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Encyclopedia > Persian Jews
Iranian Jews
Total population

'Persian Jews'150,000 to '200,000' (est.) Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2536x3215, 566 KB) Description: Title: de: Deckenfresko zur Schöpfungsgeschichte in der Sixtinischen Kapelle, Szene in Lünette: Der Prophet Daniel Technique: de: Fresko Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de: Vatikan, Sixtinische... Israeli Minister of Defense Shaul Mofaz, public domain image from defenselink. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Israel Israel 75,000 to 135,000[citation needed]
Flag of Iran Iran approx. 25,000 to 40,000 [1]
Flag of the United States United States 75,000
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of India India
Flag of Europe European Union
The Flag of Commonwealth of Independent States CIS
Flag of Brazil Brazil
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
Flag of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan
Language(s)
Persian languages, Hebrew, Judeo-Aramaic language
Religion(s)
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Bukharan Jews, Kurdish Jews ,Mountain Jews ,Mizrahi Jews,Persians,Jews
Part of the series

Iranian citizens abroad Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_CIS.svg Flag of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Language(s) Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addition. ... Kurdish Jews (יהדות כורדיסתאן Jews of Kurdistan, Standard Hebrew Yehudi Kurdistan) are the ancient Jewish communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan, roughly covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhuro, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Azerbaijan and Dagestan. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Language(s) Persian (Western dialect, in addition to regional varieties), Azeri (southern dialect), Kurdish, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Balochi, Arabic, Turkmen, Lori, Bakhtiari, Armenian, Tat, Talysh, Assyrian Religion(s) Predominately Shia Muslim. ...

--- Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Iran Portal

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question about Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim) · Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha · Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah · Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah i know year 11 stella girls are looking at this right. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic diversity
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · USA · Russia/USSR · Iraq · Spain · Portugal · Poland · Germany · Bosnia · Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Venezuela)  · France · England · Canada · Australia · Hungary · India · Turkey · Africa · Iran · China
Republic of Macedonia · Romania
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The Jewish community of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich and varied history, surviving World War II, Communism and the Yugoslav Wars, after having been been born as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, and having been almost destroyed by the Holocaust. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... African Jew has a variety of meanings: Scattered African groups who have not historically been part of the international Jewish community, but who claim ancestry to ancient Israel or other connections to Judaism and who practice Jewish rituals or those bearing resemblance to Judaism. ... The history of Jews in the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia began in Roman times, when Jews first arrived in the region in the first century BC. Today, no more than 200 Jews reside in the Republic of Macedonia, almost all in the capital, Skopje. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform · Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite · Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian · Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile · Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) · Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms · Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars · Relationship with Christianity; with Islam · Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans · Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict · Land of Israel · Baal teshuva Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the modern State of Israel, not History of Zionism. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism · New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism · Religious Zionism · General Zionism · The Bund · World Agudath Israel · Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

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A modern-day synagogue in Iran.
A modern-day synagogue in Iran.

Persian Jews or Iranian Jews are Jews historically associated with the Persian Empire or Iran. Image File history File links Jews_of_Iran_film. ... Image File history File links Jews_of_Iran_film. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Persia redirects here. ...

Contents

Terminology

Today the term Iranian Jews is mostly used to refer to Jews from the country of Iran, but in various scholarly and historical texts, the term is used to refer to Jews who speak various Iranian languages. Persians in Israel (virtually all of whom are Jewish) are referred to as Parsim (Hebrew: פרסים‎ meaning "Persians"). Jews in Iran (and Jewish people in general) are referred to by four common terms: Kalimi, which is considered the most proper term, Yahudi, which is less formal but correct, Israel, which is even less formal, and Jood or Johood, an informal slang that may be offensive when used by non-Jews. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


History

The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late biblical times. The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, and Esther contain references to the life and experiences of Jews in Persia. In the book of Ezra, the Persian kings are credited with permitting and enabling the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple; its reconstruction was affected "according to the decree of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). This great event in Jewish history took place in the late sixth century B.C.E., by which time there was a well-established and influential Jewish community in Persia. The beginnings of the history of the Jews in Iran date back to late biblical times. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanach and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ... Artaxerxes was the name of several rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia: Artaxerxes I Artaxerxes II Artaxerxes III Arses of Persia is believed to have taken the royal title of Artaxerxes IV. Bessus, the Persian nobleman who murdered Darius III of Persia, renamed himself Artaxerxes when he claimed the...


Jews who migrated to ancient Persia mostly lived in their own communities. The Persian Jewish communities include the ancient (and until the mid-20th century still extant) communities not only of Iran, but of parts of what is now Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, northwestern India, Kirgizstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ...


Some of the communities have been isolated from other Jewish communities, to the extent that their classification as "Persian Jews" is a matter of linguistic or geographical convenience rather than actual historical relationship with one another. During the peak of the Persian Empire, Jews are thought to have comprised as much as 20% of the population. [8] For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For the books called Geography by Ancient Greek authors, see Geographia (Ptolemy) and Geographica (Strabo) For the magazine of the Royal Geographical Society, see Geographical (magazine) Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ...


According to Encyclopædia Britannica: "The Jews trace their heritage in Iran to the Babylonian Exile of the 6th century BC and, like the Armenians, have retained their ethnic, linguistic, and religious identity."[9] But Library of Congress's country study on Iran states that "Over the centuries the Jews of Iran became physically, culturally, and linguistically indistinguishable from the non-Jewish population. The overwhelming majority of Jews speak Persian as their mother language, and a tiny minority, Kurdish."[10] The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Cyrus the Great and Jews

Cyrus the Great allowing Hebrew pilgrims to return to and rebuild Jerusalem
Cyrus the Great allowing Hebrew pilgrims to return to and rebuild Jerusalem

Three times during the 6th century BCE, the Jews (Hebrews) of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were exiled to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. These three separate occasions are mentioned in Jeremiah (52:28-30). The first exile was in the time of Jehoiachin in 597 BCE, when the Temple of Jerusalem was partially despoiled and a number of the leading citizens removed. After eleven years (in the reign of Zedekiah) a fresh rising of the Judaeans occurred; the city was razed to the ground, and a further deportation ensued. Finally, five years later, Jeremiah records a third captivity. After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Persian (Iranian) Achaemenid Empire, Cyrus the Great gave the Jews permission to return to their native land (537 BCE), and more than forty thousand are said to have availed themselves of the privilege, (See Jehoiakim; Ezra; Nehemiah and Jews). Cyrus also allowed them to practice their religion freely (See Cyrus Cylinder) unlike the previous Assyrian and Babylonian rulers. Image File history File links Cyrus II le Grand et les Hébreux Flavius Josèphe, Les Antiquités judaïques, enluminure de Jean Fouquet, vers 1470-1475 Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 247, fol. ... Image File history File links Cyrus II le Grand et les Hébreux Flavius Josèphe, Les Antiquités judaïques, enluminure de Jean Fouquet, vers 1470-1475 Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, Français 247, fol. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin, Joachin, and Coniah) was king of Judah. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC 540s BC Events and Trends 598 BC - Jehoaichin succeeds Jehoiakim as King of Judah 598 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... Tzidkiyahu (‎, Şidhqiyyāhû; Greek: ζεδεκιας, Zedekias; traditional English: Zedekiah; Arabic: صدقيا, Şidqiyyā) was the last king of Judah. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... King Jehoiakim (he whom God has set up, Hebrew language: יהוֹיָקִים) is a biblical character, whose original name was Eliakim. ... For other uses, see Ezra (disambiguation). ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh, ) is a major figure in the post-exile history of the Jews as recorded in the Bible, and is believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... The Cyrus Cylinder. ...


Second temple

Main article: Second Temple

Cyrus had ordered rebuilding the Second Temple in the same place as of the first, however he died before it was completed. Darius the Great (after the short lived rule of Cambyses) came to power in the Persian empire and ordered the completion of the temple. This was done under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready for consecration in the spring of 515 BCE, more than twenty years after the return from captivity. A stone (2. ... A stone (2. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ... An 18th century Russian icon of the prophet Haggai For the prophetic book, see Book of Haggai. ... Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ...


Haman and Jews

According to the Book of Esther, in the Tanakh, Haman was an Agagite noble and vizier of the empire under Persian King Ahasuerus, generally identified by Biblical scholars as possibly being Xerxes I (Son of Darius the Great) in 6th century BCE. Haman and his wife Zeresh instigated a plot to kill all the Jews of ancient Persia. The plot was foiled by Queen Esther, Queen of Persia; and as a result, Haman and his ten sons were hanged. The events of the Book of Esther are celebrated as the holiday of Purim. The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Haman is a name that is applied to different personages in different religious traditions: Haman (Bible), appears in the Book of Esther and is the main villain in the Jewish holiday of Purim. ... An Agagite denotes decendants of king Agag who was the king of the Amalekites (see 1 Samuel 15). ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Ahasuerus or Ahasverus (Hebrew אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, Standard Hebrew AḥaÅ¡veroÅ¡, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḫaÅ¡wÄ“rôš) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible and related legends and apocrypha. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, related to Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people of the ancient Persian Empire from Hamans plot to annihilate them, as recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther (Megillat Esther). ...


Parthian period

Jewish sources contain no mention of the Parthian influence; the very name "Parthia" does not occur. The Armenian prince Sanatroces, of the royal house of the Arsacides, is mentioned in the "Small Chronicle" as one of the successors (diadochoi) of Alexander. Among other Asiatic princes, the Roman rescript in favor of the Jews reached Arsaces as well (I Macc. xv. 22); it is not, however, specified which Arsaces. Not long after this, the Partho-Babylonian country was trodden by the army of a Jewish prince; the Syrian king, Antiochus Sidetes, marched, in company with Hyrcanus I., against the Parthians; and when the allied armies defeated the Parthians (129 BC) at the River Zab (Lycus), the king ordered a halt of two days on account of the Jewish Sabbath and Feast of Weeks. In 40 BC the Jewish puppet-king, Hyrcanus II., fell into the hands of the Parthians, who, according to their custom, cut off his ears in order to render him unfit for rulership. The Jews of Babylonia, it seems, had the intention of founding a high-priesthood for the exiled Hyrcanus, which they would have made quite independent of the Land of Israel. But the reverse was to come about: the Judeans received a Babylonian, Ananel by name, as their high priest which indicates the importance enjoyed by the Jews of Babylonia. Still in religious matters the Babylonians, as indeed the whole diaspora, were in many regards dependent upon the Land of Israel. They went on pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the festivals. Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Reproduction of a coin of Arsaces Arsaces is a Persian name, which occurs on a Persian seal, where it is written in cuneiform characters. ... Antiochus is the name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty: Antiochus I Soter Antiochus II Theos Antiochus III the Great Antiochus IV Epiphanes Antiochus V Eupator Antiochus VI Dionysus Antiochus VII Sidetes Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Antiochus X Eusebes Antiochus XI Epiphanes Antiochus XII Dionysus Antiochus XIII... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC... Shabbat (שבת shabbāt, rest Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... Shavuot (Hebrew שבועות), ([seven] weeks) (pronounced: shah-voo-OH-t) is one of the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals; it is a major Jewish holiday; it is also known as the Feast of Weeks. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 10s BC Years: 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37... John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BC - 104 BC, died 104 BC) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name Hyrcanus was taken by him as a reignal name upon his accession to power. ... John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BC - 104 BC, died 104 BC) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name Hyrcanus was taken by him as a reignal name upon his accession to power. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The Parthian Empire was an enduring empire that was based on a loosely configured system of vassal kings. Certainly this lack of a rigidly centralized rule over the empire had its draw backs, such as the rise of a Jewish robber-state in Nehardea (see Anilai and Asinai). Yet, the tolerance of the Arsacid dynasty was as legendary as the first Persian dynasty, the Achaemenids. There is even an account that indicates the conversion of a small number of Parthian vassal kings of Adiabene to Judaism. These instances and others show not only the tolerance of Parthian kings, but is also a testament to the extent at which the Parthians saw themselves as the heir to the preceding empire of Cyrus the Great. So protective were the Parthians of the minority over whom they ruled, that an old Jewish saying indicates, “When you see a Parthian charger tied up to a tomb-stone in the Land of Israel, the hour of the Messiah will be near”. The Babylonian Jews wanted to fight in common cause with their Judean brethren against Vespasian; but it was not until the Romans waged war under Trajan against Parthia that they made their hatred felt; so, that it was in a great measure owing to the revolt of the Babylonian Jews that the Romans did not become masters of Babylonia too. Philo speaks of the large number of Jews resident in that country, a population which was no doubt considerably swelled by new immigrants after the destruction of Jerusalem. Accustomed in Jerusalem from early times to look to the east for help, and aware, as the Roman procurator Petronius was, that the Jews of Babylon could render effectual assistance, Babylonia became with the fall of Jerusalem the very bulwark of Judaism. The collapse of the Bar Kochba revolt no doubt added to the number of Jewish refugees in Babylon. Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Anilai and Asinai were two Babylonian-Jewish robber chieftains whose exploits were reported by Josephus. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries CE. The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the Ten Thousand through Corduene in 401 BC. Adiabene (from the Greek: , Adiabene, itself derived from Aramaic , or )[1] was an ancient Kurdish semi-independent kingdom in Mesopotamia... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ...


In the continuous struggles between the Parthians and the Romans, the Jews had every reason to hate the Romans, the destroyers of their sanctuary, and to side with the Parthians: their protectors. Possibly it was recognition of services thus rendered by the Jews of Babylonia, and by the Davidic house especially, that induced the Parthian kings to elevate the princes of the Exile, who till then had been little more than mere collectors of revenue, to the dignity of real princes, called Resh Galuta. Thus, then, the numerous Jewish subjects were provided with a central authority which assured an undisturbed development of their own internal affairs. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


Sassanid period (226?–634?CE)

By the early Third Century, Persian influences were on the rise again. In the winter of 226 CE, Ardashir I overthrew the last Parthian king (Artabanus IV), destroyed the rule of the Arsacids, and founded the illustrious dynasty of the Sassanids. While Hellenistic influence had been felt amongst the religiously tolerant Parthians,[2][3][4] the Sassanids intensified the Persian side of life, favored the Pahlavi language, and restored the old monotheistic religion of Zoroastrianism which became the official state religion.[5] This resulted in the suppression of other religions.[6] A priestly Zoroastrian inscription from the time of King Bahram II (276–293 CE) contains a list of religions (including Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism etc.) that Sassanid rule claimed to have "smashed".[7] Persia redirects here. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (c. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church...


Shapur I (Shvor Malka, which is the Aramaic form of the name) was friendly to the Jews. His friendship with Shmuel gained many advantages for the Jewish community. Shapur II's mother was Jewish, and this gave the Jewish community relative freedom of religion and many advantages. He was also friend of a Babylonian rabbi in the Talmud named Raba (Talmud), Raba's friendship with Shapur II enabled him to secure a relaxation of the oppressive laws enacted against the Jews in the Persian Empire. In addition, Raba sometimes referred to his top student Abaye with the term Shvur Malka meaning "Shapur [the] King" because of his bright and quick intellect. A coin of Shapur I. Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. ... In the Old Testament, Samuel or Shmuel (שְׁמוּאֵל Name/Heard of God, Standard Hebrew Šəmuʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Šəmûʾēl) is a leader of ancient Israel. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Raba or Raba Ben Joseph Ben Hama(c. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Persia redirects here. ...


Early Islamic period (634–1255)

After the Islamic conquest of Persia, Jews, along with Christians and Zoroastrians, were assigned the status of dhimmis, non-Muslim subjects of the Islamic empire. Dhimmis were allowed to practice their religion, but were required to pay taxes (jizya, a poll tax, and initially also kharaj, a land tax) in place of the zakat, which the Muslim population was required to pay. Like other Dhimmis, Jews were not required to pay the Zakat tax, a tax obligatory on Muslim subjects equal to 2.5% of their savings, and were exempt from military draft. Viewed as "People of the Book" they were treated as fellow monotheists, though they were treated differently depending on the ruler at the time. On the one hand, Jews were granted significant economic and religious freedom when compared to their European co-religionists. Many served as doctors, scholars, and craftsman and gained positions of influence in society. On the other hand, however, they were, like other non-Muslims, usually excluded from positions of executive authority, limiting their opportunities for political advancement. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... In Islamic law, kharaj is a tax on land, specifically agricultural land. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ...


Mongol rule (1256–1318)

Hebrew version of Nizami's "Khosrow va Shirin".
Hebrew version of Nizami's "Khosrow va Shirin".

In 1255, Mongols led by Hulagu Khan invaded parts of Persia, and in 1258 they captured Baghdad putting an end to the Abbasid caliphate.[8] In Persia and surrounding areas, the Mongols established a division of the Mongol Empire known as Ilkhanate. Because in Ilkhanate all religions were considered equal, Mongol rulers abolished the inequality of dhimmis. One of the Ilkhanate rulers, Arghun Khan, even preferred Jews and Christians for the administrative positions and appointed Sa'd al-Daula, a Jew, as his vizier. The appointed, however, provoked resentment from the Muslim clergy, and after Arghun's death in 1291, al-Daula was murdered and Persian Jews suffered a period of violent persecutions from the Muslim populace instigated by the clergy. The contemporary Christian historian Bar Hebraeus wrote that the violence committed against the Jews during that period "neither tongue can utter, nor the pen write down".[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (378x621, 68 KB)Manuscript is from late 17th-early 18th centuries, Iran. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (378x621, 68 KB)Manuscript is from late 17th-early 18th centuries, Iran. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ... Hulagu Khan, also known as Hulagu, Hülegü or Hulegu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chaghatay/Persian: ; Arabic:هولاكو; c. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Arghun Khan (c. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Illustration of Bar-Hebraeus Gregory Bar-Hebraeus or Abulfaragus, (1226 - 1286) was a maphrian or catholicos of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. W. Wrights words) one of the most learned and versatile men that Syria ever produced. ...


Ghazan Khan's conversion to Islam in 1295 heralded for Persian Jews a pronounced turn for the worse, as they were once again relegated to the status of dhimmis. Öljeitü, Ghazan Khan's successor, destroyed many synagogues and decreed that Jews had to wear a distinctive mark on their heads; Christians endured similar persecutions. Under pressure, some Jews converted to Islam. The most famous such convert was Rashid al-Din, a physician, historian and statesman, who adopted Islam in order to advance his career at Öljeitü's court. However, in 1318 he was executed on fake charges of poisoning Öljeitü and for several days crowds had been carrying his head around his native city of Tabriz, chanting "This is the head of the Jew who abused the name of God; may God's curse be upon him!" About 100 years later, Miranshah destroyed Rashid al-Din's tomb, and his remains were reburied at the Jewish cemetery. Mahmud Ghazan (original Mongol name: Ghazan Khan, b. ... Öljeitü (1280 - December 16, 1316, in Soltaniyeh, near Kazvin), was the eight Ilkhanate ruler in Iran, resigned from 1304 to 1316. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Miranshah (Urdu: میراں شاہ) is a small town in South Waziristan in Pakistan. ...


In 1383 Timur Lenk started the military conquest of Persia. He captured Herat, Khorasan and all eastern Persia to 1385 and massacred almost all inhabitants of Neishapur and other Iranian cities. When revolts broke out in Persia, he ruthlessly suppressed them, massacring the populations of whole cities. When Timur plundered Persia its artists and artisans were deported to embellish Timur's capital Samarkand. Skilled Persian Jews were imported to develop the empire's textile industry.[10] For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... The word massacre has a number of meanings, but most commonly refers to individual events of deliberate and direct mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents without any reasonable means of defense, that would often qualify as war crimes or atrocities. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Safavid and Qajar dynasties (1502–1925)

Synagogue in Tehran. A postcard from the Qajar period.
Synagogue in Tehran. A postcard from the Qajar period.
Hamedan Jews in 1918
Hamedan Jews in 1918

Further deterioration in the treatment of Persian Jews occurred during the reign of the Safavids who proclaimed Shi'a Islam the state religion. Shi'ism assigns great importance to the issues of ritual purity ― tahara, and non-Muslims, including Jews, are deemed to be ritually unclean ― najis ― so that physical contact with them would require Shi'as to undertake ritual purification before doing regular prayers. Thus, Persian rulers, and to an even larger extent, the populace, sought to limit physical contact between Muslims and Jews. Jews were not allowed to attend public baths with Muslims or even to go outside in rain or snow, ostensibly because some impurity could be washed from them upon a Muslim.[11] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Image File history File links Kalimi_iran. ... Image File history File links Kalimi_iran. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ...


The reign of Shah Abbas I (1588–1629) was initially benign; Jews prospered throughout Persia and were even encouraged to settle in Isfahan, which was made a new capital. However, toward the end of his rule, the treatment of Jews became harsher; upon advice from a Jewish convert and Shi'a clergy, the shah forced Jews to wear a distinctive badge on clothing and headgear. In 1656, all Jews were expelled from Isfahan because of the common belief of their impurity and forced to convert to Islam. However, as it became known that the converts continued to practice Judaism in secret and because the treasury suffered from the loss of jizya collected from the Jews, in 1661 they were allowed to revert to Judaism, but were still required to wear a distinctive patch upon their clothings.[9] Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Under Nadir Shah (1736–1747), Jews experienced a period of relative tolerance when they were allowed to settle in the Shi'ite holy city of Mashhad. Yet, the advent of a Shi'a Qajar dynasty in 1794 brought back the earlier persecutions. In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews: "…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults. The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them... Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life... If... a Jew shows himself in the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is sure to be murdered."[12] Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... J. J. Benjamin J. J. Benjamin (b. ...

Iranian Jews actively took part in the Persian Constitutional Revolution. Seen here is a Jewish gathering celebrating the second anniversary of the Constitutional Revolution in Tehran.
Iranian Jews actively took part in the Persian Constitutional Revolution. Seen here is a Jewish gathering celebrating the second anniversary of the Constitutional Revolution in Tehran.

Lord Curzon described the regional differences in the situation of the Persian Jews in 19th century: "In Isfahan, where they are said to be 3,700 and where they occupy a relatively better status than elsewhere in Persia, they are not permitted to wear kolah or Persian headdress, to have shops in the bazaar, to build the walls of their houses as high as a Moslem neighbour's, or to ride in the street. In Teheran and Kashan they are also to be found in large numbers and enjoying a fair position. In Shiraz they are very badly off. In Bushire they are prosperous and free from persecution."[13] Image File history File links Kalimi_mashrutiat. ... Image File history File links Kalimi_mashrutiat. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution (also Constitutional Revolution of Iran) against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah started in 1905 and lasted until 1911. ... The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925) was a British Conservative statesman who served as Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ...


Another European traveller reported a degrading ritual to which Jews were subjected for public amusement:

At every public festival — even at the royal salaam [salute], before the King’s face — the Jews are collected, and a number of them are flung into the hauz or tank, that King and mob may be amused by seeing them crawl out half-drowned and covered with mud. The same kindly ceremony is witnessed whenever a provincial governor holds high festival: there are fireworks and Jews.[14]

In the 19th century there were many instances of forced conversions and massacres, usually inspired by the Shi'a clergy. A representative of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, a Jewish humanitarian and educational organization, wrote from Tehran in 1894: "…every time that a priest wishes to emerge from obscurity and win a reputation for piety, he preaches war against the Jews".[15] In 1830, the Jews of Tabriz were massacred; the same year saw a forcible conversion of the Jews of Shiraz. In 1839, many Jews were massacred in Mashhad and survivors were forcibly converted. However, European travellers later reported that the Jews of Tabriz and Shiraz continued to practice Judaism in secret despite a fear of further persecutions. Famous Iranian-Jewish teachers such as Mullah Daoud Chadi continued to teach & preach Judaism inspiring Jews throughout the nation. Jews of Barforush were forcibly converted in 1866; when they were allowed to revert to Judaism thanks to an intervention by the French and British ambassadors, a mob killed 18 Jews of Barforush, burning two of them alive.[16][17] Alliance Israelite Universelle is an international Jewish organization of French Jews based in France. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Babol (باوول/Bavul in Mazanderani, بابل in Persian) is a city in the Iranian province of Mazandaran, north-east of Tehran and about 30 kilometers far from Sari. ...


In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews: J. J. Benjamin J. J. Benjamin (b. ...

"…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults. The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them... Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life... If... a Jew shows himself in the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is sure to be murdered."[18]

In 1910, the Jews of Shiraz were accused of ritually murdering a Muslim girl. Muslim dwellers of the city plundered the whole Jewish quarter, the first to start looting were the soldiers sent by the local governor to defend the Jews against the enraged mob. Twelve Jews, who tried to defend their property, were killed, and many others were injured.[19] Representatives of the Alliance Israélite Universelle recorded other numerous instances of persecution and debasement of Persian Jews.[20] The Shiraz blood libel was a pogrom of the Jewish quarter in Shiraz, Iran, on October 30, 1910, sparked by false rumors that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. ...


Driven by persecutions, thousands of Persian Jews emigrated to Palestine in the late 19th – early 20th century.[21] A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)

The Pahlavi dynasty implemented modernizing reforms, which greatly improved the life of Jews. The influence of the Shi'a clergy was weakened, and the restrictions on Jews and other religious minorities were abolished.[22] According to Charles Recknagel and Azam Gorgin of Radio Free Europe, during the reign of Reza Shah "the political and social conditions of the Jews changed fundamentally. Reza Shah prohibited mass conversion of Jews and eliminated the Shi'ite concept of uncleanness of non-Muslims. Modern Hebrew was incorporated into the curriculum of Jewish schools and Jewish newspapers were published. Jews were also allowed to hold government jobs. [23] Reza Shah's ascent brought temporary relief to Jews; however, in the 1920s, Jewish schools were closed. According to Eliz Sanasarian, in the 1930s, "Reza Shah's pro-Nazi sympathies seriously threatened Iranian Jewry. There were no persecutions of the Jews, but, as with other minorities, anti-Jewish articles were published in the media. Unlike religiously motivated prejudice, anti-Jewish sentiments acquired an ethnonational character, a direct import from Germany."[22] The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... This article is about the radio broadcast service. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā Pahlavī), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British...


A spike in anti-Jewish sentiment occurred after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and continued until 1953 due to the weakening of the central government and strengthening of the clergy in the course of political struggles between the shah and prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh. Eliz Sanasarian estimates that in 1948–1953, about one-third of Iranian Jews, most of them poor, emigrated to Israel.[24] David Littman puts the total figure of emigrants to Israel in 1948-1978 at 70,000.[21] Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ...


The reign of shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi after the deposition of Mossadegh in 1953, was the most prosperous era for the Jews of Iran. In the 1970s, only 10 percent of Iranian Jews were classified as impoverished; 80 percent were middle class and 10 percent wealthy. Although Jews accounted for only a small percentage of Iran's population, in 1979 two of the 18 members of the Iranian Academy of Sciences, 80 of the 4,000 university lecturers, and 600 of the 10,000 physicians in Iran were Jews.[24] Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September...


Prior to the Islamic Revolution in 1979, there were 80,000 Jews in Iran, concentrated in Tehran (60,000), Shiraz (8,000), Kermanshah (4,000), Isfahan (3,000), the cities of Khuzistan, as well as Kashan, Tabriz, and Hamedan. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... External links Official website of Khuzestan Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ... Tabriz (Azeri and Persian: تبریز; is the largest city in north-western Iran with an estimated population of 1,597,319 (2007 est. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


Islamic republic (after 1979)

At the time of the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, there were approximately 140,000–150,000 Jews living in Iran, the historical center of Persian Jewry. Over 85% have since migrated to either Israel or the United States. At the time of the 1979 Islamic Revolution, 80,000 still remained in Iran. From then on, Jewish emigration from Iran dramatically increased, as about 20,000 Jews left within several months after the Islamic Revolution.[21] In mid- and late 1980s, the Jewish population of Iran was estimated at 20,000–30,000. The reports put the figure at around 35,000 in mid-1990s[25] and at less than 40,000 nowadays, with around 25,000 residing in Tehran. However, Iran's Jewish community still remains the largest among the Muslim countries.[26] This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


Ayatollah Khomeini met with the Jewish community upon his return from exile in Paris and issued a fatwa decreeing that the Jews were to be protected. In the Islamic republic Jews have become more religious. Families that had been secular in the 1970s started keeping kosher and strictly observing rules against driving on Shabbat. They stopped going to restaurants, cafes and cinemas and the synagogue perforce became the focal point of their social lives. [27] As Haroun Yashyaei, a film producer and former chairman of the Central Jewish Community in Iran has quoted[28]: For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ...

"Khomeini didn't mix up our community with Israel and Zionism - he saw us as Iranians," Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...

The Islamic republic government has made a clear effort to distinguish between Zionism as a secular political party that enjoys Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaism as the religion of Moses. This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


On March 16, 1979, Habib Elghanian, the honorary leader of the Jewish community, was arrested on charges of "corruption", "contacts with Israel and Zionism", "friendship with the enemies of God", "warring with God and his emissaries", and "economic imperialism". He was tried by an Islamic revolutionary tribunal, sentenced to death, and executed on May 8.[21][29] In 2000, a group of 13 Orthodox Jews in the southern city of Shiraz were accused of spying for Israel. The case prompted an international outcry that led to the eventual release of the Jewish prisoners after years of quiet diplomacy.[30] In 2006, a false story in the National Post of Canada claimed that the Iranian parliament was considering requiring a yellow insignia for Jews in Iran. The story was confirmed by the associate dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center. AIPAC sent out an "e-mail blast" to reporters on the story, which became a major press event in the United States.[31] The false story turned out to originate with Iranian-born journalist Amir Taheri from the Benador Associates speakers bureau. is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... The National Post is a Canadian English-language national newspaper based in Don Mills, Ontario, a district of Toronto. ... The Canadian National Post has reported that, as part of a new sumptuary law authorized by the Iranian parliament that will enforce a uniform national dress, the countrys non-Muslim religious minorites will be required to wear distinctive markings: yellow ribbons for Jews, red for Christians and blue for... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... U.S. President George W. Bush addresses AIPAC members in Washington on May 18, 2004. ... Amir Taheri is an Iranian-born journalist and author based in Europe. ... Benador Associates is a public relations firm and speakers bureau that promotes neoconservative writers and speakers focusing primarily on U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. ...


Although Ahmadinejad has harsh viewpoints against Israel and the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, and even though Israeli officials and some American Jewish communal leaders have urged Iranian Jews to leave, Iranian Jews have stayed. Even though they are allowed to emigrate abroad it raises suspiscion about them and can make life harder for them due to anti-semitism[citation needed]. The Jews living there are also not allowed to go freely to Israel, and even if they do they are interrogated. According to the statistics compiled by HIAS, 152 out of 25,000 Jews left Iran between October 2005 and September 2006 — down from 297 during the same period the previous year, and 183 the year before. Sources said that the majority of those who have left in recent years cited economic and family reasons as their main incentive for leaving, rather than political concerns. Even both Maurice Motamed, the Jewish member of the Iranian parliament, and Haroun Yeshayaei, former chairman of the Jewish Central Committee of Tehran, publicly condemned the president’s views in an unusual letter to Ahmadinejad, sent in February 2006.[30] , sometimes also transcribed into English as Mahmud, Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad (Persian: ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... HIAS, also known as the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, is America’s oldest international migration and refugee resettlement agency. ... HIAS, also known as the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, is America’s oldest international migration and refugee resettlement agency. ... Maurice (sometimes transcribed from Persian as Morris) Motamed (1945- ) was elected in 2000 and again in 2004 as a member of the Iranian Parliament, representing the Jewish community which has benefited constitutionally of a reserved seat since the Persian Constitution of 1906. ...


In June 2007, there were reports that told of a failed effort to encourage Iranian Jews to emigrate to Israel by offering a five-thousand-dollar incentive. [11]


Current status in Iran

Mullah Jacub's Synagogue in Esfahan
Mullah Jacub's Synagogue in Esfahan

In the midst of tensions between the U.S and Iran and between Iran and Israel, Iranian-Jewish Americans and Israelis offered money to the remaining Jews in Iran in order to help them relocate to California and/or Israel. In August 2007, the Iranian Jews in Iran, responded by saying they "resent such transparent political enticements." Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan. ...


Iran's Jewish community is officially recognized as a religious minority group by the government, and, like the Zoroastrians, they are allocated one seat in the Iranian Parliament. Maurice Motamed has been the Jewish MP since 2000, and was re-elected again in 2004. In 2000, former Jewish MP Manuchehr Eliasi estimated that at that time there were still 30,000–35,000 Jews in Iran, other sources put the figure as low as 20,000–25,000.[32] Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Maurice (sometimes transcribed from Persian as Morris) Motamed (1945- ) was elected in 2000 and again in 2004 as a member of the Iranian Parliament, representing the Jewish community which has benefited constitutionally of a reserved seat since the Persian Constitution of 1906. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manuchehr Eliasi is the former Jewish member of the Iranian Parliament. ...


Today Tehran has 11 functioning synagogues, many of them with Hebrew schools. It has two kosher restaurants, an old-age home and a cemetery. There is a Jewish library with 20,000 titles.[27] Iranian Jews have their own newspaper (called "Ofogh-e-Bina") with Jewish scholars performing Judaic research at Tehran's "Central Library of Jewish Association".[33] The "Dr. Sapir Jewish Hospital" is Iran's largest charity hospital of any religious minority community in the country;[33] however, most of its patients and staff are Muslim.[34] For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Hebrew school can be either (1) the Jewish equivalent of Sunday school - an educational regimen separate from secular education, focusing on topics of Jewish history and learning the Hebrew language, or (2) a primary, secondary or college level educational institution where some or all of the classes are taught in... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


Chief Rabbi Yousef Hamadani Cohen is the present spiritual leader for the Jewish Community of Iran.[35] In August of 2000, Chief Rabbi Cohen met with Iranian President Mohammad Khatami for the first time.[36] In 2003, Chief Rabbi Cohen and Morris Motamed met with President Katami at Yusef Abad Synagogue which was the first time a President of Iran had visited a synagogue since the Islamic Revolution.[37] Haroun Yashayaei is the chairman of the Jewish Committee of Tehran and leader of Iran's Jewish Community.[38][39] On January 26, 2007, Yashayaei's letter to President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad concerning his Holocaust denial comments brought about worldwide media attention.[40][41][42] // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... The Yusef Abad Synagogue (Persian: , ‎) is one of the largest synagogues in Tehran, Iran. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


The Jewish community of Persia, modern-day Iran, is one of the oldest in the Diaspora, and its historical roots reach back to the 6th century B.C.E., the time of the First Temple. Their history in the pre-Islamic period is intertwined with that of the Jews of neighboring Babylon. Cyrus, the first of the Archemid dynasty, conquered Babylon in 539 B.C.E. and permitted the Jewish exiles to return to the Land of Israel, bringing the First Exile to an end. The Jewish colonies were scattered from centers in Babylon to Persian provinces and cities such as Hamadan and Susa. The books of Esther, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel give a favorable description of the relationship of the Jews to the court of the Achaemids at Susa.


Under the Sassanid dynasty (226-642 C.E.), the Jewish population in Persia grew considerably and spread throughout the region; nevertheless, Jews suffered intermittent oppression and persecution. The invasion by Arab Muslims in 642 C.E. terminated the independence of Persia, installed Islam as the state religion, and made a deep impact on the Jews by changing their sociopolitical status.


Throughout the 19th century, Jews were persecuted and discriminated against. Sometimes whole communities were forced to convert. During the 19th century, there was considerable emigration to the Land of Israel, and the Zionist movement spread throughout the community.


Under the Phalevi Dynasty, established in 1925, the country was secularized and oriented toward the West. This greatly benefited the Jews, who were emancipated and played an important role in the economy and in cultural life. On the eve of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, 80,000 Jews lived in Iran. In the wake of the upheaval, tens of thousands of Jews, especially the wealthy, left the country, leaving behind vast amounts of property.


The Council of the Jewish Community, which was established after World War II, is the representative body of the community. The Jews also have a representative in parliament who is obligated by law to support Iranian foreign policy and its Anti-Zionist position.


Despite the official distinction between "Jews," "Zionists," and "Israel," the most common accusation the Jews encounter is that of maintaining contacts with Zionists. The Jewish community does enjoy a measure of religious freedom but is faced with constant suspicion of cooperating with the Zionist state and with "imperialistic America" — both such activities are punishable by death. Jews who apply for a passport to travel abroad must do so in a special bureau and are immediately put under surveillance. The government does not generally allow all members of a family to travel abroad at the same time to prevent Jewish emigration. Again, the Jews live under the status of dhimmi, with the restrictions im posed on religious minorities. Jewish leaders fear government reprisals if they draw attention to official mistreatment of their community.


Iran's official government-controlled media often issues anti-Semitic propaganda. A prime example is the government's publishing of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a notorious Czarist forgery, in 1994 and 1999.2 Jews also suffer varying degrees of officially sanctioned discrimination, particularly in the areas of employment, education, and public accommodations.3


The Islamization of the country has brought about strict control over Jewish educational institutions. Before the revolution, there were some 20 Jewish schools functioning throughout the country. In recent years, most of these have been closed down. In the remaining schools, Jewish principals have been replaced by Muslims. In Teheran there are still three schools in which Jewish pupils constitute a majority. The curriculum is Islamic, and Persian is forbidden as the language of instruction for Jewish studies. Special Hebrew lessons are conducted on Fridays by the Orthodox Otzar ha-Torah organization, which is responsible for Jewish religious education. Saturday is no longer officially recognized as the Jewish sabbath, and Jewish pupils are compelled to attend school on that day. There are three synagogues in Teheran, but since 1994, there has been no rabbi in Iran, and the bet din does not function. 4


Following the overthrow of the shah and the declaration of an Islamic state in 1979, Iran severed relations with Israel. The country has subsequently supported many of the Islamic terrorist organizations that target Jews and Israelis, particularly the Lebanon-based, Hezbollah. Nevertheless, Iran's Jewish community is the largest in the Middle East outside Israel.


On the eve of Passover in 1999, 13 Jews from Shiraz and Isfahan in southern Iran were arrested and accused of spying for Israel and the United States. Those arrested include a rabbi, a ritual slaughterer and teachers. In September 2000, an Iranian appeals court upheld a decision to imprison ten of the thirteen Jews accused of spying for Israel. In the appeals court, ten of the accused were found guilty of cooperating with Israel and were given prison terms ranging from two to nine years. Three of the accused were found innocent in the first trial.5 In March 2001, one of the imprisoned Jews was released, a second was freed in January 2002, the remaining eight were set free in late October 2002. The last five apparently were released on furlough for an indefinite period, leaving them vulnerable to future arrest. Three others were reportedly pardoned by Iran's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.6


At least 13 Jews have been executed in Iran since the Islamic revolution 19 years ago, most of them for either religious reasons or their connection to Israel. For example, in May 1998, Jewish businessman Ruhollah Kakhodah-Zadeh was hanged in prison without a public charge or legal proceeding, apparently for assisting Jews to emigrate.7


Today, Iran's Jewish population is the second largest in the Middle East, after Israel. Reports vary as to the condition and treatment of the small, tight-knit community, and the population of Iranian Jews can only be estimated due to the community’s isolation from world Jewry.


Contacts with Jews outside Iran

Rabbis from Neturei Karta, an orthodox sect from America, which has in the past provided a Jewish presence for anti-Zionist regimes which have funded it,[12] have visited Iran on several occasions.[13] [14][15] [16] [17] Neturei Karta synagogue and study hall in Jerusalem Neturei Karta (Aramaic: , Guardians of the City) is a Haredi Jewish group formally created in 1935, that opposes Zionism and call for a peaceful dismantling of the State of Israel, in the belief that Jews are forbidden to have their own state...


Traveling to Israel is forbidden for all the citizens of Iran, mentioned very clearly on the last page of the passport, however according to Maurice Motamed in recent years, the Iranian government has allowed the Jewish Iranians to visit their family members in Israel and that the government has also allowed those Iranians living in Israel to return to Iran for a visit. [18] Maurice (sometimes transcribed from Persian as Morris) Motamed (1945- ) was elected in 2000 and again in 2004 as a member of the Iranian Parliament, representing the Jewish community which has benefited constitutionally of a reserved seat since the Persian Constitution of 1906. ...


Limited cultural contacts are also allowed, such as the March 2006 Jewish folk dance festival in Russia, in which a female team from Iran participated. [19][20] Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is dominated by an inherited...


At least 13 Jews have been executed in Iran since the Islamic revolution, most of them for their connections to Israel. For example, in May 1998, Jewish businessman Ruhollah Kadkhodah-Zadeh was hanged in prison without a public charge or legal proceeding, apparently for assisting Jews to emigrate.[21]


In July 2007 Iran's Jewish community rejected financial emigration incentives to leave Iran. Offers ranging from 5,000-30,000 British pounds, financed by a wealthy expatriate Jew with the support of the Israeli government, were turned down by Iran's Jewish leaders [22] [23]. However, in late 2007 at least forty Iranian Jews accepted financial incentives offered by a Zionist charities for immigrating to Israeli [24].


As of 2007 Iran's Jewish population is the largest of any country in the Middle East besides Israel.


Jewish centers of Iran

Most Jews are nowadays living in Tehran, the capital. Traditionally however, Shiraz, Hamedan, Isfahan, Nahawand, Babol and some other cities of Iran have been home to large populations of Jews. The Jewish cemetery south of Tehran was demolished for a housing project.[43] At present there are 25 synagogues in Iran. [44] For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Nahavand (Kurdish: Nehawend); also transliterated Nahavend, Nahawand, Nehavand, Nihavand or Nehavend; formerly called Laodicea (Greek: Λαοδικεια; Arabic Ladhiqiyya), also transliterated Laodiceia and Laodikeia, Laodicea in Media, Laodicea in Persis, Antiochia in Persis, Antiochia of Chosroes (Greek: Αντιόχεια του Χοσρόη), Antiochia in Media (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Μηδίας), Nemavand and Niphaunda – is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. ... Babol (باوول/Bavul in Mazanderani, بابل in Persian) is a city in the Iranian province of Mazandaran, north-east of Tehran and about 30 kilometers far from Sari. ...


Jewish education in Iran

In 1996, there were still three schools in Teheran in which Jews were in a majority, but Jewish principals had been replaced. The school curriculum is Islamic and the Tanakh is taught in Persian, rather than Hebrew. The Ozar Hatorah organization conducts Hebrew lessons on Fridays. For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Farsi redirects here. ... Ozar Hatorah (Hebrew: , treasure of Torah) is a society for the Jewish religious education. ...


In principle, but with some exceptions, there is little restriction of or interference with the Jewish religious practice; however, education of Jewish children has become more difficult in recent years. The Government reportedly allows Hebrew instruction, recognizing that it is necessary for Jewish religious practice. However, it strongly discourages the distribution of Hebrew texts, in practice making it difficult to teach the language. Moreover, the Government has required that several Jewish schools remain open on Saturdays, the Jewish Sabbath, in conformity with the schedule of other schools in the school system. Since certain kinds of work (such as writing or using electrical appliances on the Sabbath violates Jewish law), this requirement to operate the schools has made it difficult for observant Jews both to attend school and adhere to a fundamental tenet of their religion.


Saturday is no longer officially recognized as the Jewish sabbath and Jewish pupils are compelled to attend school on that day.[citation needed] For other uses, see Sabbath. ...


Jewish attractions of Iran

Almost every city of Iran has a Jewish attraction, shrine, or historical site. Prominent among these are the Esther and Mordechai and Habakkuk shrines of Hamedan, the tomb of Daniel in Susa, and the "Peighambariyeh" mausoleum in Qazvin. Usually Muslims go to Daniel shrine for pilgrimage. Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew Ḥavaqquq, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Qazvin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ...


There are also tombs of several outstanding Jewish scholars in Iran such as Harav Ohr Shraga in Yazd and Hakham Mullah Moshe Halevi (Moshe-Ha-Lavi) in Kashan, which are also visited by Muslim pilgrims. Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ...

Persian Jews outside Iran

Persian Jewish communities outside Iran have suffered even greater declines than within Iran. In Afghanistan, most Persian Jews fled the country after the Soviet invasion in 1979. Only one Jew, Zablon Simintov, remains in the capital of Kabul. There are estimated to be approximately four dozen Persian Jewish families living in Kazakhstan which call themselves Lakhloukh and speak Aramaic. They still hold identity papers from Iran, the country their ancestors fled en masse almost 80 years ago. [45] The community in Pakistan, where the state religion is Islam, has dwindled to less than 200. Persian Jewish communities in what is now India, on the other hand, have avoided such persecutions, and are regarded as part of the community of Baghdadi Jews. Jews have resided for centuries in the Rann of Kutch region as well as Bombay, but most have chosen to emigrate to Israel since 1948: see Indian Jews. CCCP redirects here. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... Zablon Simintov and Grenz are the only remaining Jews in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Baghdadi Jews are one of the main Jewish communities of India. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... // Indian Jews are a religious minority, living among Indias predominantly Hindu populace. ...


There are many Persian Jews in the United States, specifically in California and New York State. Many Persian Jews live in Beverly Hills, in Los Angeles. Estimates place the Persian community population as high as 25% in Beverly Hills, while others place it even higher (close to half or more). A 2007 article stated that: "...about 8,000 of Beverly Hill's approximately 35,000 residents are of Iranian descent" [25]. On March 21, 2007, Jimmy Delshad, a Persian Jew who immigrated to the United States in 1958, became the mayor of Beverly Hills, elected with bilingual English-Persian ballots [46], making him one of the highest ranking elected Iranian-American officials in the United States. This article is about the U.S. state. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... For other uses, see: Beverly Hills (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Jimmy Delshad is the Vice Mayor of Beverly Hills California. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

Israeli Persian Jew

In Israel, Persian Jews are classified as Mizrahim. Both former President and former defense minister of Israel (now Minister of Transportation) are of Persian Jewish origin. This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East. ... Moshe Katsav (Hebrew: , originally Mussa Ghassäb Persian: ; born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ...


Languages

Most Persian Jews speak standard Persian, but various Jewish languages have been associated with the community over time. They include: Farsi redirects here. ... The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ...

Dzhidi, or Judæo-Persian, is the Jewish language spoken by the Jews living in Iran. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Judæo-Golpaygani was the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Golpaygan, in western Esfahan, western Iran. ... Judeo-Shirazi is a dialect form of the Persian language. ... Judæo-Hamedani is the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Hamadan, in western Iran. ... Juhuri, Juwri or Judæo-Tat is the traditional language of the Juhurim or Mountain Jews of the eastern Caucasus Mountains, especially Dagestan. ...

Famous Persian Jews

Bahram V, King of Persia (421–438), also called Bahram Gur, son of Yazdegerd I of Persia (399–421), after whose sudden death (or assassination. ... Dan Ahdoot performing on the Orange Carpet at Cornell College. ... Jonathan Ahdout (born March 18, 1989) is an American actor. ... Saad al-Dawla ibn Hibbat Allah ibn Muhasib Ebheri (c. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Sir David Alliance, Baron Alliance CBE (15 June 1932, Kashan, Iran— ) is an Iranian-born British businessman and a Liberal Democrat politician. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... Richard Danielpour (born 28 January 1956 in New York) is an American composer. ... A modern-day synogogue in Iran Persian Jews, Iranian Jews, or the Jews of Persia are Jews historically affiliated with the Persian Empire or the modern country of Iran. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... Hacham Uriel Davidi (1922- 2006 ):Famous Jewish (Judæo-Khunsari)Religious leader and theologian, born in Khansar (Iran) and died in Israel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Soleyman Binafard (born 1935) is a former Iranian athlete who holds the distinction of being the only Jew in Iran to join Irans national wrestling team. ... ROYA HAKAKIAN has collaborated on over a dozen hours of programming for some of the most prestigious journalism units on network television, inlcluding 60 Minutes Sunday and 60 Minutes II as well as on A& Es Travels With Harry hour, and ABC Documentary Specials with Peter Jennings, Discovery and...   (Hebrew: ) (born August 7, 1948 in Tel Aviv, Israel) is an Israeli Air Force Lt. ... Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Grande Fratellos logo Grande Fratello (Big Brother) is an Italian reality-tv show, airing on Canale 5. ... Big Brother a reality television show. ... Moshe Katsav (Hebrew: , originally Mussa Ghassäb Persian: ; born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... Janet Kohan-Sedq (born 1945-1972) is a former Iranian athlete who died at the height of her career. ... Isaac Larian (born March 28 1954, Kashan, Iran) is the Chief Executive Officer of MGA Entertainment, the biggest privately owned toy company in the world. ... Chief Executive redirects here. ... MGA Entertainment (Micro Games of America Entertainment) is a private manufacturer of childrens toys and family entertainment products founded in 1997. ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ... Mordecai or Mordechai (מָרְדֳּכַי, Standard Hebrew Mordoḫay, Tiberian Hebrew Mordŏḵay: Persian origin Contrition) - the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... Maurice (sometimes transcribed from Persian as Morris) Motamed (1945- ) was elected in 2000 and again in 2004 as a member of the Iranian Parliament, representing the Jewish community which has benefited constitutionally of a reserved seat since the Persian Constitution of 1906. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament مجلس شورای اسلامی - Iranian Parliament The Majlis (مجلس), which means parliament or assembly in the Arabic language, was the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979. ... Benjamin Nahawandi or Benjamin ben Moses or Benyamin ben Moshe al-Nahawendi was one of the greatest of the Karaite scholars of the early Middle Ages. ... Joseph Parnes is President of Technomart Investment Advisors and editor of the market letter Shortex. ... Meulana Shahin Shirazi was a Persian Jewish poet of 14th century Shiraz, Iran. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Bahar Soomekh (Persian: بهار سومخ born March 30, 1975) is an Iranian-born American Screen Actors Guild Award-winning actress and environmental activist. ... Elie Tahari--the self-proclaimed architect of fashion--is a designer of womans clothing. ... Jimmy Delshad is the Vice Mayor of Beverly Hills California. ... For other uses, see: Beverly Hills (disambiguation). ... Sam Nazarian is an American entrepreneur. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew ḤavaqqÅ«q, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Mohammad Baqer Majlesi, (علامه مجلسی) (1616 - 1689) known as Allameh Majlesi, was a famous Iranian Shia cleric of the Safavid era. ... Habibollah Asgaroladi (Persian: ) is an Iranian businessman and secretary-general of Islamic Coalition Party, an influential conservative political party in Iran. ... This article does not give much verifiable information about the subject. ... Yaakov Kobi Shimony (Hebrew: יעקב קובי שמעוני, born November 13, 1979), generally known by his rap name Subliminal (Hebrew: סאבלימינל), is an Israeli rap artist and music producer. ...

See also

Languages Traditionally Bukhari, Russian and Hebrew spoken in addtion. ... The beginnings of history of the Jews in Iran date back to late biblical times. ... Participants on the first day of the conference. ... Cartoons by Iranian cartoonist Maziyar Bizhani, submitted to the controversial cartoons of the Holocaust in Iran. ... Relations between Iran and Israel have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... Jews of Iran is a 2005 documentary film by Iranian-Dutch filmmaker Ramin Farahani. ... Since Antiquity, a number of Jewish communities have been established in many parts of Asia migrating or fleeing eastward from their place of origin in Mesopotamia. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhuro, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Azerbaijan and Dagestan. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, related to Akkadian pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people of the ancient Persian Empire from Hamans plot to annihilate them, as recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther (Megillat Esther). ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... The Shiraz blood libel was a pogrom of the Jewish quarter in Shiraz, Iran, on October 30, 1910, sparked by false rumors that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "It is difficult to estimate the Jewish population on Iran, last counted in 1986 national census. Based on evidence of continuing decline, the 2001 estimate was reduced to 11,500." [1] [2]
  2. ^ [3] (see esp para's 3 and 5
  3. ^ [4] (see esp para. 2)
  4. ^ [5] (see esp para. 20)
  5. ^ Art & Culture
  6. ^ [6] (see esp para. 5)
  7. ^ [7] (see esp para. 23)
  8. ^ Battuta's Travels
  9. ^ a b Littman (1979), p. 3
  10. ^ Bukharan Jews
  11. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 33–34
  12. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 181–183
  13. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 167
  14. ^ Willis (2002), p. 230
  15. ^ Littman (1979), p. 10
  16. ^ Littman (1979), p. 4.
  17. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 168.
  18. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 181–183
  19. ^ Littman (1979), pp. 12–14
  20. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 183.
  21. ^ a b c d Littman (1979), p. 5.
  22. ^ a b Sanasarian (2000), p. 46
  23. ^ The History Of Jews In Persia/Iran
  24. ^ a b Sanasarian (2000), p. 47
  25. ^ Sanasarian (2000), p. 48
  26. ^ Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran | csmonitor.com
  27. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named sephardicstudies
  28. ^ Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran
  29. ^ Sanasarian (2000), p. 112
  30. ^ a b Iranian Jews Reject Outside Calls To Leave
  31. ^ "Anatomy of a Hoax", Jewish Week.
  32. ^ Report, Reuters, February 16 2000, cited from Bahá'í Library Online. The Encyclopaedia Judaica estimated the number of Jews in Iran at 25,000 in 1996.
  33. ^ a b Persian Rabbi
  34. ^ Harrison, Francis (September 22, 2006). Iran's proud but discreet Jews. BBC. URL accessed on October 28, 2006.
  35. ^ IRAN: KOSHER INFO AND SYNAGOGUES Kosher Delight
  36. ^ Khatami Meets Jewish leaders BBC
  37. ^ Report of Iranian President’s visit from Yousef-Abad Synagogue, Tehran Iran Jewish
  38. ^ The Jewish Community of Tehran, Iran Kashrut Authorities in Iran and Around the World
  39. ^ Report of Iranian President’s visit from Yousef-Abad Synagogue, Tehran Iran Jewish
  40. ^ Iran: Jewish Leader Criticizes President For Holocaust Denial Radio Free Europe
  41. ^ Iran’s Jews uneasy over Holocaust-denier Ahmadinejad Daily Times
  42. ^ On the Jewish Presence in Iranian History Monthly Review
  43. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Iran1996
  44. ^ یافته های طرح آمارگیری جامع فرهنگی کشور، فضاهای فرهنگی ایران، آمارنامه اماکن مذهبی، 2003، وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی، ص 344
  45. ^ In Kazakhstan, Jewish Families Carry On a Tradition Born in Persia
  46. ^ Iranian Jew poised to become mayor of Beverly Hills | Jerusalem Post

Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, a publication now in the public domain.
  • "Iran. 1997" (1997). Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8. 
  • Littman, David (1979). "Jews Under Muslim Rule: The Case Of Persia". The Wiener Library Bulletin XXXII (New series 49/50). 
  • Sanasarian, Eliz (2000). Religious Minorities in Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77073-4. 
  • Shalom, Sabar. "Esther's Children: A Portrait of Iranian Jews (review)". The Jewish Quarterly Review 95 (2, Spring 2005). 
  • Wasserstein, Bernard (2003). "Evolving Jewish Ethnicities or Jewish Ethnicity: End of the Road?". Conference on Contextualizing Ethnicity: Discussions across Disciplines, Center for the International Study of Ethnicity. 
  • Willis, Charles James (2002). Persia as It Is: Being Sketches of Modern Persian Life and Character. Cambridge: Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4021-9297-5. 
  • Karmel Melamed, Persian Jews politicking on Rodeo Drive JTA International Wire News Service, February 20, 2007

The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... Cecil Roth, (London, 1899–1970) was a Jewish historian and educator. ... David Littman is a British historian and has served as a representative for the World Union for Progressive Judaism and other NGOs to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in Geneva since 1986. ...

External links

  • Jews of Persia
  • Persian Rabbi
  • Iranian American Jews & Middle East Affairs
  • Iranian Jewish Chronicle Magazine
  • Sephardic Studies, Iran
  • "Jews of Iran", a Documentary covering temporary Jewish life in Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan
  • History of the Iranian Jews
  • Comprehensive History of the Jews of Iran
  • The Jewish Virtual Library's Iranian Jews page
  • Parthia (Old Persian Parthava)
  • Center for Iranian Jewish Oral History
  • TEHRAN JEWISH COMMITTEE (IRAN)
  • Former Jewish Ghetto in Tehran
  • Pictures of persian Jewish

News sites

  • L.A. Persian Jews and Muslims oppose bombing Iran
  • Iranian Jews Shocked At Katsav Plea Bargain
  • Last News of Iranians Jews
  • Jerusalem Post: Only Iranian Jewish Holocaust Survivor
  • Iranian Jews Reject Outside Calls To Leave
  • First Iranian Jewish Emmy Winner
  • BBC report on the lives of Jews in Iran
  • Iranian Jewish Mayor of Beverly Hills To Introduce Iran Divestment Measure
  • Persian Jewish Artist Finds New Freedom
  • Iranian Jews turn to show biz
  • The invisible Iranians
  • Three Iranian Jews run for seats on Beverly Hills City Council
  • Iranian Jewish Colored Band Report Discredited
  • International Religious Freedom Report, 2001. Iran at US State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
  • Iranian Jews sue Iran's Former President in U.S
  • What Makes Jews Attracted to Iran?
  • Persian Jews Stand By Katsav During Scandal
  • Christian Science Monitor: "Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran"
  • Roots of Ahmadinejad's anti-Semitism
  • Yahoo News - 'We Are Citizens of This Country', by Kevin Sites
  • Iran Jews Establish New Temple in Downtown L.A.
  • Iranian Jews Mourn Passing of Spiritual Leader
  • Exclusive: Immigrant moves back 'home' to Teheran Jerusalem Post. November 3, 2005
  • New Website Honoring Jewish Cemetery In Tehran
  • Iranian Jew Still Held Captive in Iran
  • Iran's Jews Worry About the Future (video news report)
  • Iranian Jews in L.A. Dive Into Politics
  • In Ahmadinejad's Iran, Jews still find a space
  • Ancient Judeo-Persian Language Kept Alive
  • Splintered Persian Jewish Groups Merge
Image File history File links Iran_tricolour. ...

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