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Encyclopedia > Perseus
Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums)
Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums)
Topics in Greek mythology
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Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve Olympians. Perseus was the hero who killed Medusa and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster. Download high resolution version (1458x1944, 262 KB)Statue of Persus with Medusas head This is the original mentioned here: Image:Perseus-slays-medusa. ... Download high resolution version (1458x1944, 262 KB)Statue of Persus with Medusas head This is the original mentioned here: Image:Perseus-slays-medusa. ... Self-portrait by Canova, 1792. ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... Hercules and the Hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours (Greek: dodekathlos) of Heracles (Latin: Hercules) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article is about the mythological monster. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... 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The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... Andromeda Chained to the Rock by the Nereids (1840) Théodore Chassériau, Louvre Andromeda was a woman from Greek mythology who was chained to a rock to be a sacrifice to a sea monster as divine punishment for her mothers bragging. ...

Contents

Origin at Argos

Perseus was the son of Danaë who, by her very name, was the archetype and eponymous ancestor of all the Danaans.[1] She was the only daughter of Acrisius, King of Argos. Disappointed by his lack of luck, Acrisius consulted the oracle at Delphi, who warned him that although destined to remain without a wife, he would one day be killed by his daughter's son. Danaë was childless and to keep her so, he shut her up in a bronze chamber underground:[2] This mytheme is also connected to Ares, Oenopion, Eurystheus, etc. Zeus came to her in the form of a shower of gold, and impregnated her. Soon after was born their child Perseus— "Perseus Eurymedon,[3] for his mother gave him this name as well" (Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica IV). Titians Danaë, inspired by Ovids Metamorphoses, represents the girl at the moment of her impregnation by a golden rain. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... Acrisius was a mythical king of Argos, and a son of Abas and Ocalea. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... This article is about prophetic oracles in various cultures. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... In the study of mythology, a mytheme is an irreducible nugget of myth, an unchanging element, similar to a cultural meme, one that is always found shared with other, related mythemes and reassembled in various ways—bundled was Claude Lévi-Strausss image— or linked in more complicated relationships... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Oenopion (wine-faced), son of Dionysus and Ariadne, was a legendary king of Khios, said to have brought winemaking to the island. ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ...


Fearful for his future but unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods by killing Zeus's offspring and his own daughter, Acrisius cast the two into the sea in a wooden chest.[4] Danaë's fearful prayer made while afloat in the darkness has been expressed by the poet Simonides of Ceos. Mother and child washed ashore on the island of Seriphos, where they were taken in by the fisherman Dictys, who raised the boy to manhood. The brother of Dictys was Polydectes, the king of the island. Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ... Seriphos (or Serifos) (Greek: Σέριφος) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, located in the western Cyclades, south of Kythnos and northwest of Siphnos. ... In Greek mythology, Dictys was a fisherman and brother of King Polydectes of Seriphos. ... In Greek mythology, King Polydectes was the ruler of the island of Seriphos Polydectes fell in love with Danae when she and her son Perseus were saved by his brother Dictys (see: Acrisius). ...


Overcoming the Gorgon

After some time, Polydectes fell in love with Danaë and desired to remove Perseus from the island. He thereby hatched a plot to send him away in disgrace.


Polydectes announced a banquet[5] wherein each guest would be expected to bring him a horse, that he might woo Hippodamia, "tamer of horses". The fisherman's protegé had no horse but promised instead to bring him some other gift. Polydectes held Perseus to his rash promise. He immediately demanded the head of Medusa, one of the Gorgons, whose very expression turns people to stone. The Medusa was horselike in archaic representations,[6] the terrible filly of a mare—Demeter, the Mother herself—who was in her mare nature when Poseidon assumed stallion form and covered her. Another version of this story is that Medusa was in fact a mortal woman who had an affair with the god Poseidon. One day Athena caught the two of them in her temple and as punishment turned the poor woman into a hideous monster. Hippodamia, also Hippodamea, was a daughter of King Oenomaus and mother of Thyestes, Atreus, and Pittheus, Alacathous by Pelops. ... A relatively modern image of Medusa painted by Arnold Böcklin In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μεδουσα Queen), was a monstrous female character whose gaze could turn people to stone. ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ...


For such a heroic quest, a divine helper would be necessary, and for a long time Perseus wandered aimlessly, without hope of ever finding the Gorgons or of being able to accomplish his mission. According to the iconography of the vase-painters, the gods Hermes, Athena and Hades came to his rescue. Hermes gave him an adamantine curved sword,[7] while Athena gave him a highly-polished bronze shield. For his further journey, the version of Aeschylus, in his lost tragedy, The Daughters of Phorcys must have "simplified the journey of Perseus through the realms of thrice-three goddesses and probably left out the first three, the spring-nymphs.... On an ancient vase-painting we see the nymphs receiving the hero, one bringing him the winged sandals (talaria), another the helm of invisibility,[8] the third the wallet, kibisis, for the Gorgon's head" (Kerenyi 1959:49-50). Bilingual amphora by the Andokides Painter, ca. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Adamantine is a mineral, often referred to as adamantine spar. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Phorcys and Ceto, Mosaic, Late Roman, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was one of the names of the Old One of the Sea, the primeval sea god, who, according to Hesiod, was the son of Pontus and Gaia. ... A Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893. ... [Latin tlria, from neuter pl. ...


They told him to go to the island of the golden apples to the west. He went there like a swift walker on the air (Nonnus, Dionysiaca xxv.32) and asked the Hesperidae where the Graeae were. They told him and made him promise to come back and dance with them. He went to the Graeae, sisters of the gorgons, three perpetually old women with one eye and tooth among them. Perseus snatched the eye at the moment they were blindly passing it from one to another so they could not see him and he would not return it until they had given him directions. With all this, "Like a wild boar he entered the cave" (This is the one line of Aeschylus, The Phorkides ["The Daughters of Phorcys"] that survives).After he was done with the Graeae sisters he threw the tooth and the eye into a lake. In the cave he came upon the sleeping Gorgons. By viewing Medusa's reflection in his shield he could safely approach and cut off her head; from her neck sprang Pegasus and Chrysaor. The other two Gorgons pursued him, but under his helmet of invisibility he escaped. For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... Nonnus, Greek epic poet, a native of Panopolis (Akhmim) in the Egyptian Thebaid, probably lived at the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 5th century AD. His principal work is the Dionysiaca, an epic in forty-eight books, the main subject of which is the expedition of... The Graeae (old women, gray ones, or gray witches, alternatively spelled Graiai, Graiae, Graii ), were three sisters, one of several trinities of archaic goddesses in Greek mythology. ... The Graeae (old women, gray ones, or gray witches, alternatively spelled Graiai, Graiae, Graii ), were three sisters, one of several trinities of archaic goddesses in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... For other uses, see Pegasus (disambiguation). ... Greek mythology In Greek mythology, Chrysaor (Greek Χρυσάωρ, golden falchion, from χρυσός, gold, and ἄορ, sword, falchion) was a giant, the son of Poseidon and Medusa. ...


Marriage with Andromeda

Perseus and Andromeda.
Perseus and Andromeda.

On the way back to Seriphos, Perseus stopped in the Phoenician kingdom Ethiopia, ruled by King Cepheus and Queen Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia, having boasted herself equal in beauty to the sea Nereids, drew down the vengeance of Poseidon, who sent an inundation on the land and a sea-monster, Ceto, which destroyed man and beast. The oracle of Ammon announced that no relief would be found until the king exposed his daughter Andromeda to the monster, and so she was fastened to a rock on the shore. Perseus slew the monster and, setting her free, claimed her in marriage. Image File history File links Perseus_und_Andromeda_MKL1888. ... Image File history File links Perseus_und_Andromeda_MKL1888. ... In Greek mythology Ethiopia (Aethiopia), is the name of a Phoenician Kingdom, also known as Joppa, believed to be modern day Jaffa, in Israel. ... In Greek mythology, Cepheus was ruler of the nation of Aethiopia. ... It has been suggested that Andromeda (mythology) be merged into this article or section. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (Greek: Κητος, Ketos, sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ... Siwa may refer to: The Siwa Oasis in Egypt 140 Siwa, an asteroid Siwa is a Slavic goddess of fertility. ...


In the classical myth, he flew using the flying sandals. Renaissance Europe and modern imagery has generated the idea that Perseus flew mounted on Pegasus.[9] This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Perseus married Andromeda in spite of Phineus, to whom she had before been promised. At the wedding a quarrel took place between the rivals, and Phineus was turned to stone by the sight of the Gorgon's head.[10] Andromeda ("queen of men") followed her husband to Tiryns in Argos, and became the ancestress of the family of the Perseidae through her son with Perseus, Perses. After her death she was placed by Athena amongst the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia.[11] Sophocles and Euripides (and in more modern times Pierre Corneille) made the episode of Perseus and Andromeda the subject of tragedies, and its incidents were represented in many ancient works of art. The Boast of Cassiopeia is a story from Greek mythology, associated with Perseus. ... Plan of Tiryns excavations Tiryns (in ancient Greek Τίρυνς and in modern Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archeological site in the Greek nomos of Argolis in the Peloponnese peninsula, some kilometres north of Nauplion. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... The Boast of Cassiopeia is a story from Greek mythology, associated with Perseus. ... There are several charactes named Perses in Greek mythology: A Titan, son of Crius and Eurybia. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Pierre Corneille. ...


As Perseus was flying in his return above the sands of Libya, according to Apollonius of Rhodes,[12] the falling drops of Medusa's blood engendered a race of toxic serpents, one of whom was to kill the Argonaut Mopsus. On returning to Seriphos and discovering that his mother had had to take refuge from the violent advances of Polydectes, Perseus killed him with Medusa's head, and made his brother Dictys king. Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BC - after 246 BC, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ... In Greek mythology, Mopsus was the name of two famous seers: Mopsus, son of Manto and Rhacius or Apollo Mopsus, a celebrated prophet, son of Manto and Rhacius or Apollo. ...


The oracle fulfilled

Perseus then returned his magical loans and gave Medusa's head as a votive gift to Athena, who set it on Zeus' shield (which she carried), as the Gorgoneion (see also: Aegis). An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ...


The fulfillment of the oracle was told several ways, each incorporating the mythic theme of exile. In Pausanias[13] he did not return to Argos, but went instead to Larissa, where athletic games were being held. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Larissa (Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa Prefecture. ...

Perseus frees Andromeda (detail), by Piero di Cosimo, 1515 (Uffizi)
Perseus frees Andromeda (detail), by Piero di Cosimo, 1515 (Uffizi)

He had just invented the quoit and was making a public display of them when Acrisius, who happened to be visiting, stepped into the trajectory of the quoit and was killed: thus the oracle was fulfilled. This is an unusual variant on the story of such a prophecy, as Acrisius's actions did not, in this variant, cause his death. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2467, 474 KB) Description: Title: de: Perseus befreit Andromeda, Detail: Perseus Technique: de: Öl auf Holz Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Florenz Current location (gallery): de: Galleria degli Uffizi Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2467, 474 KB) Description: Title: de: Perseus befreit Andromeda, Detail: Perseus Technique: de: Öl auf Holz Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Florenz Current location (gallery): de: Galleria degli Uffizi Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD... Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci (c. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Quoits (koits, kwoits) is a traditional lawn game involving the throwing of a metal or rubber ring over a set distance to land over a pin (hob) in the centre of a patch of clay. ...


In Apollodorus' version,[14] the inevitable occurred by another route: Perseus did return to Argos, but when he learned of the oracle, went into voluntary exile in Pelasgiotis (Thessaly). There Teutamides, king of Larissa, was holding funeral games for his father. Competing in the discus throw Perseus' throw veered and struck Acrisius, killing him instantly. Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Larissa (Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Larissa Prefecture. ...


In a third tradition,[15] Acrisius had been driven into exile by his brother, Proetus. Perseus turned the brother into stone with the Gorgon's head and restored Acrisius to the throne. Proetus was a mythical king of Tiryns. ...


Having killed Acrisius, Perseus, who was next in line for the throne, gave the kingdom to Megapenthes son of Proetus and took over Megapenthes' kingdom of Tiryns. The story is related in Pausanias,[16] which gives as motivation for the swap that Perseus was ashamed to become king of Argos by inflicting death. In Greek mythology, Megapénthês was a son of Proetus. ... Proetus was a mythical king of Tiryns. ... Plan of Tiryns excavations Tiryns (in ancient Greek Τίρυνς and in modern Τίρυνθα) is a Mycenaean archeological site in the Greek nomos of Argolis in the Peloponnese peninsula, some kilometres north of Nauplion. ...


In any case, early Greek literature reiterates that manslaughter, even involuntary, requires the exile of the slaughterer, expiation and ritual purification. The exchange might well have been a creative solution to a difficult problem; however, Megapenthes would have been required to avenge his father, which, in legend, he did, but only at the end of Perseus' long and successful reign.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 366 KB) Perseus by Benvenuto Cellini, Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Italy Own photo - photo made on 12 October 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Perseus... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x1280, 366 KB) Perseus by Benvenuto Cellini, Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Italy Own photo - photo made on 12 October 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Perseus... Gold Salt cellar by Cellini. ...

King of Mycenae

The two main sources regarding the legendary life of Perseus—for he was an authentic historical figure to the Greeks— are Pausanias and Apollodorus, but from them we obtain mainly folk-etymology concerning the founding of Mycenae. Pausanias[17] asserts that the Greeks believed Perseus founded Mycenae. He mentions the shrine to Perseus that stood on the left-hand side of the road from Mycenae to Argos, and also a sacred fountain at Mycenae called Persea. Located outside the walls, this was perhaps the spring that filled the citadel's underground cistern. He states also that Atreus stored his treasures in an underground chamber there, which is why Heinrich Schliemann named the largest tholos tomb the Treasury of Atreus. Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) (fearless) of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... The Treasure of Atreus tholos in 2004 Beehive tombs, also known as Tholos tombs (plural tholoi), are a style of Mycenaean chamber tomb from the Bronze Age. ... Treasure of Atreus in 2004 The Treasure of Atreus or Treasury of Atreus is an impressive tholos tomb at Mycenae, Greece (on the Panagitsa Hill) constructed around 1250 BCE. The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons. ...


Apart from these more historical references, we have only folk-etymology: Perseus dropped his cap or found a mushroom (both named myces) at Mycenae, or perhaps the place was named from the lady Mycene, daughter of Inachus, mentioned in a now-missing poem, the great Eoeae. Inachus is one of the Oceanids in Greek mythology. ... The Catalogue of Women (Greek: γυναικῶν κατάλογος, gynaikon katalogos) is an epic of ancient Greek literature. ...


For whatever reasons, perhaps as outposts, Perseus fortified Mycenae according to Apollodorus[18] along with Midea, an action that implies that they both previously existed. It is unlikely, however, that Apollodorus knew who walled in Mycenae; he was only conjecturing. In any case, Perseus took up official residence in Mycenae with Andromeda. Midea (Μιδέα) is a municipality in Argolis, Greece. ...


Descendants of Perseus

Perseus by Salvador Dalí
Perseus by Salvador Dalí

Perseus and Andromeda had seven sons: Perses, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, Electryon and Cynurus, and two daughters, Gorgophone ("Gorgon Killer") and Autochthoe ("Born in the Land"). Perses was left in Aethiopia and became an ancestor of the emperors of Persia. The other descendants ruled Mycenae from Electryon down to Eurystheus, after whom Atreus got the kingdom. However, the Perseids included the great hero, Heracles, step-son of Amphitryon, son of Alcaeus. The Heraclides, or descendants of Heracles, successfully contested the rule of the Atreids. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2460 KB) Description: Perseo Subject: Sculpture Artist : Salvador Dalí City : Marbella Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : January, 3rd, 2006 File links The following pages link to this file: Perseus Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2460 KB) Description: Perseo Subject: Sculpture Artist : Salvador Dalí City : Marbella Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : January, 3rd, 2006 File links The following pages link to this file: Perseus Metadata This file contains additional... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... In Greek mythology, Alcaeus, or Alkaios was one of the Perseidae, a son of Perseus and Andromeda. ... In Greek mythology, Sthenelus refers to four different people. ... In Greek mythology, Electryon was the father of Alcmene, son of Perseus and Andromeda, and king of Mycenae. ... In Greek mythology, Gorgophone was a daughter of Perseus and Andromeda. ... In Greek mythology Ethiopia (Aethiopia), is the name of a Phoenician Kingdom, also known as Joppa, believed to be modern day Jaffa, in Israel. ... Persia redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Electryon was the father of Alcmene, son of Perseus and Andromeda, and king of Mycenae. ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ... In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) (fearless) of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. ... Alcides redirects here. ... Amphitryon, or Amphitrion, in Greek mythology, was a son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns in Argolis. ... Alcaeus may refer to several ancient Greek figures: in mythology, Alcaeus was the son of Perseus and the father of Amphitryon. ...


A statement by the Athenian orator, Isocrates[19] helps to date Perseus roughly. He said that Heracles was four generations later than Perseus, which corresponds to the legendary succession: Perseus, Electryon, Alcmena, and Heracles, who was a contemporary of Eurystheus. Atreus was one generation later, a total of five generations. Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... In Greek mythology, Electryon was the father of Alcmene, son of Perseus and Andromeda, and king of Mycenae. ... In Greek mythology Alcmene, or Alkmênê (might of the moon) was the mother of Heracles. ... Alcides redirects here. ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ... In Greek mythology, King Atreus (Greek: Ατρεύς, Atreús) (fearless) of Mycenae was the son of Pelops and Hippodamia and father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. ...


Etymology

Because of the obscurity of the name Perseus and the legendary character of its bearer, most etymologists pass it by, on the presumption that it might be pre-Greek. However, the name of Perseus’ native city was Greek and so were the names of his wife and relatives. There is some prospect that it descended into Greek from the Proto-Indo-European language. In that regard Robert Graves has espoused the only Greek derivation available. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ...


Perseus might be from the ancient Greek verb, perthein, “to waste, ravage, sack, destroy”, some form of which appears in Homeric epithets. According to Carl Darling Buck (Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin), the –eus suffix is typically used to form an agent noun, in this case from the aorist stem, pers-. Pers-eus therefore is a sacker of cities; that is, a soldier by occupation, a fitting name for the first Mycenaean warrior. Carl Darling Buck (October 2, 1866 _ 1955), American philologist, was born at Bucksport, Maine. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστός without horizon, unbounded) a verb tense used in some Indo-European languages, such as Classical Greek, to denote action, or in the indicative mood, past action, without further implication. ...


The origin of perth- is more obscure. J. B. Hofmann[20] lists the possible root as *bher-, from which Latin ferio, "strike". This corresponds to Julius Pokorny’s *bher-(3), “scrape, cut.” Ordinarily *bh- descends to Greek as ph-. This difficulty can be overcome by presuming a dissimilation from the –th– in perthein; that is, the Greeks preferred not to say *pherthein. Julius Pokorny (1887–1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ...


Graves carries the meaning still further, to the perse- in Persephone, goddess of death. John Chadwick in the second edition of Documents in Mycenaean Greek speculates as follows about the goddess pe-re-*82 of Pylos tablet Tn 316, tentatively reconstructed as *Preswa: This article is about the Greek goddess. ... John Chadwick (21 May 1920 – 24 November 1998) was an English linguist and classical scholar most famous for his role in deciphering Linear B, along with Michael Ventris. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ...

”It is tempting to see...the classical Perse...daughter of Oceanus...; whether it may be further identified with the first element of Persephone is only speculative.”

A Greek folk etymology connected the name of the Fars people, whom they called the Persai. The native name, however has always had an -a- in Iranian. Herodotus[21]recounts this story, devising a foreign son, Perses, from whom the Persians took the name. Apparently the Persians themselves[22] knew the story, as Xerxes tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece. In Greek mythology, Perse (also Persa or Perseis) was a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, therefore one of the three-thousand Oceanids. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ...


Cyrus Gordon, known for his daring theories, proposed[23] that Perseus is a Semitic name, from p-r-s, "to cut." Nothing in the lore or the evidence excludes the possibility of Semitic elements among the early Greeks. The Greeks thought that Perseus meant "destroyer", but p-r-s would mean that as well. Cyrus Herzl Gordon (1908 - 2001), was an American scholar of Near Eastern cultures and a leading expert on ancient languages. ...


Perseus on Pegasus

The replacement of Bellerophon as the tamer and rider of Pegasus by the more familiar culture hero Perseus was not simply an error of painters and poets of the Renaissance. The transition was a development of Classical times which became the standard image during the Middle Ages and has been adopted by the European poets of the Renaissance and later: Giovanni Boccaccio's Genealogia deorum gentilium libri (10.27) identifies Pegasus as the steed of Perseus, and Pierre Corneille places Perseus upon Pegasus in Andromède.[24] For other uses, see Bellerophon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pegasus (disambiguation). ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Genealogia deorum gentilium by Giovanni Boccaccio was started around 1351, the year he met Francesco Petrarch in Florence, Italy. ... Pierre Corneille. ...


Modern uses of the theme

  • The legend of Perseus will be the basis for the 2010 film Clash of the Titans. Directed by Stephen Norrington. Lawrence Kasdan (screenplay). Travis Beacham (draft script). John Glenn (writer).
  • In Hermann Melville's Moby-Dick, the narrator asserts that Perseus was the first whaleman, when he killed Ceto to save Andromeda.[25]
  • Percy (Perseus) Jackson is the title character in the popular childrens series, Percy Jackson & The Olympians. He is able to communicate with Pegasi.

// January 19 - Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquires beleaguered concurrent United Artists. ... Clash of the Titans is a 1981 fantasy movie based on the myth of the Perseus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... GOW2 redirects here. ... Clash of the Titans is a 1981 fantasy movie based on the myth of the Perseus. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 - September 28, 1891) was a U.S. novelist, essayist, and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... In Greek mythology, Ceto, or Keto (Greek: Κητος, Ketos, sea monster) was a hideous aquatic monster, a daughter of Gaia and Pontus. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kerenyi 1959:45; see also Danaus.
  2. ^ In post-Renaissance paintings the setting is often a locked tower.
  3. ^ Eurymedon: "far-ruling"
  4. ^ For the familiar motif of the Exposed Child in the account of Moses especially, see Brevard S. Childs, "The Birth of Moses" Journal of Biblical Literature 84.2 (June 1965), pp 109-122, and Donald B. Redford, "The Literary Motif of the Exposed Child (Cf. Ex. ii 1-10)" Numen 14.3 (November 1967), pp 209-228. Another example of this mytheme is the Indian figure of Karna.
  5. ^ Such a banquet, to which each guest brings a gift, was an eranos. The name of Polydectes, "receiver of many", characterizes his role as intended host but is also a euphemism for the Lord of the Underworld, as in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter 9, 17.
  6. ^ Kerenyi 1959:48; Pausanias (viii.25.5): "When Demeter was wandering in search of her daughter, she was followed, it is said, by Poseidon, who lusted after her. So she turned, the story runs, into a mare, and grazed with the mares of Oncius; realizing that he was outwitted, Poseidon too changed into a stallion and enjoyed Demeter."
  7. ^ The sword of Perseus is an antique weapon, a harpe with a sickle-like extension to one side of the blade, for thrust and cut.Hermes also gave him winged sandels to fly. See Canova's Perseus (illustration).
  8. ^ Ordinarily the helm of invisibility belonged to Hades.
  9. ^ For the Greeks, the tamer and first rider of Pegasus was Bellerophon.
  10. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.1-235.
  11. ^ Catasterismi.
  12. ^ Argonautica, IV.
  13. ^ 12.16.1
  14. ^ 2.4.4
  15. ^ Metamorphoses, 5.177
  16. ^ loc. cit.
  17. ^ 2.15.4, 2.16.3-6, 2.18.1
  18. ^ 2.4.4, pros-teichisas, "walling in"
  19. ^ 4.07
  20. ^ Hofmann, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen (Munich) !950.
  21. ^ Herodotus, vii.61
  22. ^ Herodotus vii.150
  23. ^ Forgotten Scripts, Basic Books, 1982, ISBN 0-465-02484-X, Chapter 7
  24. ^ George Burke Johnston "Jonson's 'Perseus upon Pegasus'" The Review of English Studies New Series, 6.21 (Jan., 1955), pp. 65-67.
  25. ^ Melville, Hermann (1851), Moby-Dick. Chapter 82: The Honor and Glory of Whaling

Danaus, or Danaos (sleeper) was a Greek mythological character, twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. ... The motif of infant exposure is a recurring theme in mythology, especially among hero births. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Eranos is an intellectual discussion group dedicated to study of spirituality. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The Harpe was a type of sword mentioned in Greek and Latin sources, almost always in mythological contexts. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bellerophon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... Catasterismi (Greek Katasterismoi, placings among the stars) is an Alexandrian prose retelling of the mythic origins of stars and constellations, as they were interpreted in Hellenistic culture. ... The Argonautica (Greek: ) is a Greek epic poem written by Apollonius Rhodius in the 3rd century BC. The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 - September 28, 1891) was a U.S. novelist, essayist, and poet. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ...

References

  • Kerenyi, Karl, 1959. The Heroes of the Greeks.
  • Perseus in classical literature and art
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One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Perseus - definition of Perseus in Encyclopedia (809 words)
Perseus was the son of Danae, the only child of Acrisius king of Argos.
The oracle of Ammon having announced that no relief would be found until the king exposed his daughter Andromeda to the monster, she was fastened to a rock on the shore.
Here Perseus, returning from having slain the gorgon, found her, slew the monster, set her free, and married her in spite of Phineus, to whom she had before been promised.
Perseus (439 words)
Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danae.
To get rid of Perseus, Polydectes sent him on a quest to bring back the head of the Gorgon Medusa, a snake-haired maiden who turned all who saw her into stone.
They helped him acquire a pair of winged sandals, a wallet or satchel, and the cap of Hades; the sandals enabled him to fly, the satchel was to carry the Gorgon's head, and the cap conferred invisibility on its wearer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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