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Encyclopedia > Persian architecture
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The There are currently seven Baháí Houses of Worship around the world, although Baháí communities own many properties where they plan for Houses of Worship to be constructed as the Baháí community grows and develops. ...Bahá'í House of Worship by Fariborz Sahba, also known as the Lotus Temple. A fine example of the manifestation of Persian aesthetics in modern Architecture.
Contents

Pre-Islamic Architecture of Iran

Taq-i-Kasra (translated as The vault of Caeser), Ctesiphon, Persian empire. ...
Taq-i-Kasra (translated as The vault of Caeser), Ctesiphon, Persian empire. ... Enlarge
Taq-i-Kasra. Built during the Persian empire of the Sassanide dynasty. One of the largest, if not the largest vault of antiquity.

Architecture (in Greek αρχή = first and τέχνη = craftsmanship) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...Architecture is one of the fields in which Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iranians have had a leading role. According to evidence, the history of architecture and urban planning in Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran dates back at least to 10 thousand years ago. Iranians were the first to use mathematics, geometry, and astronomy in architecture. Tepe The remains of the Sialk ziggurat in Kashan, Iran. ...Sialk, an important A zig·gu·rat (zĭg`ə_răt) is a temple tower of the ancient Mesopotamian valley and Persia, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding storeys. ...ziggurat near Tabatabaei House, early 1800s , Iran. ...Kashan, built 7000 years ago, represents one such prehistoric site in Iran whose inhabitants were the initiators of a simple and rudimentary housing technique.


Iranian architecture left a profound influence on the architecture of old civilizations. Professor Arthur Pope wrote: "Architecture in Iran has at least 6,000 years of continuous history, examples of which can be seen from Syria to north India and Chinese borders, and from Caucasus to Zanzibar."


It is not surprising that Iran ranks among the top 10 nations with the most Architectural ruins from antiquity. Iran is recognized by UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ...UNESCO as being one of the The 19th_century evangelical Protestants who invented the term Cradle of Humanity made generalized but undocumented claims that the term originated in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century, and that it was used by early Arab Christians to refer to a geographic area that falls within a 1,000 mile radius...cradles of civilization.


The scope and width of Architecture in pre_Islamic Iran is so vast that it merits its own separate discussion. Each of the periods of Elamites, Achaemenids, Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh_abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...Parthians, and Sassanians were creators of great architecture that over the ages has spread wide and far to other cultures.


The ruins of This article needs cleanup. ...Persepolis, Taq_i_Kasra, Ctesiphon, today. ...Ctesiphon, Jiroft  (http://www.payvand.com/news/05/jan/1290.html), The remains of the Sialk ziggurat in Kashan, Iran. ...Sialk, Categories: Archaeology stubs | Archaeological sites in Iran | World Heritage Sites in Iran ...Pasargadae, Firouzabad, Arg e Bam, before the 2003 earthquake. ...Arg_é Bam, and hundreds of thousdands of other ruins documented in only what is today Iran may give us only a distant glimpse of what contribution Iranians made to the art of building.


Post_Islamic Architecture of Iran

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Shah's Mosque, Isfahan. Built during the Safavi period, an excellent example of Islamic Architecture in Iran.

The fall of the Persian empire to invading Islamic forces ironically led to the creation of remarkable religious buildings in Iran. Arts such as Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of 1407 AD on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ...calligraphy, stucco work, mirror work, and mosaic work, became closely tied with Architecture (in Greek αρχή = first and τέχνη = craftsmanship) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ...architecture in Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran in the new era. Archaeological excavations have provided sufficient documents in support of the impacts of Sasanian architecture on the architecture of the Islamic world.

Mahan, Kerman, Iran. ...
Mahan, Kerman, Iran. ... Enlarge
Tomb of Shah Nematollah Vali, built in the early 1300s in Mahan, Kerman, Iran.

Many experts belive the period of Iranian architecture from the 15th through 17th Centuries to be the most brilliant of the post-Islamic era. Various structures such as mosques, mausoleums, bazaars, bridges, and different palaces have mainly survived from this period. In the old Iranian architecture, semi-circular and oval-shaped vaults were of great interest, leading Safavi architects to display their extraordinary skills in making massive domes. Yet while the architecture of The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...Ottoman Turks was philosophically intended to illustrate grandeur in scale, that of rival An example of Safavid architecture Safavi is an adjective, created for the name Safi. Translated to English, Safavi would correspond roughly to Safi_ish or Safidian Safavi is the correct Persian Language reference to Safi, the name of Sheikh Safi Al_Din Ardebili. ...Safavi Isfahan or Esfahan can refer to either a city or a province in Iran: Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronounciation of the citys name. ...Isfahan had a more smaller but refined elegence to it. It was the craftsmen of this school in Isfahan that ended up building their ultimate masterpiece, the This article is about the Indian monument. ...Taj Mahal of India.


Domes can be seen frequently in the structurae of bazaars and mosques, particularly during the Safavi period in Isfahan. Iranian domes are distinguished for their height, proportion of elements, beauty of form, and roundness of the dome stem. The outer surfaces of the domes are mostly mosaic faced, and create a magical view.


According to Dr. D. Huff, a German archaeologist, the dome is the dominant element in Persian architecture. Professor Arthur U. Pope, who carried out extensive studies in ancient Iranian and Islamic buildings, believed: "The supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre_and post_Islamic periods."


An investigation into post_Islamic architecture in Iran reveals how architecture was in harmony with the people, their environment, and their Creator. Yet no strict rules were applied to govern Islamic architecture. The great mosques of Khorasan, Isfahan, and Tabriz each used local geometry, local materials, and local building methods to express in their own ways the order, harmony, and unity of Islamic architecture. When the major monuments of Islamic Iranian architecture are examined, they reveal complex geometrical relationships, a studied hierarchy of form and ornament, and great depths of symbolic meaning.

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Borujerdi ha House, Iran. Built in 1857. An excellent example of desert architecture.
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Tehran city theater, Iran. An example of Pahlavi era architecture.

Traditional Residential and Urban Architecture of Iran

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An example of a traditional Koocheh, photographed in Naeen, Iran.
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Koochehs provided relief from dust storms and intense sunlight. This was an efficient and ancient form of urban design in Persia. Photo is from Tabatabaei House, early 1800s , Iran. ...Kashan, Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran.

Being situated on the edge of deserts and arid regions, Iranian cities typically have hot summers, and cold, dry winters. Thus Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran’s traditional architecture is designed in proportion to its climatic conditions, and more than often, the unique fabled artistic background of Persia makes up for the seemingly lack of natural resources and beauty. The existence of hundreds of traditional houses with handsome designs even today amidst ugly apartments in Iran's hasty modernization projects is testament to a deep heritage of Architecture.


Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran's old city fabric is composed of narrow winding streets called koocheh with high walls of adobe and brick, often roofed at various intervals. This form of urban design, which used to be commonplace in Iran, is an optimal form of desert architecture that minimizes desert expansion and the effects of dust storms. It also maximizes daytime shades, and insulates the “fabric” from severe winter temperatures.


Islamic beliefs coupled with the necessity to defend cities against frequent foreign invasions encouraged traditional Persian residential architects to create inward seeking designs amidst these narrow complicated koochehs, weaving tightly knit residential neighborhoods. Thus the house becomes the container as opposed to the contained. These houses possess an innate system of protection; they all have enclosed gardens with maximum privacy, preventing any view into the house from the outside world. Hence residential architecture in Persia was designed in a way so as to provide maximum protection to the inhabitants during times of tension and danger, while furnishing a microcosm of tranquility that protected this inner “paradise garden”.

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Neighborhoods often formed around shrines of saints like this one, in central Kashan.

Neighborhoods in old Persian cities often formed around shrines of popular saints. All public facilities such as baths, houses of mourning (tekyehs), teahouses, administration offices, and schools were to be found within the neighborhood itself. In addition to the main bazaar of the city, each neighborhood often had its own bazaar-cheh as well (i.e. “little bazaar”), as well as its own ab anbar (or public water reservoir), which provided the neighborhood with clean water. Qazvin may refer to: Qazvin (city) Qazvin province Note: Qazvin province was created in 1996; older references to Qazvin are invariably to the city. ...Qazvin, for example had over 100 such reservoirs before being modernized with city plumbing in modern times.

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A roofscape of a traditional neighborhood in Kashan, Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran. The roof in the foreground belongs to a Qajar era bath_house.

When visiting Tabatabaei House, early 1800s , Iran. ...Kashan in 1993, the chairman of UNESCO remarked: “Kashani architects are the greatest alchemists of history. They could make gold out of dust”. Indeed, almost all of Kashan’s masterpieces, as in many other parts in Iran are made of humble, local, earth.


Like many other cities throughout Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. ...Iran, stucco was the most widespread method of ornamentation in Iranian houses. One reason was the relatively cheap price of the materials used (like gypsum for example) that don’t require a high temperature to be transformed into plaster. This is an important consideration in places like central Iran where wood is relatively scarce. Another reason is that it is easily shaped, molded, or carved. Thanks to stucco, a wall of crudely fashioned stone blocks or raw brick, gives an impression of great luxury. Thus stucco owes its luxurious appearance to the skill of the craftsman. And with a tradition of stucco technique going back to pre_Islamic Iran, this is an art fully mastered by Persian craftsmen, as seen here.


Earthquakes in Iran leave massive destruction. Most of Iran’s remaining traditional houses date from the post_quake eras during the Qajar period. Despite the efforts of architects to build resistance to earthquakes into their works, hardly anything remains from the spectacular Safavi palaces or anything prior to those as recounted by French and British explorers in many parts of Persia.

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Teemcheh-e-Amin o Dowleh, Kashan A bazaar is a market, often covered, typically found in areas of Muslim culture. ...Bazaar, Iran. 1800s. Persian architects used brilliant devices like these to naturally decrease temperatures, regulate sunlight, and ventilate the interior spaces of the Bazaar during daytimes.
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"Persian craftsmen made gold out of dust". Reliefs from Borujerdi-ha House, 1857, Iran.

Almost all traditional Persian houses were designed in order to satisfy the following essential features:

  1. Hashti and Dalan-e-vorudi: Entering the doorway one steps into a small enclosed transitional space called Hashti. Here one is forced to redirect one’s steps away from the street and into the hallway, called Dalan e Vorudi. In mosques, the Hashti enables the architect to turn the steps of the believer to the correct orientation for prayer hence giving the opportunity to purify oneself before entering the mosque.
  2. Convenient access to all parts of the house.
  3. A central pool with surrounding gardens containing trees of figs, pomegranates, and grape vines.
  4. Important partitionings such as the biruni (exterior) and the andaruni (interior).
  5. Specific orientation facing toward and away from Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ...Mecca.

Furthermore, Persian houses in central Iran were designed to make use of an ingenious systems of wind catchers that create unusually cool temperatures in the lower levels of the building. Thick massive walls were designed to keep the sun’s heat out in the summertime while retaining the internal heat in the winters.


Persia's distinctive artistic heritage with efficient yet ancient technical know_how thus created houses and spaces whose features were aesthetic talars and roofscapes with intriguing light wells, as well as intricate window and mirror works, paintings, reliefs, and a beautifully crafted iwan amidst comfortable residential spaces in hot desert regions.


Whereas the geometrical rigor seen in the works such as those in Safavi era Isfahan or Esfahan can refer to either a city or a province in Iran: Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronounciation of the citys name. ...Isfahan invoke the perfect order of the celestial world, the vegetal ornamentation realized in the interiors of houses, testify to the Persian love of gardens. And the stucco carvings, frescoes, and paintings executed by royal craftsmen, exemplify the level of Persian aesthetics.


Famous Modern Iranian Architects

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Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Iran. A fine example of traditional Persian architecture.
  • Kava Massih (http://www.kavamassiharchitects.com/) of Berkeley, CA. (featured on "Architecture" magazine in 2002).
  • Nader Khalili of CalEarth Institute. Founder. Featured on LATimes and NYTimes. (http://www.calearth.org/)
  • Bijan Armandpour, LA, CA.
  • Mark Vaghei of Atelier Architects (http://www.atelierv.com/).[1]  (http://www.atelierv.com/scrapbook6/view_all.nhtml)
  • Hariri and Hariri (http://www.haririandhariri.com/). One of the more famous of the Iranian American Architects. Their projects have been introduced by Steven Holl.
  • Nadi Jahangiri of M3 Architects. (http://www.m3architects.com/)
  • Farshid Moussavi (http://pages.akbild.ac.at/Architektur/page/lehrende/moussavi01.htm) (link 2) (http://www.scottisharchitecture.com/new-articles-00069.html) of Foreign Office Architects (http://www.f-o-a.net/flash/index.html). Probably the most successful. See his proposal for The World Trade Center. His works have been presented by This article needs cleanup. ...Toyo Ito.
  • Mehrdad Yazdani (http://www.volume5.com/101/html/yazdani-e1.html)
  • Kamran Diba (http://archnet.org/library/parties/one_party.tcl?party-id=450)
  • Fariborz Sahba (http://www.sahbaarchitect.com/). A Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ...Bahá'í architect who designed the famous There are currently seven Baháí Houses of Worship around the world, although Baháí communities own many properties where they plan for Houses of Worship to be constructed as the Baháí community grows and develops. ...Lotus temple in India.
  • Society of Iranian Architects and Planners (http://www.siap.org/)

See also

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Tomb of Omar Khayam, Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ...Nishapur.
  • Persian gardens
  • Architecture of Tabatabaei House, early 1800s , Iran. ...Kashan
  • Architecture of Qazvin is an ancient city containing fine examples of Iranian architecture from various ages. ...Qazvin
  • Architecture of Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is one of the most ancient and historical cities of Iran. ...Yazd
  • Architecture of Isfahan, Inner Courtyard of Medresseh_I Shah Husein Isfahan, Medresseh_I Shah Husein Mosque Entrance Isfahan or Esfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan, anciently known as Aspadana; اصفهان in Persian) (population in 2000: 2,540,000), located about 340 km south of Tehran is the capital of Isfahan Province and...Isfahan
  • Caravanserai, caravansarai _ a roadside inn where caravans could rest and recover from the days journey. ...Caravanserais

External links

  • Memaran, a Persian language online Architecture magazine (http://www.memaran.net/)
  • Watch "Isfahan the Movie" (http://www.etereaestudios.com/docs-html/isfahan-htm/isfahan-index.htm) on QuickTime Player to see superb example of Isfahan or Esfahan can refer to either a city or a province in Iran: Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronounciation of the citys name. ...Isfahan architecture.
Watch the animation "Isfahan The Movie" here (http://www.etereaestudios.com/docs_html/isfahan_htm/isfahan_index.htm), to see example of superb architecture.
Watch the animation "Isfahan The Movie" here (http://www.etereaestudios.com/docs_html/isfahan_htm/isfahan_index.htm), to see example of superb Isfahan or Esfahan can refer to either a city or a province in Iran: Isfahan (city) Isfahan (province) Isfahan (rugs) Ispahan a kind of rose and an older pronounciation of the citys name. ...Isfahan architecture.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1417 words)
Architecture is one of the fields in which Iranians have had a lengthy involvement in history.
Persians were among the first to use mathematics, geometry, and astronomy in architecture.
Persian architects were a highly sought after stock in the old days, before the advent of Modern Architecture.
Islamic architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1345 words)
Islamic architecture, a part of the Islamic studies, is the entire range of architecture that has evolved within Muslim culture in the course of the history of Islam.
Another distinctive sub-style is the architecture of the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century and a fusion of Persian and Hindu elements.
The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal, the "teardrop on eternity," completed in 1648 by the emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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