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Encyclopedia > Persecution of Buddhists
Religious persecution
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Many Buddhists have experienced persecution from non-Buddhists during the history of Buddhism. Persecution may refer to unwarranted arrest, imprisonment, beating, torture, or execution. It also may refer to the confiscation or destruction of property, or the incitement of hatred toward Buddhists. This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Conflicts between Christians and non-Christians have at times resulted in the persecution by Christians of non-Christians. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... A forced conversion occurs when someone adopts a religion or philosophy under the threat that a refusal would result in negative consequences not just in the afterlife but in this life too, ranging from job loss, social isolation to incarceration, torture, or death. ... A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. ... Religious discrimination is valuing a person or group lower because of their religion, or treating someone differently because of what they do or dont believe. ... Religion and neo-fascism refers to the relationship between neo-fascism and religion. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government-authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law in which governments are either directly controlled by or significantly under... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Religious violence. ... Religious violence Throughout history, religious beliefs have provoked some believers into violence. ... Spiritual abuse is the name given to what many critics consider abusive practices in churches, and spiritual and religious organizations and groups. ... Contrary to popular belief, the Africans enslaved to build the economic foundation of America were not Christians. ... Many followers of Ancient Greek religion have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians. ... Many adherents of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the persecution resumed once again under Gratian and Theodosius I. Persecution in this sense may... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209. ... First Christians in Kiev by Vasily Perov; Christians worshipping secretly in fear of persecution Christians have experienced persecution from both non-Christians and from other Christians during the history of Christianity. ... Many adherents of Germanic paganism have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Persecution of Pagans includes the loss of human rights under the law or through individual hate crimes for people who practise or who might be thought to practise paganism. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Contents

Persecution in Central Asia

Sasanids

In 224 CE Zoroastrianism was made the official religion of the Persia, and other religions were not tolerated, thus halting the spread of Buddhism westwards. [1] In the 3rd century the Sassanids overran the Bactrian region, overthrowing Kushan rule,[2] were persecuted with many of their stupas fired.[1] Although strong supporters of Zoroastrianism, the Sasanids tolerated Buddhism and allowed the construction of more Buddhist monasteries. It was during their rule that the Lokottaravada followers erected the two colossal Buddha statues at Bamiyan.[2] Zoroastrianism (Avestan Daênâ Vañuhi the good religion)[1][2] is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ...


During the second half of the third century, when the Zoroastrian high priest Kirder dominated the religious policy of the state.[2] He ordered the destruction of several Buddhist monasteries in Afghanistan, since the amalgam of Buddhism and Zoroastrianism mainfested in the form of a "Buddha-Mazda" deity appeared to him as heresy.[2] Buddhism quickly recovered, however, after his death.[2]


Hepthalites

Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century following the White Hun invasion who followed their own religions such as Tengri, Nestorian Christianity and Manichean.[2] Around 440 CE they conquered Sogdiana then conquered Gandhara and pushed on into the gangetic plains.[1][2] Their King Mihirkula who ruled from 515 CE suppressed Buddhism destroying monasteries as far as modern-day Allahabad before his son reversed the policy.[2] This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Sogdiana, ca. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Gangetic Plains are the part of the Ganges River (or River Ganga) that flows across Indias northern plains. ... This article is about the Indian city. ...


Persecution by Christians

Thích Quảng Đức, a Vietnamese Buddhist monk, burned himself to death in Saigon in 1963. Thích was protesting the oppression of Buddhists led by U.S.-installed Catholic Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm's administration.   (born Lâm Văn Tức in 1897 - June 11, 1963), was a Vietnamese Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon intersection on June 11, 1963. ... Ngô Đình Diệm â–¶(?) «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of the Republic of Vietnam (1955–63). ...


Buddhists in Sri Lanka were persecuted by Catholics during the fifteen and sixteenth centuries[1].


Persecution by Muslims

Persecution in India

Islamic rulers have been known implement a policy on their subjects to either accept conversion to Islam or flee the land under Islamic rule; otherwise punishable by enslavement or even execution. [3] The Mahabodhi Movement in 1890s held the Muslim Rule in India responsible for the decay of Buddhism in India. [4][5][6] Anagarika Dharmapala did not hesitate to lay the chief blame for the decline of Buddhism in India at the door of Muslim fanaticism. [7] Dr. B. R. Ambedkar stated Islam as the major behind the decline of Buddhism in India. [8] Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Founded by Anagarika Dhammapala, the Maha Bodhi Society is a South Asian Buddhist society. ... Anagarika Dharmapala (1864 - 1933) was born David Hewavitarne in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a religious ideology which advocates literalistic interpretations of the sacred texts of Islam, Sharia law, and an Islamic State. ... Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (April 14, 1891 or 1892 - December 6, 1956) was the most prominent Indian Untouchable leader of the 20th century. ...


Arab invaders described Indian Pagans as But-parast, and idol-breakers as but-shikan. The word "but" is derived from Buddhism, but the Arabs used it for "Indian paganism" in general.[9] Therefore in Arabic chronicles it is not always evident if Buddhists, Hindus or other Indian religions are meant. Languages Arabic Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Noble group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back...


Muhammad bin Qasim demolished temples and monasteries, e.g. he built at Nirun a mosque on the site of the temple of Budh.[10] Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ...


Around 1000 CE, Turkic, Persian and the Afghan Muslims began major incursions into India through the traditional invasion routes of the northwest. Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1030) established a base in Punjab and raided nearby areas. Mahmud of Ghazni is said to have been an iconoclast.[11] Hindu and Buddhist statues, shrines and temples were looted and destroyed, and many Buddhists had to take refuge in Tibet.[12] Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Events: The Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man, is founded. ... Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ...


He demolished numerous monasteries alongside temples during his raid across north-western India. In 1193, Qutb-ud-Din, a Turkish commander, seized control of Delhi, leaving defenseless the northeastern territories that were the heart of Buddhist India. The Mahabodhi Temple was almost completely destroyed by the invading muslim forces. [13] One of Qutb-ud-Din's generals, Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, invaded Magadha and destroyed the great Buddhist shrines at Nalanda. [14] The Buddhism of Magadha suffered a tremendous decline under Khilji. [15] // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... Delhi   (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, Punjabi: ) is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... The Mahabodhi Temple is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji (Persian اختيار الدين محمد بن بختيار الخلجي), also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyaru l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji, was a Khilji, a Muslim Turk, who was head of the armies that conquered much of northeastern India. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ...


Muhammad of Ghor attacked the North-Western regions of the Indian subcontinent many times. Gujarat later fell to Muhammad of Ghor's armies in 1197. Muhammad of Ghor's armies destroyed many Buddhist structures, including the great Buddhist university of Nalanda. [16] Muhammad of Ghor (Persian:محمد شہاب الدین غوری) also Muhammad Ghori,Mohammad Ghauri, etc. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... A view of the ruins of Nalanda University In the extreme rear is visible stucco (lime plaster fresco) wall art from the Gupta period. ...


In 1200 Muhammad Khilji, one of Qutb-ud-Din's generals destroyed monasteries fortified by the Sena armies, such as the one at Vikramshila. Many monuments of ancient Indian civilization were destroyed by the invading armies, including Buddhist sanctuaries near Benares. Buddhist monks who escaped the massacre fled to Nepal, Tibet and South India. [17] Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Muhammad Khilji (12th century CE) was one of the military generals of Qutab-ud-din. ... Qutb-ud-din Aybak was a ruler of Medieval India, the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Slave dynasty (also known as the Mamluk dynasty). ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Vikramshila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), having the two names different connotations; see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ...


In 1215, Genghis Khan conquered Gandhar. In 1227, after his death, his conquest was divided. Chagatai then established the Chagatai Khanate, where his son Arghun made Buddhism the state religion. At the same time, he came down harshly on Islam and demolished mosques to build many stupas. He was succeeded by his brother, and then his son Ghazan who converted to Islam and in 1295 changed the state religion. After his reign, and the splitting of the Chagatai Khanate, little mention of Buddhism or the stupas built by the Mongols can be found in Afghanistan and Central Asia.[18] // Events A certified copy of the Magna Carta June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricting the kings power. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Gandhar is a gotra or clan of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh in India. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... Chagatai can refer to different things: Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan Chagatai language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Arghun Khan (c. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Ghazan Khan was ruler of the Ilkhanate from 1295 to 1305. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ...


Timur was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent [19][20][21][22], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire. Warlord is a term that refers to one who has de facto military control of a subnational area, due to armed forces which are personally obedient to — somewhat circularly — that warlord. ... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic horsemen who served as rulers and conquerors in the Turco-Persian society. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ...


Timur destroyed Buddhist establishments and raided areas in which Buddhism had flourished. [23][24] Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405...


Mughal rule also contributed to the decline of Buddhism. They are reported to have destroyed many Hindu temples and Buddhist shrines alike or converted many sacred Hindu places into Muslim shrines and mosques.[25] Mughal rulers like Aurangzeb destroyed Buddhist temples and monasteries and replaced them with Islamic mosques. [26] The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ‎, English: ) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ...


Iconoclasm

Nalanda and other universities

Nalanda, Vikramasila, Jagaddala, Odantapuri and other Buddhist centers of learning and monasteries were destroyed by Muslim invaders. Many of the monks were killed during these destructions.[27]


Persecution in Kashmir and Ladakh

The Ladakh Buddhist Association has said: “There is a deliberate and organised design to convert Kargil’s Buddhists to Islam. In the last four years, about 50 girls and married women with children were allured and converted from village Wakha alone. If this continues unchecked, we fear that Buddhists will be wiped out from Kargil in the next two decades or so. Anyone objecting to such allurement and conversions is harassed."[28] Ladakh Buddhist Association (LBA) is an organization in Ladakh concerned with interests of Buddhists in Ladakh. ...


In 1989, there were violent riots between Buddhists and Muslims, provoking the Ladakh Buddhist Council to call for a social and economic boycott of Muslims, which was lifted in 1992.


Persecution in Thailand

A resurgence in violence by Muslim Pattani separatist groups in Thailand began in 2001. During 2004 there were at least 15 cases where Buddhists have been beheaded. [2], [3], [4] Combatants Thai Government/Military Muslim separatists Pattini Raya Commanders Gen. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Ehsan Yar-Shater, The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge University, 1983, ISBN 0521246938 pg. 860-861
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Alexander Berzin, Historical Sketch of Buddhism and Islam in Afghanistan and Buddhists, November 2001, Online Article from the Berzin Archives. accessed 3 January 2007
  3. ^ In the Path of God (Ppr): Islam and Political Power By Daniel Pipes (page 45)
  4. ^ A Close View of Encounter between British Burma and British Bengal
  5. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 205)
  6. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 58)
  7. ^ The Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi: And Other Essays, Philosophical and Sociological By Ardeshir Ruttonji Wadia (page 483)
  8. ^ "there can be no doubt that the fall of Buddhism was due to the invasions of the Muslims.” (B.R. Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, vol.3, p.229 - Chapter “The decline and fall of Buddhism”). He wrote: “Thus the origin of the word ["but", Persian for "idol"] indicates that in the Muslim mind idol worship had come to be identified with the religion of Buddha. To the Muslims they were one and the same thing. The mission to break idols thus became the mission to destroy Buddhism. Islam destroyed Buddhism not only in India but wherever it went. Bactria, Parthia, Afghanistan, Gandhara and Chinese Turkestan (…) in all these countries Islam destroyed Buddhism.” (B.R. Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, vol.3, p.229-230.)
  9. ^ Elliot & Dowson: History of India, vol.1, p.119, 120. Koenraad Elst: Who is a Hindu. 2001
  10. ^ Elliot & Dowson: History of India, vol.1, p.158
  11. ^ Notes on the Religious, Moral, and Political State of India Before the Mohammedan Invasion:... By Faxian, Sykes (William Henry) pg.??
  12. ^ How to Prepare for the Sat II: World History By Marilynn Hitchens, Heidi Roupp, pg. ??
  13. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 205)
  14. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 8)
  15. ^ The Maha-Bodhi By Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta (page 205)
  16. ^ Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions By C. J. Bleeker, G. Widengren page 381
  17. ^ Islam at War: A History By Mark W. Walton, George F. Nafziger, Laurent W. Mbanda (page 226)
  18. ^ The Ilkhanate
  19. ^ B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006
  20. ^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, "Timur", 6th ed., Columbia University Press: "... Timur (timoor') or Tamerlane (tăm'urlān), c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. ...", (LINK)
  21. ^ "Timur", in Encyclopaedia Britannica: "... [Timur] was a member of the Turkic Barlas clan of Mongols..."
  22. ^ "Baber", in Encyclopaedia Britannica: "... Baber first tried to recover Samarkand, the former capital of the empire founded by his Mongol ancestor Timur Lenk ..."
  23. ^ Sir Aurel Stein: Archaeological Explorer By Jeannette Mirsky
  24. ^ Ethnicity & Family Therapy edited by Nydia Garcia-Preto, Joe Giordano, Monica McGoldrick
  25. ^ War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Tibet By Eric S. Margolis page 165
  26. ^ India By Sarina Singh
  27. ^ B.R. Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, vol.3, p.232.
  28. ^ Tundup Tsering and Tsewang Nurboo, in: “Ladakh visited”, Pioneer, 4/12/1995.

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... ... ...

Further reading

  • Al-Biladhuri: Kitãb Futûh Al-Buldãn, translated into English by F.C. Murgotte, New York, 1924. See Goel's "Hindu Temples" for a list of 80 Muslim historians writing on the Islamic invasions.
  • Sita Ram Goel: Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them 2 vols. ISBN 81-85990-49-2 Vol.1; Vol.2
  • Sita Ram Goel: The Story of Islamic Imperialism in India [5]
  • Elliot and Dowson: The History of India as told by its own Historians, New Delhi reprint, 1990.
  • Majumdar, R. C. (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Volume VI, The Delhi Sultanate, Bombay, 1960; Volume VII, The Mughal Empire, Bombay, 1973.

Sita Ram Goel (Devanāgarī: सीता राम गोयल, Sītā Rām Goyal) (1921–2003), author and publisher, is an important figure amongst late 20th century Hindu thinkers. ... Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them is a book in two volumes by Sita Ram Goel, Arun Shourie, Harsh Narain, Jay Dubashi and Ram Swarup. ... The History of India as told by its own Historians is book in eight volumes by H.M. Elliot and J. Dowson. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Buddhist terms and concepts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2241 words)
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