrians, the Phoenicians, and the Lydians,Cambyses. He continued his conquests by conquering Egypt. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Mede nobility. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... See 110 Lydia for the asteroid. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ...


Most of the successive states in Greater Iran prior to March 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to...


Virtually all the successor empires of Persia were major regional and some major international powers in their day. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism Power in international relations is defined in several different ways. ...

Contents

Significance of history of Persia

The role of Persia (Iran) in history is highly significant; In fact, the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel considered the ancient Persians to be the first historic people and stated thus: "In Persia first arises that light which shines itself and illuminates what is around...The principle of development begins with the history of Persia; this constitutes therefore the beginning of history".[1] Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ...


And Richard Nelson Frye further verifies: Richard Nelson Frye (c. ...

"Few nations in the world present more of a justification for the study of history than Iran."[2]

History

Median Empire

Main article: Medes
Median Empire

728 BC – 559 BC
Location of Media
Median Empire, ca. 600 BC
Capital Ecbatana
Religion Zoroastrianism, possibly also Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Government Monarchy
Historical era Classical Antiquity
 - Deioces 728 BC
 -  Cyrus the Great 559 BC

In the 8th century BC, the Medes gained their independence and were united by a dynasty. The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persians, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the shah of Media. The Median capital was Ecbatana, the modern day Iranian city of Hamedan. Ectbatana was preserved as one of the capital cities of the Achaemenid Empire, which succeeded the Median Empire. Mede nobility. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Image File history File links Median-empire-600BCE.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Medes User:Electionworld/Atlas:Iran ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Proto-Indo-Iranian religion is the term for the religion and beliefs of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, that is, the common predecessor of the various Indo-Iranian peoples. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


According to Herodotus, the conquests of Cyaxares the Mede were preceded by a Scythian invasion and domination lasting twenty-eight years (under Madius the Scythian, 653-625 BC). The Mede tribes seem to have come into immediate conflict with a settled state to the West known as Mannae, allied with Assyria. Assyrian inscriptions state that the early Mede rulers, who had attempted rebellions against the Assyrians in the time of Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal, were allied with chieftains of the Ashguza (Scythians) and other tribes - who had come from the northern shore of the Black Sea and invaded Armenia and Asia Minor; and Jeremiah and Zephaniah in the Old Testament agree with Herodotus that a massive invasion of Syria and Philistia by northern barbarians took place in 626 BC. The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC. The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ...


In 612 BC, Cyaxares conquered Urartu, and with the alliance of Nabopolassar the Chaldean, succeeded in destroying the Assyrian capital, Nineveh; and by 606 BC, the remaining vestiges of Assyrian control. From then on, the Mede king ruled over much of Iran, Assyria and northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and Cappadocia. His power was very dangerous to his neighbors, and the exiled Jews expected the destruction of Babylonia by the Medes (Isaiah 13, 14m 21; Jerem. 1, 51.). Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Nabopolassar (Akkadian:Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (626-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


When Cyaxares attacked Lydia, the kings of Cilicia and Babylon intervened and negotiated a peace in 585 BC, whereby the Halys was established as the Medes' frontier with Lydia. Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon married a daughter of Cyaxares, and an equilibrium of the great powers was maintained until the rise of the Persians under Cyrus. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... In the Aeneid, Halys is a Trojan who defends Aeneas camp from a Rutullian attack. ... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 B.C.E), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king...


Median Kings were:

Modern research by a professor of Assyriology, Robert Rollinger, has questioned the Median empire and its sphere of influence, proposing for example that it did not control the Assyrian heartleand.[6] Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... Fravartish or Phraortes (c. ... Madius the Scythian Ruled the Median empire 653-625 BCE Categories: Nobility stubs | Monarchs of Persia ... Hvakhshathra or Cyaxares (r. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ...


Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC)

Main article: Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent.
Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent.

The earliest known record of the Persians comes from an Assyrian inscription from c. 844 BC that calls them the Parsu (Parsuaš, Parsumaš)[7] and mentions them in the region of Lake Urmia alongside another group, the Mādāyu (Medes).[8] For the next two centuries, the Persians and Medes were at times tributary to the Assyrians. The region of Parsuash was annexed by Sargon of Assyria around 719 BC. Eventually the Medes came to rule an independent Median Empire, and the Persians were subject to them. Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1314x635, 133 KB)Persian Empire - Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1314x635, 133 KB)Persian Empire - Used by permission of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ...


The Achaemenids were the first to create a centralized state in Persia, founded by Achaemenes (Haxamaniš), chieftain of the Persians around 700 BC. This article concerns Achaemenes, founder of the first Persian dynasty. ...


Around 653 BC, the Medes came under the domination of the Scythians, and Teispes (Cišpiš), the son of Achaemenes, seems to have led the nomadic Persians to settle in southern Iran around this time — eventually establishing the first organized Persian state in the important region of Anšan as the Elamite kingdom was permanently destroyed by the Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal (640 BC). The kingdom of Anšan and its successors continued to use Elamite as an official language for quite some time after this, although the new dynasts spoke Persian, an Indo-Iranian tongue. The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... <math>Insert formula here</math>Link titleItalic textItalic textItalic textItalic textBold textBold text:For the Chinese city, see Anshan AnÅ¡an or Anzan (Persian انشان AnÅ¡an, modern Tepe Malyan, Tal-e Malyan 29. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian AÅ¡Å¡ur-bāni-apli, (b. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Teispes' descendants may have branched off into two lines, one line ruling in Anshan, while the other ruled the rest of Persia. Cyrus II the Great (Kuruš) united the separate kingdoms around 559 BC. At this time, the Persians were still tributary to the Median Empire ruled by Astyages. Cyrus rallied the Persians together, and in 550 BC defeated the forces of Astyages, who was then captured by his own nobles and turned over to the triumphant Cyrus, now Shah of a unified Persian kingdom. As Persia assumed control over the rest of Media and their large empire, Cyrus led the united Medes and Persians to still more conquest. He took Lydia in Asia Minor, and carried his arms eastward into central Asia. Finally in 539 BC, Cyrus marched triumphantly into the ancient city of Babylon. After this victory, he set the standards of a benevolent conqueror by issuing the Cyrus Cylinder, the first charter of human rights. Cyrus was killed in 530 BC during a battle against the Massagetae or Sakas. Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae Cyrus II the Great (Persian: کوروش کبیر) (about 576 - July, 529 BC) was a king of Persia, famous for his military prowess and mercy. ... Mede nobility. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Massagetae were an Iranian people[1][2][3][4] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ...


Cyrus's son, Cambyses II (Kambūjiya), annexed Egypt to the Achaemenid Empire. The empire then reached its greatest extent under Darius I (Dāryavuš). He led conquering armies into the Indus River valley and into Thrace in Europe. A punitive raid against Greece was halted at the Battle of Marathon. A larger invasion by his son, Xerxes I (Xšayārša), would have initial success at the Battle of Thermopolae. Following the destruction of his navy at the Battle of Salamis, Xerxes would withdraw most of his forces from Greece. The remnant of his army in Greece commanded by General Mardonius was ultimately defeated at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Combatants Greek city-states Achaemenid Persia Commanders Leonidas Xerxes the Great Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians[1] 6,000 other Greek allies1 60,000 to 2. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final...


Darius divided his realm into twenty-three satrapies (provinces) supervised by satraps, or governors, many of whom had personal ties to the Shah. He instituted a systematic tribute to tax each province. He took the advanced postal system of the Assyrians and expanded it. Also taken from the Assyrians was the usage of secret agents of the king, known as the King's Eyes and Ears, keeping him informed. Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A British pillar box The postal system is a system by which written documents typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages containing other matter, are delivered to destinations around the world. ... Secret Agent is a 1936 British film directed by Alfred Hitchcock based on a novel by W. Somerset Maugham. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ...


Darius improved the famous Royal Road and other ancient trade routes, thereby connecting far reaches of the empire. He may have moved the administration center from Fars itself to Susa, near Babylon and closer to the center of the realm. The Persians allowed local cultures to survive, following the precedent set by Cyrus the Great. This was not only good for the empire's subjects, but ultimately benefited the Achaemenids, because the conquered peoples felt no need to revolt. The map of Achaemenid Empire and the Royal Road. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ...

Persian and Median soldiers with Farvahar in center.
Persian and Median soldiers with Farvahar in center.

It may have been during the Achaemenid period that Zoroastrianism reached South-Western Iran, where it came to be accepted by the rulers and through them became a defining element of Persian culture. The religion was not only accompanied by a formalization of the concepts and divinities of the traditional (Indo-)Iranian pantheon, but also introduced several novel ideas, including that of free will, which is arguably Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy. Under the patronage of the Achaemenid kings, and later as the de-facto religion of the state, Zoroastrianism would reach all corners of the empire. In turn, Zoroastrianism would be subject to the first syncretic influences, in particular from the Semitic lands to the west, from which the divinities of the religion would gain astral and planetary aspects and from where the temple cult originates. It was also during the Achaemenid era that the sacerdotal Magi would exert their influence on the religion, introducing many of the practices that are today identified as typically Zoroastrian, but also introducing doctrinal modifications that are today considered to be revocations of the original teachings of the prophet. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1908x1284, 1051 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persepolis User:Arad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1908x1284, 1051 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persepolis User:Arad Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Free Will in Theology is an important part of the debate on free will in general. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ...


The Achaemenid Empire united people and kingdoms from every major civilization in south West Asia and North East Africa.


Hellenistic Persia (330 BC–250 BC)

Main article: Seleucid Empire

The Achaemenid dynasty never managed to conquer Greece, but often supported one side or the other in wars between the individual Greek states. However, the Achaemenid Empire's weakness was exposed to the Greeks in 401 BC, when a rebel prince, Cyrus the Younger, hired 14,000 Greek mercenaries to help secure his claim to the imperial throne (see Xenophon, Anabasis). This demonstrated the military problems of the Achaemenid forces when dealing with an effective phalanx of spearmen. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... For other uses, see Greek (disambiguation). ... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. ...


Philip II of Macedon managed to unify most of Greece under his control, and decided to take advantage of Achaemenid weakness when, after the death of Artaxerxes (Artaxšaçrā) III Ochus in 338 BC, the Persian Empire had no strong leader. On Philip's death in 336 BC, his son and heir Alexander continued the attack on the Empire. He turned out to be one of the most effective generals in history. The Achaemenid monarch, Darius III was an aged man with a reputation for bravery gained in his youth, but in the event was no match for Alexander. The greatest empire of the time collapsed in only eight years. Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Artaxerxes III Ochus ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Alexander landed in Asia Minor in 334 BC. His armies quickly swept through Lydia, Phoenicia, and Egypt, before defeating Darius III at Gaugamela (331 BC) and capturing the capital at Susa. The last Achaemenid resistance was at the "Persian Gates" between Susa and near the royal palace at Persepolis. The Achaemenid Empire was now in Alexander's hands. Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... Persian Gates: ancient name of the pass now known as Tang-e Meyran, north of modern Yasuj in Iran. ... This article is about the ancient city. ...

Eastern Hemisphere, 323 BC.

Along his route of conquest, Alexander founded many colony cities, often named "Alexandria". For the next several centuries, these cities served to greatly extend Greek, or Hellenistic, culture in Persia. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (2880 × 1692 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 470 pixelsFull resolution (2880 × 1692 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


Alexander's empire broke up shortly after his death, and Alexander's general, Seleucus I Nicator, tried to take control of Persia, Mesopotamia, and later Syria and Asia Minor. His ruling family is known as the Seleucid Dynasty. However he was killed in 281 BC by Ptolemy Keraunos before he could conquer Greece and Macedonia. Silver coin of Seleucus. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Ptolemy Keraunos (Ceraunus) (? - 279 BC), King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. He was the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter (ruler of Egypt) and his third wife Eurydice (daughter of Antipater). ...


Greek colonization continued until around 250 BC; Greek language, philosophy, and art came with the colonists. Throughout Alexander's former empire, Greek became the common tongue of diplomacy and literature. Trade with China had begun in Achaemenid times along the so-called Silk Road; but during the Hellenistic period it began in earnest. The overland trade brought about some fascinating cultural exchanges. Buddhism came in from India, while Zoroastrianism traveled west to influence Judaism. Incredible statues of the Buddha in classical Greek styles have been found in Persia and Afghanistan, illustrating the mix of cultures that occurred around this time (See Greco-Buddhism), although it is possible that Greco-Buddhist art dates from Achaemenid times when Greek artists worked for the Persians. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara (Modern Pakistan). ...


Although recently discovered cuneiform evidence (e.g., the Babylonian Chronicles from the Hellenistic Period) show how much continuity there was in the Eastern civilization, it can not be denied that the Seleucid kingdom began to decline after about a century. The eastern provinces of Bactria and Parthia broke off in 238 BC. King Antiochus III's military leadership kept Parthia from overrunning Persia itself, but when he tried to intervene in Greece, his successes alarmed the burgeoning Roman Republic. Roman legions began to attack the kingdom. At the same time, the Seleucids had to contend with the revolt of the Maccabees in Judea and the expansion of the Kushan Empire to the east. The empire fell apart and was conquered by Parthia and Rome. Nabonidus Chronicle, British Museum, London The Babylonian Chronicles are series of tablets recording major events in Babylonian history. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Parthians (250 BC–AD 226)

Main article: Parthia
Parthia.
Parthia.
Metallic statue of a Parthian prince (thought to be Surena), AD 100, kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
Metallic statue of a Parthian prince (thought to be Surena), AD 100, kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

Its rulers, the Arsacid dynasty, belonged to an Iranian tribe that had settled there during the time of Alexander. They declared their independence from the Seleucids in 238 BC, but their attempts to unify Iran were thwarted until after Mithridates I advent to the Parthian throne in about 170 BC. Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (838x1032, 755 KB) Statues thought to represent Surena. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (838x1032, 755 KB) Statues thought to represent Surena. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Parthian-era bronze statue believed to represent General Surena. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... Image:Cerasdery. ...


The Parthian Confederacy shared a border with Rome along the upper Euphrates River. The two polities became major rivals, especially over control of Armenia. Heavily-armoured Parthian cavalry (cataphracts) supported by mounted archers proved a match for Roman legions, as in the Battle of Carrhae in which the Parthian General Surena defeated Marcus Licinius Crassus of Rome. Wars were very frequent, with Mesopotamia serving as the battleground. Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53... Parthian-era bronze statue believed to represent General Surena. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


During the Parthian period, Hellenistic customs partially gave way to a resurgence of Iranian culture. However, the area lacked political unity, and the vassalary structure that the Arsacids had adopted from the Seleucids left the Parthians in a constant state of war with one seceding vassal or the other. By the 1st century BC, Parthia was decentralized, ruled by feudal nobles. Wars with Romans to the west and the Kushan Empire to the northeast drained the country's resources. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


Parthia, now impoverished and without any hope to recover the lost territories, was demoralized. The kings had to give more concessions to the nobility, and the vassal kings sometimes refused to obey. Parthia's last ruler Artabanus IV had an initial success in putting together the crumbling state. However, the fate of the Arsacid Dynasty was doomed when in AD 224, the Persian vassal king Ardashir revolted. Two years later, he took Ctesiphon, and this time, it meant the end of Parthia. It also meant the beginning of the second Persian Empire, ruled by the Sassanid kings. Sassanids were from the province of Persis, native to the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenids. Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (c. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years...


Sassanid Empire (226–651)

Main article: Sassanid Empire
Persia and its neighbors in AD 600.

The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: ساسانیان, pronounced [sɒsɒnijɒn]) is the name used for the fourth imperial Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). The Sassanid dynasty was founded by Ardashir I after defeating the last Parthian (Arsacid) king, Artabanus IV (Persian: اردوان Ardavan) and ended when the last Sassanid Shahanshah (King of Kings), Yazdegerd III (632–651), lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the early Islamic Caliphate, the first of the Islamic empires. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Image File history File links Sassanid-empire-610CE.png‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran Persian Empire Zurvanism Talk:Sassanid Empire Fall of Sassanids Template:Sassanid Empire infobox Sassanid Empire ... Image File history File links Sassanid-empire-610CE.png‎ Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Iran Persian Empire Zurvanism Talk:Sassanid Empire Fall of Sassanids Template:Sassanid Empire infobox Sassanid Empire ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Farsi redirects here. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (c. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Ardashir I led a rebellion against the Parthian Confederacy in an attempt to revive the glory of the previous empire and to legitimize the Hellenized form of Zoroastrianism practised in southwestern Iran. In two years he was the Shah of a new Persian Empire. Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...


The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian, named for Ardashir's grandfather) was the first dynasty native to the Pars province since the Achaemenids; thus they saw themselves as the successors of Darius and Cyrus. They pursued an aggressive expansionist policy. They recovered much of the eastern lands that the Kushans had taken in the Parthian period. The Sassanids continued to make war against Rome; a Persian army even captured the Roman Emperor Valerian in 260. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Publius Licinius Valerianus[1] (c. ...


The Sassanid Empire, unlike Parthia, was a highly centralized state. Brain Wajda, the captain of the King's Guard and Supreme Commander of the Persian Army, held the people in order. The people were rigidly organized into a caste system: Priests, Soldiers, Scribes, and Commoners. Zoroastrianism was finally made the official state religion, and spread outside Persia proper and out into the provinces. There was sporadic persecution of other religions. The Eastern Orthodox Church was particularly persecuted, but this was in part due to its ties to the Roman Empire. The Nestorian Christian church was tolerated and sometimes even favored by the Sassanids. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East...


The wars and religious control that had fueled the Sassanid Empire's early successes eventually contributed to its decline. The eastern regions were conquered by the White Huns in the late 5th century. Adherents of a radical religious sect, the Mazdakites, revolted around the same time. Khosrau I was able to recover his empire and expand into the Christian countries of Antioch and Yemen. Between 605 and 629, Sassanids successfully annexed Levant and Roman Egypt and pushed into Anatolia. The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A coin of Khosrau I Khosrau I, (Most commonly known as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I of Persia (488–531), and the most famous and... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for the next 900 years. ...


However, a subsequent war with the Romans utterly destroyed the empire. In the course of the protracted conflict, Sassinid armies reached Constantinople, but could not defeat the Byzantines there. Meanwhile, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius had successfully outflanked the Persian armies in Asia Minor and attacked the empire from the rear while the main Iranian army along with its top Eran Spahbods were far from battlefields. This resulted in a crushing defeat for Sassanids in Northern Mesopotamia. The Sassanids had to give up all their conquered lands and retreat. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... Spahbod (Persian:سپهبد is consisted of two words: Spah سپه (army) bod بد (master) ) was a rank used in the Parthian empire and more widely in Sassanid dynasty of Persia (Iran). ...


Following the advent of Islam and collapse of Sassanid Empire, Persians came under the subjection of Arab rulers for almost two centuries before native Persian dynasties could gradually drive them out. In this period a number of small and numerically inferior Arab tribes migrated to inland Iran. [9] The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...


Also some Turkic tribes settled in Persia between the 9th and 12th centuries.[10] This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


In time these peoples were integrated into numerous Persian populations and adopted Persian culture and language while Persians retained their culture with minimal influence from outside.[11] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Acceptance of Islam by Persians

The explosive growth of the Arab Caliphate coincided with the chaos caused by the defeat of Sassanids in wars with the Byzantine Empire. Most of the country was conquered between 643 and 650. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Yazdgerd III, the last Sassanid emperor, died ten years after he lost his empire to the newly-formed Muslim Caliphate. He tried to recover some of what he lost with the help of the Turks, but they were easily defeated by Muslim armies. Then he sought the aid of the Chinese Tang dynasty. However, the Chinese help did not avail and Arab muslims ultimately defeated the Chinese forces in the battle of Talas, a century after Yazdgerd's death. The Umayyads would rule Persia for a hundred years. The Arab conquest dramatically changed life in Persia. Arabic became the new lingua franca, Islam eventually replaced Zoroastrianism, and mosques were built. A new language, religion, and culture were added to the Iranian cultural milieu. Yazdgerd III (Persian: یزدگرد سوم, made by God), last king of Sassanid dynasty, a grandson of Khosrau II (590–628), who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II of Persia in 628, and was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Gokturks or Kokturks (Gök-Turks or Kök-Turks, with the meaning Celestial Turks), known as Tujue (突厥 tu2 jue2) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552 under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (died 552) and his sons, and expanded rapidly to rule... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... Yazdgerd III (Persian: یزدگرد سوم, made by God), last king of Sassanid dynasty, a grandson of Khosrau II (590–628), who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II of Persia in 628, and was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


In 750 the Umayyads were ousted from power by the Abbasid dynasty. By that time, Persians had come to play an important role in the bureaucracy of the empire [12]. The caliph Al-Ma'mun, whose mother was Persian, moved his capital away from Arab lands into Merv in eastern Iran. In 819, Samanids carved out a semi-independent state in eastern Persia to become the first native rulers after the Arabic conquest. They made Samarqand, Bukhara and Herat their capitals and revived the Persian language and culture. Zoroastrian clerics compiled and authored major religious texts, such as the Denkard, in Pahlavi. It was approximately during this age, when the poet Firdawsi finished the Shahnameh, an epic poem retelling the history of the Iranian kings. This epic was completed by AD 1008. Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of the Samarkand region (Samarqand Wiloyati). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdawsÄ« ṬūsÄ« (Persian: ‎ ) (more commonly transliterated Ferdowsi-ye Tusi, also known as Firdawsi, Firdausi, Firdousi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is perhaps the most revered Persian poet. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...

Persia in AD 900 AD, divided between the Samanids, Saffarids, and Abbasids.

In 913, western Persia was conquered by the Buwayhid, a Deylamite tribal confederation from the shores of the Caspian Sea. They made the city of Shiraz their capital. The Buwayhids destroyed Islam's former territorial unity. Rather than a province of a united Muslim empire, Iran became one nation in an increasingly diverse and cultured Islamic world. The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...


Turco-Persian rule (1037–1219)

Main article: Seljuq dynasty

The Muslim world was shaken again in 1037 with the invasion of the Seljuk Turks from the northeast. The Seljuks created a very large Middle Eastern empire. The Seljuks built the fabulous Friday Mosque in the city of Isfahan. The famous Persian mathematician and poet, Omar Khayyám, wrote his Rubaiyat during Seljuk times. This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


In the early 13th century the Seljuks lost control of Persia to another group of Turks from Khwarezmia, near the Aral Sea. The Shahs of the Khwarezmid Empire later ruled. Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ...


Mongols and their successors (1219–1500)

Main articles: Ilkhanate and Timurid dynasty
Mosques with Persian names and designs in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and India illustrate just how far east Persian culture extended due to their conquests. The actual architectural domed design of Mosques were borrowed from the Sassanid era, which then spilled into the Muslim world.
Mosques with Persian names and designs in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and India illustrate just how far east Persian culture extended due to their conquests. The actual architectural domed design of Mosques were borrowed from the Sassanid era, which then spilled into the Muslim world.

In 1218, Genghis Khan sent ambassadors and merchants to the city of Otrar, on the northeastern confines of the Khwarizm shahdom. The governor of Otrar had these envoys executed. Genghis attacked Otrar in 1219, Samarkand and other cities of the northeast. Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated Gurkānī (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Image File history File linksMetadata Registan_sunset. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Registan_sunset. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... This article is about the person. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Genghis' grandson, Hulagu Khan, finished the invasions that Genghis had begun when he defeated Khwarzim Empire, Baghdad, and much of the rest of the Middle East from 1255 to 1258. Persia temporarily became the Ilkhanate, a division of the vast Mongol Empire. Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ...


In 1295, after Ilkhan Mahmud Ghazan converted to Islam, he renounced all allegiance to the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China who had recently succeeded his grandfather Kublai Khan as Great Khan. The Ilkhans patronized the arts and learning in the fine tradition of Iranian Islam; indeed, they helped to repair much of the damage of the Mongol conquests. Mahmud Ghazan (original Mongol name: Ghazan Khan, b. ... Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China was the second leader of the Yuan Dynasty to rule as Emperor of China and did so between 1294 and 1307. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ...


In 1335, the death of Abu Sa'id, the last well-recognized Ilkhan, spelled the end of the Ilkhanate. Though Arpa Ke'un was declared Ilkhan his authority was disputed and the Ilkhanate was splintered into a number of small states. This left Persia vulnerable to conquest at the hands of Timur the Lame or Tamerlane, a Central Asian conqueror seeking to revive the Mongol Empire. He ordered the attack of Persia beginning around 1370 and robbed the region until his death in 1405. Timur is known for his brutality; in Isfahan, for instance, he was responsible for the murder of 70,000 people so that he could build towers with their skulls[citation needed]. He conquered a wide area and made his own city of Samarkand rich, but he made no effort to forge a lasting empire. The Persian Empire was essentially in ruins. Abu Said (1316 - 1335; also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder), was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran. ... Arpa Keun (d. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...


For the next hundred years Persia was not a unified state. It was ruled for a while by descendants of Timur, called the Timurid emirs. Toward the end of the 15th century, Persia was taken over by the Emirate of the White Sheep Turkmen (Ak Koyunlu). But there was little unity and none of the sophistication that had defined Iran during the glory days of Islam. Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Ağqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ...


Safavid Persian Dynasty (1500–1722)

Main article: Safavid Dynasty
Naghsh-i Jahan Square is one of the many monuments built during the Safavid era.
Naghsh-i Jahan Square is one of the many monuments built during the Safavid era.
Persian art and architecture reached an apex during the reign of the Safavid dynasty.
Persian art and architecture reached an apex during the reign of the Safavid dynasty.

The Safavid Dynasty hailed from the town of Ardabil in the region of Azarbaijan. The Safavid Shah Ismail I overthrew the White Sheep (Akkoyunlu) Turkish rulers of Persia to found a new native Persian empire. Ismail expanded Persia to include all of present-day Azerbaijan, Iran, and Iraq, plus much of Afghanistan. Ismail's expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and war with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Iran. Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2096x1470, 1112 KB) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persian Empire Safavid dynasty Isfahan Naghsh-i Jahan Square User:Azerbaijani User:Arad List of city... Naghsh-i Jahan (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان ), also known as shah or imam square (maidan in Farsi), situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran, is one of the largest city squares in the world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ali_Qapu_night. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ali_Qapu_night. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Battle of Chaldiran was a military conflict that occurred on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive military victory of the Ottoman Empire over the Safavids. ...


Safavid Persia was a violent and chaotic state for the next seventy years, but in 1588 Shah Abbas I of Safavid ascended to the throne and instituted a cultural and political renaissance. He moved his capital to Isfahan, which quickly became one of the most important cultural centers in the Islamic world. He made peace with the Ottomans. He reformed the army, drove the Uzbeks out of Iran and into modern-day Uzbekistan, and (with English help) recaptured the island of Hormuz from the Portuguese. Abdur Razzaq was the Persian ambassador to Calicut, India, and wrote vividly of his experiences there.[13] Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... Abdur Razzaq (15th century CE) was an ambassador from Persia to Calicut during the Vijayanagara empire. ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ...


The Safavids were followers of Shi'a Islam, and under them Persia (Iran) became the largest Shi'a country in the Muslim world, a position Iran still holds today. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Under the Safavids Persia enjoyed its last period as a major imperial power. In 1639, a final border was agreed upon with the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin; which delineates the border between the Republic of Turkey and Iran and also that of between Iraq and Iran, today.


Persia and Europe (1722–1914)

An 18th century Persian astrolabe. Throughout the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of ancient Greeks were furthered and preserved within the Muslim world. During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century.
An 18th century Persian astrolabe. Throughout the Middle Ages, the natural philosophy and mathematics of ancient Greeks were furthered and preserved within the Muslim world. During this period, Persia became a centre for the manufacture of scientific instruments, retaining its reputation for quality well into the 19th century.

In 1722, the Safavid state collapsed. That year saw the first European invasion of Persia since the time of Heraclius: Peter the Great, Emperor of Imperial Russia, invaded from the northwest as part of a bid to dominate central Asia. Ottoman forces accompanied the Russians, successfully laying siege to Isfahan. Download high resolution version (1061x972, 333 KB)An 18th Century Persian astrolabe - maker unknown. ... Download high resolution version (1061x972, 333 KB)An 18th Century Persian astrolabe - maker unknown. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea In physics and engineering, measurement is the activity of comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


The Russians conquered the city of Baku and its surroundings. The Turks also gained territory. However, the Safavids were severely weakened, and that same year (1722), the Afghans launched a bloody battle in response to the Safavids' attempts on trying to forcefully convert them from Sunni to Shi'a sect of Islam. The last Safavid shah was executed, and the dynasty came to an end. The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


The Persian empire experienced a temporary revival under Nader Shah in the 1730s and 1740s. Nadir checked the advances of the Russians and forced the Afghans to withdraw to their present borders. He also launched successful campaigns against Persia's old enemies, the nomadic khanates of Central Asia. In 1739, he attacked and looted Delhi, the capital of Moghul India. When Nadir Shah was assassinated by his loyal Qizilbash, his loyal Afghan general Ahmad Shah Abdali, who is also a famous poet of Pashto language, controlled most of Nadir Shah's Kingdom. However, Ahmad Shah's successors could not keep the empire intact and lost most of the western parts of Persia to Zand dynasty. Iran was left unprepared for the worldwide expansion of European colonial empires in the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century. Nāder Shāh Afshār (Persian: ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 6, 1698[1] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Ahmad Shah AbdālÄ« (c. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... This is a list of former European colonies. ...


Persia found relative stability in the Qajar dynasty, ruling from 1779 to 1925, but lost hope to compete with the new industrial powers of Europe; Persia found itself sandwiched between the growing Russian Empire in Central Asia and the expanding British Empire in India. Each carved out pieces from the Persian empire that became Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Georgia and Uzbekistan amongst other previous provinces. edit The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: - or دودمان قاجار) was a ruling Persian dynasty[1] of Turkic descent[2], that ruled Iran (Persia) from 1781 to 1925. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Although Persia was never directly invaded, it gradually became economically dependent on Europe. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 formalised Russian and British spheres of influence over the north and south of the country, respectively, where Britain and Russia each created a "sphere of influence", where the colonial power had the final "say" on economic matters. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The blue areas of Persia were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ...


At the same time Mozzafar-al-Din shah had granted a concession to William Knox D'Arcy, later the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, to explore and work the newly-discovered oil fields at Masjid Soleiman in southwest Persia, which started production in 1914. Winston Churchill, as First Sea Lord to the British Admiralty, oversaw the conversion of the Royal Navy to oil-fired battleships and partially nationalized it prior to the start of war. A small Anglo-Persian force was garrisoned there to protect the field from some hostile tribal factions. Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (1853 - 1907) was the Shah of Persia between 1896 and 1907. ... The entrepreneur William Knox DArcy (October 11, 1849 - May 1, 1917) was one of the main founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran). ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Sir Jonathon Band, the current First Sea Lord The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...

See also: The Great Game

Central Asia, circa 1848. ...

World War I and the interbellum (1914–1935)

Eram Garden, built in the Qajar era is an example of Persian architecture of that time.
Eram Garden, built in the Qajar era is an example of Persian architecture of that time.

Persia was drawn into the periphery of World War I because of its strategic position between Afghanistan and the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. In 1914 Britain sent a military force to Mesopotamia to deny the Ottomans access to the Persian oilfields. The German Empire retaliated on behalf of its ally by spreading a rumour that Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany had converted to Islam, and sent agents through Iran to attack the oil fields and raise a Jihad against British rule in India. Most of those German agents were captured by Persian, British and Russian troops who were sent to patrol the Afghan border, and the rebellion faded away. This was followed by a German attempt, to abduct Ahmad Shah Qajar. This was foiled at the last moment. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 675 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1075 × 955 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Based on public domain Image:Baghe_Eram_. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 675 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1075 × 955 pixel, file size: 502 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Based on public domain Image:Baghe_Eram_. ... The main facade of the building illustrates a fine example of Qajari architecture. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Photographic portrait of Ahmad Shah Qajar (l) and his brother Mohammad Hassan Mirza (r) Ahmad Shah Qajar (احمد شاه قاجار in Persian) ‎(January 21, 1898 - 21 February 1930) was Shah of Persia from July 16, 1909 to October 31, 1925. ...


In 1916 the fighting between Russian and Ottoman forces to the north of the country had spilled down into Persia; Russia gained the advantage until most of her armies collapsed in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This left the Caucasus unprotected, and the Caucasian and Persian civilians starving after years of war and deprivation. In 1918 a small force of 400 British troops under General Dunsterville moved into the Trans-Caucasus from Persia in a bid to encourage local resistance to German and Ottoman armies who were about to invade the Baku oilfields. Although they later withdrew back into Persia, they did succeed in delaying the Turks access to the oil almost until the Armistice. In addition, the expedition’s supplies were used to avert a major famine in the region, and a camp for 30,000 displaced refugees was created near the Mesopotamian frontier. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... General Lionel Charles Dunsterville lead the so-called Dunsterforce across present-day Iran in an attempt to prevent an invasion of India by a combined Germano-Turkish force. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...


In 1919, northern Persia was occupied by the British General William Edmund Ironside to enforce the Turkish Armistice conditions and assist General Dunsterville and Colonel Bicherakhov contain Bolshevik influence (of Mirza Kuchak Khan) in the north. Britain also took tighter control over the increasingly lucrative oil fields. Field Marshal William Edmund Ironside Field Marshal William Edmund Ironside. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Mirza Kuchek Khan before starting the rebellion (around 1914). ...


In 1925, Reza Shah Pahlavi seized power from the Qajars and established the new Pahlavi dynasty, the last Persian monarchy before the establishment of the Islamic Republic. However, Britain and the Soviet Union remained the influential powers in Persia into the early years of the Cold War. Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


On March 21, 1935, Iran was officially accepted as the new name of the country. After Persian scholars' protests to this decision on the grounds that it represented a break with their classical past and seemed to be unduly influenced by the "Aryan" propaganda from Nazi Germany. In 1953 Mohammad Reza Shah announced both names "Iran" and "Persia" could be used. is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Timeline

Persia in fiction

The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night, 1001 Arabian Nights, or simply the Arabian Nights, is a piece of classic Arabic literature in... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Accolade by British painter Edmund Blair Leighton exhibits an idealized view of history common in historical fantasy. ... The Dragon of the Ishtar Gate by L. Sprague de Camp, Doubleday, 1961 The Dragon of the Ishtar Gate is an historical novel by L. Sprague de Camp, first published in hardcover by Doubleday in 1961, and in paperback by Lancer Books in 1968. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... Creation is an epic historical fiction novel by Gore Vidal which was published in 1981. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Prince of Nothing is a series of fantasy books by the Canadian author Scott Bakker detailing the emergence of Anasurimbor Kellhus. ... R. Scott Bakker is a Canadian fantasy author. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Gates of Fire is a 1998 novel by Steven Pressfield that recounts the Battle of Thermopylae through Xeones, a Spartan squire and the lone survivor of the battle. ... Steven Pressfield is an American author, predominatedly of military historical fiction set in classical antiquity. ... This article is about Frank Miller, the comic book writer and artist. ... Mary Renault (pronounced Ren-olt[1]) (4 September 1905 – 13 December 1983) born Mary Challans, was an English writer best known for her historical novels set in Ancient Greece. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mary Renault. ... Bagoas (in Old Persian Bagoi) was an eunuch in the Persian Empire in the 4th Century BCE. He was reportedly the lover of Darius III and after Darius death, of Alexander the Great. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... This story (published in The Magic Carpet Magazine, January 1934) is a relatively unknown piece of fiction by Robert E. Howard, which is somewhat surprising, considering its eventual impact on popular culture. ... Red Sonja #1 with art by John Cassaday and José Villarrubia Red Sonja, warrior woman out of majestic Hyrkania, is a fantasy sword and sorcery heroine created by Roy Thomas and Barry Smith and first appearing in Conan the Barbarian #23 (Marvel Comics). ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Oriental Stories, later retitled The Magic Carpet Magazine, was a pulp magazine of 1930-34, an offshoot of the famous Weird Tales. ... Paul C. Doherty (1946) is a British writer, with a doctorate in history from Oxford, who writes historical mysteries and novels under the pennames Anna Apostolou, Michael Clynes, Ann Dukthas, C. L. Grace, Paul Harding, and Mollie Hardwick. ... Tommy Tenney (b. ... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ), born 25 February 1949 in Beirut, is a Lebanese author. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Belisarius Series is a epic saga of heroic scope with a protagonist modeled on the real historical figure of the Byzantine general Flavius Belisarius (505–565 AD), who was certainly one of the best generals of Byzantium and arguably one of histories greatest generals. ... David Drake David Drake (born September 24, 1945) is a successful author of science fiction and fantasy literature. ... Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction and fantasy author and editor. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... This article is about Frank Miller, the comic book writer and artist. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... 300 is a historically-inspired comic book limited series (later collected into a single hardcover volume) written and illustrated by Frank Miller with painted colors by Lynn Varley. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... Howard Lee is the name of: Howard Nathaniel Lee (born July 28, 1934), North Carolina politician. ...

See also

After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... Fars Province landscape The Iranian landscape is predominantly mountainous, with high contrasting green oases. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Persianization or Persianisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Persian (or Iranian) is made to become Persian (or Iranian) It is commonly used in connection with Kurds, Arabs, as well as various Turkic peoples. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi. ... There are and were a very large number of monarchies in the world. ... Numerous cities served as the capital of Persia (Iran) during the course of history: Persepolis, ancient capital of Persia Hamedan Baghdad Tabriz Bukhara Neishapur Esfahan Shiraz (1750–79) Tehran (1779-now) Capitals of China Category: ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wildlife of Iran includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats. ...

References

  • Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: A Neglected Source for the History of Early Persia," Topoi
  • Abdolhossein Zarinkoob, Ruzgaran: tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi Sukhan, 1999. ISBN 964-6961-11-8
  • Ali Akbar Sarfaraz, Bahman Firuzmandi Mad, Hakhamanishi, Ashkani, Sasani, Marlik, 1996. ISBN 964-90495-1-7
  • Daniel, Elton, The History of Iran, Greenwood Press, 2001
  • Iran Chamber Society (History of Iran)

Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, prominent historian of Persian literature. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Georg Hegel in The Philosophy of History, (trans.) J. Sibree, Buffalo, 1991, p.173
  2. ^ Richard Nelson Frye in The Golden Age of Persia.
  3. ^ R. Schmitt, DEIOCES in Encyclopedia Iranica [1]
  4. ^ I.M. Diakonoff, “Media” in Cambridge History of Iran 2
  5. ^ I.M. Diakonoff, “Media” in Cambridge History of Iran 2
  6. ^ On some problems concerning the Western expansion of the Median ,,empire"
  7. ^ Hammond, N. G. L.; M. Ostwald (1988-11-24). The Cambridge Ancient History Set: The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, c.525-479 BC: Persia, Greece and ... C.525-479 B.C. Ed.J.Boardman, Etc v. 4, John Boardman, D. M. Lewis (eds.), 2, Cambridge University Press, 15. ISBN 0521228042. 
  8. ^ Parpola, Simo. Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today (PDF) (English). Assyriology 3. Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. “Ethnonyms like Arbāyu "Arab", Mādāyu "Mede", Muşurāyu "Egyptian", and Urarţāyu "Urartian" are from the late eighth century on frequently borne by fully Assyrianized, affluent individuals in high positions.”
  9. ^ Zarinkoob, pp. 355-357
  10. ^ Zarinkoob, pp. 461, 519
  11. ^ Zarinkoob, p. 899
  12. ^ ISBN 1-84212-011-5
  13. ^ European Domination of the Indian Ocean Trade. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ... Simo Parpola is professor of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies is an academic journal published by various Assyriologists and other academics, focusing on the history of the Assyrian people. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bailey, Harold (ed.) The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University Press 1993, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-45148-5
  • Wiesehofer, Josef: Ancient Persia
  • J. E Curtis and N. Tallis: Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia
  • Pierre Briant: From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire
  • Richard N. Frye: The Heritage of Persia
  • A.T. Olmstead: History of the Persian Empire
  • Lindsay Allen: The Persian Empire
  • J.M. Cook: The Persian Empire
  • Tom Holland: Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West
  • Amini Sam: Pictorial History of Iran: Ancient Persia Before Islam 15000 B.C.-625 A.D.
  • Timelife Persians: Masters of the Empire (Lost Civilizations)
  • Houchang Nahavandi, The Last Shah of Iran - Fatal Countdown of a Great Patriot betrayed by the Free World, a Great Country whose fault was Success, Aquilion, 2005, ISBN 1-904997-03-1

Sir Harold Walter Bailey (December 16, 1899 - January 11, 1996), who published as H. W. Bailey, was an eminent English scholar of Khotanese, Sanskrit, and the comparative study of Iranian languages. ... Pierre Briant (Angers, September 30, 1940) is a French Iranologist, Professor of History and Civilisation of the Achaemenid World and the Empire of Alexander the Great at the Collège de France (1999 onwards), Doctor Honoris Causa at the University of Chicago, and founder of the website Achemenet. ...

External links

  • Persia
  • In Search of Cyrus the Great: Spenta Productions - a Documentary Movie about Cyrus the Great
  • Persepolis Recreated - Reconstruction of Persepolis MOVIE DOCUMENTARY
  • Iran’s Cultural Heritage News Agency (CHN)
  • The History of the Ancient Near East
  • Persia, by S.G.W. Benjamin, 1891
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: Persia
  • PersianDNA History of the Great Persian Empire and the Ancient Zoroastrian Religion.
  • Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Documentation Center (Persian)
  • Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Technical Office for Preservation and Restoration (Persian)
  • Iran Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Relics
  • Iran Cultural Heritage News Agency (Recommended)
  • Persepolis Fortification Archive Project
  • Persepolis Official website
  • Persians Are Not Arabs
  • Oriental Institute Photographic Archives (Nearly 1,000 archaeological photographs of Persepolis and Ancient Persia)
  • Publication of Old Maps of Persia (Iran) in The Netherlands
  • Iran Cultural, Natural and Historical Attractions
  • Persian Wars, Herodotus on the Web.


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