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Encyclopedia > Persecution of Zoroastrians
Religious persecution
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This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Conflicts between Christians and non-Christians have at times resulted in the persecution by Christians of non-Christians. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Contrary to popular belief, the Africans enslaved to build the economic foundation of America were not Christians. ... Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... First Christians in Kiev by Vasily Perov; Christians worshipping secretly in fear of persecution Many Christians have experienced persecution from both non-Christians and from other Christians during the history of Christianity. ... Many adherents of Germanic paganism have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Persecution of Pagans includes the loss of human rights under the law or through individual hate crimes for people who practise or who might be thought to practise paganism. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ...

Primary Topics

Zoroastrianism / Mazdaism
Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra (Zoroaster) Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... Zoroaster; portrayed here in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ...

Angels and Demons

Overview of the Angels
Amesha Spentas · Yazatas
Ahuras · Daevas
Angra Mainyu Zoroastrian angelology is branch of Zoroastrian doctrine that deals with the hierarchical system of divinities introduced by the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... A div (earlier Persian dēv, Middle Persian dēw, Avestan daēva) is an evil spirit in Persian mythology that loves to cause harm and destruction. ... Angra Mainyu (Avestan) or Ahriman (Middle Persian اهريمن) is the evil counterpart of the deity Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism. ...

Scripture and Worship

Avesta · Gathas
The Ahuna Vairya Invocation
Fire Temples
See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... Ahuna Vairya is the Avestan language name of the most sacred of the Gathic hymns of the Avesta, the revered texts of Zoroastrianism. ... The Yazd Atash Behram A Fire Temple (also Dar-e Mihr in Persian در مهر, or Atash Kadeh آتشکده in Iran, Agiary in India, and various names in North America) is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ...

Accounts and Legends

Dēnkard
Book of Arda Viraf
Qissa-i Sanjan
The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ...

History and Culture

Zurvanism
Medes · Achaemenids
Sassanids
Calendar · Eschatology
Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Zoroastrianism eschatology is the oldest eschatology in recorded history. ...

Adherents

Parsis ·
Iranis · Persians
Zoroastrians in Iran A Parsi (IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ...

See Also

Index of Related Articles

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The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ‎ Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


Since the Arab conquest of Persia Zoroastrian empire by the Arab conquest of Persia, Zoroastrians in Iran have faced much religious discrimination including forced conversions, harassments, as well as being identified as najis and impure to Muslims, making them unfit to live alongside Muslims therefore forcing them to evacuate from cities and face major sanctions in all senses. These persistent persecutions have overall has resulted in the ruling class Zoroastrian community which had much influence over the pre-Islamic era Persian empires to become one of the smallest religious minorities in the world. The Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 CE) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia (modern day Iran). ... The Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 CE) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia (modern day Iran). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ...

Contents

Economical penalties

The Zoroastrian community has faced many different types of economic penalties often varied under different ruling dynasty.


Jizya

Main article: Jizya

In the Sassanid Persian empire before the Arab conquest Zoroastrianism was the state religion and therefore Zoroastrians faced little or no persecution. However after the fall of the Sassanid empire, Zoroastrians soon faced persecution through different ways which also started the decline of Zoroastrianism through gradual conversions of Persians to Islam. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], known as dhimmis, in exchange for being allowed to live, practice their faith, subject to certain...


After the Arab conquest of Persia, the Arabs took over the Sassanian tax-system and introduced the new Jizya which was a special tax for the non-muslims (unbelievers).[1]

"If a province or people recieve you, make an agreement with them and keep your promise. Let them be governed by their laws and established customs, and take tribute from them as is agreed between you. Leave them in their religion and their land."[2]
Caliph Abu Bakr

The jizya was finally abolished in 1882 over 1200 years later after it was first used on Zoroastrians in Iran. This came about after much efforts by a trader called Manekji who was sent by the Society for the Amelioration of the Conditions of the Zoroastrians in Persia which was established in 1850s in Bombay by son of an Iranian-Parsi couple.[1] Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


Migrations

There have been at least two major wave of migration of Persian Zoroastrians from their original home land, Persia (modern day Iran) to India. The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The first major wave of migration of Zoroastrian Persians from Iran was in the tenth century. The migration by founding fathers of the current Parsi community in India, took place from Khorasan. They travelled to the port of Hormuzd on the Persian Gulf where according to Parsi traditions they travelled to island of Div (Diu) near the coast of Kathiawar, where they stayed for 19 years before going to Gujarat where major Parsi communities are found today.[1] A Parsi (IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Diu may mean: An island off the south west coast of Gujarat in India. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ...


Qissa-i Sanjan

Main article: Qissa-i Sanjan

According to the Qissa-i Sanjan "Story of Sanjan", the only existing account of the early years of Zoroastrian refugees in India and composed at least six centuries after the tentative date of arrival, the immigrants originated from Khorasan. After arrival, they were granted asylum by the local ruler Jadi Rana on the condition that: The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ... Nader Afshars tomb in Mashad. ... Jadi Rana or Jadav Rana is a figure from the Qissa-i Sanjan, an epic poem completed in 1599, which is an account of the flight of some of the Zoroastrians who were subject to religious persecution following the fall of the Persian Empire, and of their early years in...

  1. They adopt the local language (Gujarati)
  2. Their women adopt local dress (the Sari)
  3. They henceforth cease to bear arms.[3]

The refugees accepted the conditions and founded the settlement of Sanjan, which is said to have been named after the city of their origin (Sanjan, near Merv, in present-day Turkmenistan). In addition to the Khorasanis or Kohistanis (mountain folk, as the Sanjan group was initially called), other groups also migrated to India, at least one of which is known to have come overland from Sari (in present-day Mazandaran, Iran). This latter group would subsequently found the Indian city of Navsari.[4] Gujarātī is an Indo-Aryan language, part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The figure-flattering sari can be counted amongst the most graceful dresses A sari (also spelled saree) is the traditional garment worn by many women in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sanjan is the second station in Gujarat (the first station is Umergaon) just inside the Gujarat-Maharashtra border, when travelling on the Western Railway line. ... Sanjan was an ancient city in Greater Khorasan, a realm in northeastern Iran, in the vicinity of the historically eminent city of Merv. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Sari is the capital city of the Iranian province of Mazandaran in northern Iran. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Navsari is a city and a municipality in Navsari district in the Indian state of Gujarat. ...


Although the Sanjan group are believed to have been the first permanent settlers, the precise date of their arrival is a matter of conjecture. All estimates are based on the Qissa, which is vague or contradictory with respect to some elapsed periods. Consequently, three possible dates - 936 CE, 765 CE and 716 CE - have been proposed as the year of landing, and the disagreement has been the cause of "many an intense battle ... amongst Parsis".[5] For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ...


Mongol invasion

Main article: Mongol Empire

The Mongol invasion of Persia was devastating for all communities as the death toll was huge. Number of books including every copy of the Sassanian Avesta were destroyed. Most major fire temples were most probably demolished at that time. Main cities who escaped the worst of the slaughter were those around oasis cities of Pars including Yazd and Kerman where even today the major Iranian Zoroastrian communities are found.[1] Expansion of the Mongol Empire Estimated maximum extent of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Great Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Fārs (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ... Image:Kirman. ...


See also

Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Mary Boyce, "Zoroastrians, Their Religious Beliefs and Practices": Under the Caliphs (2001)
  2. ^ Tritton, A.R, The Caliphs and their non-Muslim Subjects: a Critical Study of the Covenant of Umar (1930). cit. 137
  3. ^ Shahpurshah Hormasji Hodivala, Studies in Parsi History (Bombay, 1920, pp. 94-117.)
  4. ^ Paymaster, (1954)
  5. ^ S. Taraporevala, Zoroastrians of India (Parsis: A Photographic Journey), (2000).

 
 

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