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Encyclopedia > Persephone
Proserpine, depicted with her pomegranate, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London)
Proserpine, depicted with her pomegranate, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London)

In Greek mythology, Persephone was the embodiment of the Earth's fertility at the same time that she was the Queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the parthenogenic daughter of Demeter—and, in later Classical myths, a daughter of Demeter and Zeus. In the Olympian version she also becomes the consort of Hades when he becomes the deity that governs the underworld. Look up Persephone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 253 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (689 × 1633 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dante Gabriel Rossetti - Proserpine (Oil on canvas, 1874) - Tate Gallery, London العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 253 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (689 × 1633 pixel, file size: 188 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dante Gabriel Rossetti - Proserpine (Oil on canvas, 1874) - Tate Gallery, London العربية | ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... The Tate Gallery in the United Kingdom is a network of four galleries: Tate Britain (opened 1897), Tate Liverpool (1988), Tate St Ives (1993), Tate Modern (2000), with a complementary website Tate Online (1998). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Hermes Psykhopompos: sitting on a rock, the god is preparing to lead a dead soul to the Underworld, Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


The figure of Persephone is well-known today. Her story has great emotional power: an innocent maiden, a mother's grief at the abduction, and joy at the return of her daughter. It is also cited frequently as a paradigm of myths that explain natural processes, with the descent and return of the goddess bringing about the change of seasons. A maiden may refer to: A female virgin. ... This article is about divisions of a year. ...


In Greek art, Persephone is invariably portrayed robed. She may be carrying a sheaf of grain and smiling demurely with the "Archaic smile" of the Kore of Antenor. Head of a kouros in the Athens National Archaeological Museum bearing a typical archaic smile. ...

Contents

Her name

Greek underworld
Residents
Geography
Famous Inmates

Persephone (Greek: Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) is her name in the Ionic Greek of epic literature. The Homeric form of her name is Persephoneia. In other dialects she was known under various other names: Persephassa, Persephatta, or simply Kore (Greek: κόρη, "girl, maiden" [1]) (when worshipped in the context of Demeter and Kore). Plato calls her Pherepapha (Φερέπαφα) in his Cratylus, "because she is wise and touches that which is in motion." Hermes Psykhopompos: sitting on a rock, the god is preparing to lead a dead soul to the Underworld, Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Aeacus (Greek: Aiakos, bewailing or earth borne) was king in the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf. ... Heracles and threatened Cerberus, Attic black-figure neck-amphora, ca. ... Michelangelos rendition of Charon. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Minos (disambiguation). ... In Greek myths, Rhadamanthus (Ῥαδαμάνθυς; also transliterated as Rhadamanthys or Rhadamanthos) was a wise king, the son of Zeus and Europa. ... Acheron river near the village of Glyki. ... The Asphodel Meadows is a section of the Ancient Greek underworld where indifferent and ordinary souls were sent to live after death. ... Cocytus, meaning the river of wailing (from the Greek κωκυτός, lamentation), is a river in the underworld in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Elysium (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology Erebus (Έρεβος Erebos, Deep blackness/darkness or shadow from Ancient Greek Έρεβος) was the son of a primordial God, Chaos, the personification of darkness and shadow, which filled in all the corners and crannies of the world. ... In Classical Greek, Lethe (LEE-thee) literally means forgetfulness or concealment. The Greek word for truth is a-lethe-ia, meaning un-forgetfulness or un-concealment. In Greek mythology, Lethe is one of the several rivers of Hades. ... In Greek mythology, the river Phlegethon (lake of fire) was one of the five rivers of the underworld, along with the rivers Styx, Lethe, Cocytus, and Acheron. ... Styx may refer to: Styx (band), an American rock band popular in the 1970s and 1980s Styx (album), the first album released by the band Styx in 1972 Styx forest, a forest in Tasmania, Australia Styx (Game), a 1983 game by Windmill Software Styx (MUD), a text-based game Styx... This article is about the deity and the place in Greek mythology. ... This article is about the Greek myth. ... For the genus of dung beetle, see Sisyphus (beetle). ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... KORE is an AM radio station in Springfield, Oregon, USA, serving the Eugene-Springfield metropolitan area with Christian music and programming. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. In the dialogue, Socrates is asked by two men, Cratylus and Hermogenes, to advise them whether names are conventional or natural, that is, whether language is a system of arbitrary signs or whether words have an...


The Romans first heard of her from the Aeolian and Dorian cities of Magna Graecia, who used the dialectal variant Proserpina. Hence, in Roman mythology she was called Proserpina, and as a revived Roman Proserpina, she became an emblematic figure of the Renaissance. At Locri, perhaps uniquely, Persephone was the protectress of marriage, a role usually assumed by Hera; in the iconography of votive plaques at Locri, her abduction and marriage by Hades serve as an emblem of the marital state; children at Locri were dedicated to Proserpina, and maidens about to be wed brought her their peplos to be blessed.[2] For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Aeolians were one of the ancient Greek tribes. ... This article or section should include material from Dorian invasion The Dorians were one of the ancient Hellenic (Greek) races. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Rape of Proserpina, by Luca Giordano Proserpine, 1873-1877, at Tate Gallery, London. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Locri Epizephyri (epi-Zephyros, under the West wind; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Pinax of Persephone and Hades from Locri (Museo Nazionale di Reggio di Calabria) // In the culture of ancient Greece and Magna Graecia, a pinax (πίναξ) (plural pinakes - πίνακες) or a board, denotes a votive tablet of painted wood,[1] terracotta, marble or bronze that served as a votive object deposited in a... Terracotta of a Greek woman 2. ...


In a Classical period text ascribed to Empedocles, c. 490–430 BC,[3] describing a correspondence between four deities and the classical elements, the name Nestis for water apparently refers to Persephone. "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears".[4] Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Several ancient Classical Element Greek version of these ideas persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture. ...


Of the four deities of Empedocles's elements, it is the name of Persephone alone that is taboo— Nestis is a euphemistic cult title—[5] for the Greeks knew another face of Persephone as well. She was also the terrible Queen of the Dead, whose name was not safe to speak aloud, who was euphemistically named, simply as, Kore, "The Maiden", a vestige of her archaic role as the deity ruling the underworld. This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ...


The Queen of the Underworld

There is an archaic role for Persephone as the dread queen of the Underworld, whose very name it was forbidden to speak. In the Odyssey, commonly dated circa 800 to 600 BC, when Odysseus goes to the Underworld, he refers to her as the Iron Queen. Her central myth, for all its emotional familiarity, also was the tacit context of the secret initiatory mystery rites of regeneration at Eleusis, which promised immortality to their awe-struck participants—an immortality in her world beneath the soil, feasting with the heroes beneath her dread gaze (Kerenyi 1960, 1967). For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ...

Seated goddess, probably Persephone on her throne in the underworld, Severe style ca 480-60, found at Tarentum, Magna Graecia (Pergamon Museum, Berlin)
Seated goddess, probably Persephone on her throne in the underworld, Severe style ca 480-60, found at Tarentum, Magna Graecia (Pergamon Museum, Berlin)

Persephone symbolizes new life alike to the secret garden Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ...


The Abduction Myth

In the later Olympian pantheon of Classical Greece, Persephone is given a father: according to Hesiod's Theogony, Persephone was the daughter produced by the union of Demeter and Zeus. "And he [Zeus] came to the bed of bountiful Demeter, who bore white-armed Persephone, stolen by Hades from her mother's side". Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Unlike every other offspring of an Olympian pairing of deities, Persephone has no stable position at Olympus. Persephone used to live far away from the other deities, a goddess within Nature before the days of planting seeds and nurturing plants. In the Olympian telling [1], the gods Hermes, Ares, Apollo, and Hephaestus, had all wooed Persephone, but Demeter rejected all their gifts and hid her daughter away from the company of the Olympian deities. Thus, Persephone lived a peaceful life before she became the goddess of the underworld, which, according to Olympian mythographers, did not occur until Hades abducted her and brought her into the underworld. She was innocently picking flowers with some nymphs—, Athena, and Artemis, the Homeric hymn says—, or Leucippe, or Oceanids— in a field in Enna when Hades came to abduct her, bursting up through a cleft in the earth; the nymphs were changed by Demeter into the Sirens for not having interfered. Life came to a standstill as the devastated Demeter, goddess of the Earth, searched everywhere for her lost daughter. Helios, the sun, who sees everything, eventually told her what had happened. For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... In Greek mythology, Leucippe was the name of several individuals: Leucippe was one of the Minyades who were driven by Dionysus to kill Hippasus. ... In Greek and Roman mythology, the Oceanids were the three thousand children of Oceanus and Tethys. ... Enna, the ancient Haenna, is a city located in the center of Sicily in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside. ... This article is about the bird-women of Greek myth. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ...

The Return of Persephone by Frederic Leighton (1891)
The Return of Persephone by Frederic Leighton (1891)

Finally, Zeus, pressured by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who also heard their anguish, could not put up with the dying earth and forced Hades to return Persephone. But before she was released to Hermes, who had been sent to retrieve her, Hades tricked her into eating three pomegranate seeds, (six, one or four according to the telling) which forced her to return to the underworld for a season each year. In some versions, Ascalaphus informed the other deities that Persephone had eaten the pomegranate seeds. When Demeter and her daughter were united, the Earth flourished with vegetation and color, but for four months each year, when Persephone returned to the underworld, the earth once again became a barren realm. This is an origin story to explain the seasons. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (581x800, 118 KB) Frederic Leighton (1830–1896). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (581x800, 118 KB) Frederic Leighton (1830–1896). ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... In Greek mythology, two people share the name Ascalaphus. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


In an earlier version, Hecate rescued Persephone. On an Attic red-figured bell krater of ca 440 BCE in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Persephone is rising as if up stairs from a cleft in the earth, while Hermes stands aside; Hecate. holding two torches, looks back as she leads her to the enthroned Demeter.[6] For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... Woman officiating at an altar, Attic red-figure kylix by Chairias, c. ... A krater (Greek κρατηρ, from the Greek verb κεραννυμι, to mix. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ...


In the earliest known version the dreaded goddess, Persephone, was herself Queen of the Underworld (Burkert or Kerenyi).


In some versions, Demeter forbids the earth to produce, in others she is so busy looking for Persephone that she neglects the earth, or her duties as the Earth which she represents, and in some the depth of her despair causes nothing to grow.

Triptolemos sits in the winged chariot drawn by serpents and accepts moisture given by Persephone, tondo of a red-figure cup by the Aberdeen Painter, (Louvre)
Triptolemos sits in the winged chariot drawn by serpents and accepts moisture given by Persephone, tondo of a red-figure cup by the Aberdeen Painter, (Louvre)

This myth also can be interpreted as an allegory of ancient Greek marriage rituals. The Classical Greeks felt that marriage was a sort of abduction of the bride by the groom from the bride's family, and this myth may have explained the origins of the marriage ritual. The more popular etiological explanation of the seasons may have been a later interpretation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1848x1836, 2832 KB) Description Variants Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persephone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1848x1836, 2832 KB) Description Variants Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Persephone Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Persephone, the Iron Queen

In one version of the myth, Persephone, as Queen of Hades, only mercifully relinquished a subject once; because the music of Orpheus was so hauntingly sad, she allowed Orpheus to bring his wife Eurydice back to the land of the living, as long as she walked behind him and he never tried to look at her face until they reached the surface. Orpheus agreed, but failed, looking back at the very end to make sure his wife was following, and he lost Eurydice forever. For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, there were several characters named Eurydice (Eurydíkê, Ευρυδίκη). // The most famous was a woman — or a nymph — who was the wife of Orpheus. ...


Persephone also figures in the story of Adonis, the Syrian consort of Aphrodite. When Adonis was born, Aphrodite took him under her wing, seducing him with the help of Helene, her friend, and was entranced by his unearthly beauty. She gave him to Persephone to watch over, but Persephone also was amazed at his beauty and refused to give him back. The argument between the two goddesses was settled, either by Calliope, or by Zeus, (depending on the antiquity of the myth), with Adonis spending four months with Aphrodite, four months with Persephone and four months of the year on his own. This later myth placed a god into the position of a goddess in the cycle of the seasons. In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Helene (different from Helen of Troy as well as Hellen) referred to two different people: A friend of Aphrodites, Helene helped her seduce Adonis. ... This article is about the muse. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


When Hades pursued a nymph named Minthe, Persephone turned her into a mint plant. In Greek mythology, Minthe (also Menthe, Mentha, Mintho, in Greek Μένθη) was a nymph associated with the river Cocytus. ... “Mint” redirects here. ...


Persephone was the object of Pirithous's affections. In a late myth, Pirithous and Theseus, his friend, pledged to marry daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen and together they kidnapped her and decided to hold onto her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus' mother, Aethra, and traveled to the underworld, domain of Persephone and her husband, Hades. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast; as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there. Edith Hamilton called it a "Chair of Forgetfulness" that they sat upon. It also should be noted that Heracles was able to save Theseus from this fate when he was in the Underworld, but Hades forced Pirithous to remain seated forever. In Greek mythology, Pirithous (also transliterated as Perithoos or Peirithoos) was the King of the Lapiths and husband of Hippodamia. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Helen of Troy redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezena and, with Aegeas, or in some versions, Poseidon, mother of Theseus. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ...


Persephone and her mother Demeter were often referred to as aspects of the same Earth goddess, and were called "the Demeters" or simply "the goddesses."


Persephone in modern scholarship

Lady of Auxerre - this early Archaic ("Daedalic") image from Crete may represent a version of the Minoan goddess that Karl Kerenyi identified with Kore or Persephone. The statue postdates the end of Minoan culture by 700 years.
Lady of Auxerre - this early Archaic ("Daedalic") image from Crete may represent a version of the Minoan goddess that Karl Kerenyi identified with Kore or Persephone. The statue postdates the end of Minoan culture by 700 years.

The small (70 cm high) limestone Lady of Auxerre, (or Kore of Auxerre) is a sculpture at the Louvre Museum in Paris It depicts an archaic Greek goddess of c. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ...

Persephone before the Greeks?

Some modern scholars have argued that the cult of Persephone was a continuation of Neolithic or Minoan goddess-worship. Among classicists, this thesis has been argued by Gunther Zuntz (Zuntz 1973) and cautiously included by Walter Burkert in his definitive Greek Religion. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...


More daringly, the mythologist Karl Kerenyi has identified Persephone with the nameless "mistress of the labyrinth" at Knossos from the Bronze Age Minoan civilization on Crete that flourished from 1700 BC. One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... This article is about the mazelike structure from Greek mythology. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... Minoan may refer to the following: The Minoan civilization The (undeciphered) Eteocretan language The (undeciphered) Minoan language The script known as Linear A An old name for the Mycenean language before it was deciphered and discovered to be a form of Greek. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


On the other hand, the hypothesis of an Aegean cult of the Earth Mother has come under some criticism in recent years. For more on both sides of the controversy, see Mother Goddess. A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ...


Life-death-rebirth

Inspired by James Frazer, Jane Ellen Harrison, and modern mythologers, some scholars have labeled Persephone a life-death-rebirth deity. Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854, Glasgow, Scotland – May 7, 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850–April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are...


Consorts and children assigned in Classical myths

  • Heracles
    • Zagreus (Some say that Heracles is the father of Zagreus by Persephone but it is usually said that Zeus is his father)
  • Zeus
    • Zagreus (according to one tradition. See Orphic mysteries) (although sometimes thought of as son of Demeter and not Persephone)
  • Hades
  • Adonis (according to one tradition, though this is sometimes thought of as a misinterpretation of Aidoneus, an alternate name of Hades)
  • Hermes (according to one tradition)

Alcides redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Zagreus was sometimes used as a name for Dionysus. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Zagreus was sometimes used as a name for Dionysus. ... For other senses of the word Orpheus, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology Adonis (Greek: , also: Άδωνις) is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity of Semitic origin, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...

The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica account of the myth

"As she was gathering flowers with her playmates in a meadow, the earth opened and Pluto, god of the dead, appeared and carried her off to be his queen in the world below. ... Torch in hand, her sorrowing mother sought her through the wide world, and finding her not she forbade the earth to put forth its increase. So all that year not a blade of corn grew on the earth, and men would have died of hunger if Zeus had not persuaded Pluto to let Persephone go. But before he let her go Pluto made her eat the seed of a pomegranate, and thus she could not stay away from him for ever. So it was arranged that she should spend two-thirds (according to later authors, one-half) of every year with her mother and the heavenly gods, and should pass the rest of the year with Pluto beneath the earth. ... As wife of Pluto, she sent spectres, ruled the ghosts, and carried into effect the curses of men." In Greek mythology, the Keres (singular: Ker) were female death-spirits and sources of evils. ...


Persephone in astronomy

Persephone is the name of a Main belt asteroid with a diameter of 49.1km, discovered by Max Wolf in 1895 in Heidelberg. 399 Persephone is a typical Main belt asteroid. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer, a pioneer of astrophotography. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persephone

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Rape of Proserpina, by Luca Giordano Proserpine, 1873-1877, at Tate Gallery, London. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... Anthesphoria, in antiquity, was a flower-festival celebrated in Sicily, and to a lesser extent Peloponnesus, in honor of Proserpine (or Persephone in Greek mythology). ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...

Notes

  1. ^ H.G. Liddell-R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  2. ^ Christiane Sourvinou-Inwood, "Persephone" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 98 (1978:101-121).
  3. ^ Empedocles was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher who was a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek colony in Sicily.
  4. ^ Peter Kingsley, in Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1995).
  5. ^ Kingsley 1995 identifies Nestis as a cult title of Persephone.
  6. ^ The figures are unmistakable, as they are inscribed "Persophata, Hermes, Hekate, Demeter"; Gisela M. A. Richter, "An Athenian Vase with the Return of Persephone" The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 26.10 (October 1931:245-248)

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  • Karl Kerenyi (Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter, 1960, in English 1967)
  • Günther Zuntz, Persephone: Three Essays on Religion and Thought in Magna Graecia, 1973
  • Walter Burkert, Greek Religion 1985
  • Lewis Richard Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, Volume 3 (1906) (Chapters on: Demeter and Kore-Persephone; Cult-Monuments of Demeter-Kore; Ideal Types of Demeter-Kore).

One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

External links

  • Kore Photographs
  • Flickr users' photos tagged with Persephone
Greek deities series
Primordial deities | Titans | Aquatic deities | Chthonic deities
Twelve Olympians
Zeus | Hera | Poseidon | Hades | Hestia | Demeter | Aphrodite
Athena | Apollo | Artemis | Ares | Hephaestus | Hermes | Dionysus
Chthonic deities
Hades | Persephone | Gaia | Demeter | Hecate | Iacchus | Trophonius | Triptolemus | Erinyes
The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hestia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Iacchus is an uncertain person. ... Trophonius (the Latinate spelling) or Trophonios (in the transliterated Greek spelling) was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... Two Furies, from an ancient vase. ...

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