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Encyclopedia > Persian Gardens
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Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden
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Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden

Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia (more commonly known today as Iran). Traditionally, such gardens would have been enclosed. Iran is filled with tombs of poets and musicians, such as this one belonging to Rahi Moayeri. ... House of Haj Ali Khan Zand, Qajar era, Qom. ... The themes of Persian miniature are mostly related to the Persian mythology and poetry. ... Kabab Koobideh, served with doogh (yoghurt drink) and pickles. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Persian literature is literature written in Persian, or by Persians in other languages. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millenia BC. Iran National Museum. ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia, modernday Iran. ... Persia (Iran) has an ancient tradition of its own design of motifs. ... Iran (Persia) possesses an extraordinary treasure of royal jewelry including the mothers-of-pearl caught in the Persian Gulf. ... Image File history File links Riza_i-Abbasi_-_Princely_Youth_and_Dervish. ... Image File history File links Riza_i-Abbasi_-_Princely_Youth_and_Dervish. ... Garden Design is the process of designing the layout and planting of domestic gardens. ... Communications in Iran Iranian Blogs Internet censorship in Iran Iranian Media Persian Transportation in Iran Iranian Newspapers Iranian News Agencies Minorities Ethnic minorities in Iran Religious Minorities Other topics: Sports in Iran Irans nuclear program Iran and weapons of mass destruction Military of Iran Family Planning in Iran Islam... Part of a garden in Bristol, England A flower bed in the gardens of Bristol Zoo, England Checkered flower bed in Tours, France Youll find it near, youll find it far. ...


It is of note that the Persian word for "enclosed space" was pardeiza, which was inherited in Christian mythology as Paradise on earth, the garden of Eden. [1] Yasna 28. ... Christian mythology is a body of stories that explains or symbolizes Christian beliefs. ... Look up Paradise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paradise is also a title of a tv-series The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word of pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make). ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden Garden of Eden, from Hebrew Gan Eden, גן עדן is the location of the story told in Genesis 2 and 3—part of the creation belief of the Abrahamic religions. ...


Its role was, and is, that of relaxation in a variety of manners: spiritual, and leisurely (such as meetings with friends), essentially a paradise on earth. The manner in which the garden is constructed maybe formal (with emphasis on structure) or casual (with emphasis on plant), and complies to various simple rules governing the design - this is said to allow a maximisation, in terms of function and emotion, of what may be done in the garden. The origin of the Persian gardens have been estimated to go back to 4000 B.C. On the decorated pottery of that time are found the typical cross plan of the Persian gardens. The Persian concept of an ideal, paradise-like garden is perfectly embodied in the Taj Mahal. It was Babur who introduced the Persian garden to India, and the now unkempt Aram Bagh garden in Agra was the first of many Persian gardens he created. Taj Mahal is one of the largest Persian gardens of the world. See: Spirituality Spiritual music Spiritual dance The Age of Spiritual Machines Spiritual possession This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Formal - relating to form. ... In the European tradition, casual is the dress code which emphasizes comfort and personal expression over presentation and uniformity. ... Look up Paradise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Paradise is also a title of a tv-series The word paradise is derived from the Avestan word of pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek peri-, and -diz (to create, make). ... Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur or Zahiriddin Mohammad Bobur (also spelled Baber or Babar), (b. ... Taj Mahal Agra is an ancient city on the Yamuna River in India, within the state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Taj Mahal. ...

Contents


History

The style may be traced to ancient times centuries before the common era. For example, the outline of Cyrus I's garden, which adjoined a palace, is still viewable today - it was built around 500 BCE. During the reign of the Sassanids (third to seventh century CE), and under the influence of Zoroastrianism, the presence of water in art grew to importance - this manifested itself as fountains and ponds in gardens. During the occupations by the Arabs the aesthetic aspect of the garden increased in importance, overtaking the utility of the garden. During this time the aesthetic rules by which the garden is governed grew in importance - an example of this is the chahar bagh (چهارباغ), a form of garden which attempts to emulate Eden - having four rivers and four quadrants, representing the world. The design sometimes involves one axis being longer than the other, water channels often run through the four gardens and connect to a central pool. The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period beginning with the year 1 onwards. ... Cyrus I (Old Persian Koroush), was King of Anshan from c. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... // Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... // Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Syria, Iraq, Persia, North Africa and Central Asia convert to Islam. ... Faravahar (or Ferohar), the depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... Resources ArtLex. ... The Jet dEau fountain in Lake Geneva in Geneva A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source (Latin fons), fills a basin of some kind, and is drained away. ... A pond is a body of water smaller than a lake. ... The Arabs ((Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large ethnic group widespread in the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Chahar Bagh (literally meaning Four Gardens) is an avenue in Esfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran. ...


The invasion of Persia by the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century saw an emphasis on highly ornate structure within the Garden, examples of which include peonies and chrysanthemums. The Mongol empire then carried on a Persian Garden tradition in other parts of their empire (notably India). The Safavid Dynasty (seventeenth to eighteenth century) build and developed highly grandeur and epic layouts - which went beyond being a simple extension to a palace, and became an integral aesthetic and functional part of it. In the following centuries European garden design began to influence Persia, particularly the design of France and secondarily that of Russia and the United Kingdom. Particular changes which are attributed to the west include the changed use of water and the species' used in bedding. Mongol Empires largest extent outlined in red; Timur-i-Lenks empire is shaded The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous land empire in world history ruling 35 million km² (13. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The structure of a thing is how the parts of it relate to each other, how it is put together. This contrast with process, which is how the thing works; but process requires a viable structure. ... Species See text The peony (Paeonia) is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Paeoniaceae. ... Species - tricolor daisy - pyrethrum - pyrethum daisy - crown daisy - marguerite - daisy - florists           chrysanthemum C. segetum - corndaisy Ref: ITIS 35791 See also Daisy (disambiguation) The chrysanthemum, also known as the mum, is a flowering perennial plant of the genus Chrysanthemum in the daisy family (Asteraceae). ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article is about the continent. ... Bedding is a generic term that refers to all types of material which make up a bed (generally excluding the mattress and frame, which are less portable). ...


The traditional forms and style are no longer present among the population of Iran. They may be found in historical sites, museums and affixed to the houses of the rich. A museum is typically a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. ...


Elements of the Persian garden

Sun light and its effects were an important factor of structural design in Persian gardens, textures and shapes were specifically chosen by architects to harness the light. Due to the latitudinal position of Iran, shade is also incredibly important in the garden, without which it could not be a feasibly useable area - trees and trelisses largely feature as biotic shade; pavilions and walls are also structurally prominent in blocking the sun. Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect, also known as a building designer, is a person involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction, whose role is to guide decisions affecting those building aspects that are of aesthetic, cultural or social concern. ... Latitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth A tree can be defined as a large, perennial, woody plant. ... Biotic factors are factors produced by living organisms that affect the ability of other living organisms to survive in an environment. ... Pavilion may refer to a type of building: Pavilion (structure) or to a specific building: Pavilion, New York London Pavilion Royal Pavilion Balboa Pavilion Pavilion is a brand name of computers and notebooks made by Hewlett-Packard. ... A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects space. ...


Also related to the heat is the importance of water in the gardens. A form of underground tunnel, below the water table, called a Qanat is used to irrigate water to, and around, the garden. Well-like structures then connect to the Qanat, enabling the drawing up of water. Alternatively, an animal driven Persian well would be used to draw up water to the surface. Such wheel systems could also be used to move water around surface water systems, such as those which exist in the chahar bagh style. Trees were often planted in a ditch called a Jub, this prevented water evaporation and allowed the water to quickly access the tree roots. The water table is the upper limit of abundant groundwater. ... A qanat is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot arid and semi-arid climates. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... For the Scottish football team, see Motherwell F.C. The Whole Earth Lectronic Link (or The WELL) is one of the oldest virtual communities still online. ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ... a cow In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ...


The Persian style often attempts to integrate that which is "indoors" with the "outdoors" - this is often achieved through the connection of a surrounding garden, with an inner courtyard. Between the out and interior were often architectural elements such as vaulted arches which opened up the divide between. A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ...


Descriptions

The oldest representational descriptions and illustrations of Iranian gardens come from travelers who reached Iran from lands to the west. These accounts include Ibn Battuta in the fourteenth century, Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo in the fifteenth century and Engelbert Kaempfer in the seventeeth century. Battuta and Clavijo make only passing references to gardens and do not describe their design. Kaempfer made careful drawings and converted them into detailed engravings after his return to Europe. They show chahar bagh type gardens with the following features: an enclosing wall, rectangular pools, an internal network of canals, garden pavilions and lush planting. There are surviving examples of this garden type at Yazd (Dowlatabad) and at Kashan (Bagh-e Fin). The location of the gardens Kaempfer illustrated in Isfahan (city) can be identified. Ibn Battuta (1304-1377). ... Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo (? - April 2, 1412), Spanish traveler and writer. ... Engelbert Kaempfer (September 16, 1651 - November 2, 1716) was a German traveller and physician. ... The city of Yazd, as seen from the tall minarets of its 12th century mosque. ... For historical city in Volga Bulgaria and Khanate of Kazan see Qashan Arial view of the Tabatabaei House. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ...


Styles

The six primary styles of the Persian garden may be seen in the following table, which puts them in the context of their function and style. It is important to remember that gardens are not limited to a particular style - they will often integrate different styles, or have different areas with different functions and hence styles.

Classical Formal Casual
Public Hayat Meidan Park
Private Hayat Chahar Bagh Bagh

An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ... Chahar Bagh (literally meaning Four Gardens) is an avenue in Esfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran. ... District Bagh was carved out of District Poonch in 1988. ...

Hayat

Main article: Hayat

Publicly, it is a classical Persian layout with heavy emphasis on aesthetics over function. Man-made structure in the Garden is particularly important - with arches and pools (which may be used to cleanse). The ground is often covered in gravel or some other hard stone-derived substance. Plantings are typically very simple - such as a line of trees, which also have the function of shade. Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ... Pool can have several meanings: Look up Pool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Any of several games related to billiards, distinguished by using a table that has one pocket at each corner and one in the middle of each of the two longer sides. ... Gravel being unloaded from a barge Gravel is rock that is of a certain size range. ...


Privately, these gardens are often pool-centred and again structural. The pool serves as a focus and to humidify the surrounding atmosphere. Again, there are few plants - this is often due to the limited water available in urban areas. Urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of man-made structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Meidan

Main article: Meidan

This is a public, formal garden which puts more emphasis on the biotic element than the hayat and minimises structure. Plants range from trees, to shrubs, to bedding plants, to grasses. Again, there are elements such as a pool and gravel pathways which divide up the lawn. When structures are used, they are often to shade such as a pavilion. Formal - relating to form. ... Biotic factors are factors produced by living organisms that affect the ability of other living organisms to survive in an environment. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth A tree can be defined as a large, perennial, woody plant. ... A willow shrub A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... A grassy swamp. ... A typical lawn A lawn sprinkler A lawn is an area of land planted with grass and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at an even low height. ...


Chahar Bagh

Main article: Chahar Bagh

These gardens are private and formal - the basic structure consist of four divided corners. These are often divided by waterways or pathways. Traditionally, such gardens would be used in work-related functions for the rich (such as communicating with ambassadors). These gardens balance structure with greenery - with the plants often around the periphery of a pool and path based structure. Chahar Bagh (literally meaning Four Gardens) is an avenue in Esfahan constructed in the Safavid era of Iran. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ...


Park

Much like many other parks, the Persian park serves a casual public function with emphasis on plant-life. They provide pathways and seating, but are otherwise usually limited in terms of structural elements. The purpose of such places is relaxation and socialisation. An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ...


Bagh

Main article: Bagh

Like the other casual garden, the park, the Bagh emphasises the natural and green aspect of the Garden. Unlike the park it is a private area often affixed to houses often consisting of lawns, trees, and ground plants. The waterways and pathways stand-out less than in the more formal counterparts and are largely functional. The primary function of such areas are familial relaxation. District Bagh was carved out of District Poonch in 1988. ... A typical lawn A lawn sprinkler A lawn is an area of land planted with grass and sometimes clover and other plants, which are maintained at an even low height. ...


See also

The Paradise garden is a form of garden, originally just paradise, a word derived from the Avestan language, or Old Persian. ... House of Haj Ali Khan Zand, Qajar era, Qom. ...

References

  1. ^  Persians: Masters of Empire, p62, ISBN 0-8094-9104-4

Bibliography

  • Khansari, Mehdi; Moghtader, M. Reza; Yavari, Minouch (1998). The Persian Garden: Echoes of Paradise. Mage Publishers. ISBN 0934211469
  • Rochford, Thomas (1999). Isfahan "Persian Garden Design" website. Retrieved 3 February, 2005.
  • Newton Wilber, D (1979). Persian gardens and garden pavilions. Washington.

External links

  • A history of Persian gardens

  Results from FactBites:
 
Persians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (769 words)
The ancient Persians from the province of Pars (Fars) became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty (The Persian pronunciation is Ha-Khuh-Manesh-ee-yun) in the sixth century BC.
The Persians of Iran are mainly descended from the Iranian branch of the Aryans, an Indo-European people that migrated to the region between 2000-1000 BCE as well as indigenous populations such as the Elamites.
The Persian Jews are a good example of a population that moved to Iran and assimilated and mixed with the Persians so that today they speak Farsi and are virtually identical to other Persians except for religion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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