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Encyclopedia > Perpendicular Gothic

The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 355 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 355 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 Winchester Cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England. ... Sherborne Abbey, Dorset, England. ... Sherborne Abbey, Dorset, England. ... Sherborne Abbey The Abbey Church of St. ... See also Gothic art. ...


The Perpendicular style began to emerge c. 1350. It was a development of the Decorated style of the late 13th century and early 14th century, and lasted into the mid 16th century (the terms "Perpendicular" and "Decorated" were unknown at that time; they were coined by the antiquarian Thomas Rickman in his Attempt to Discriminate the Style of Architecture in England (1812–1815) and are still widely used). Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... The West Front of Exeter Cathedral The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral The Decorated Period, in architecture (also known as the Decorated Gothic, or simply Decorated) period is a historical division of English Gothic architecture. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Thomas Rickman (June 8, 1776 - January 4, 1841), English architect, was born on the 8th of June 1776 at Maidenhead, Berkshire, where he assisted his father (a Quaker) in business as a grocer and druggist until 1797. ...


With all these early architectural styles there is a gradual overlap between the periods: as fashions changed, new elements were often used alongside older ones, especially in large buildings such as churches and cathedrals, which were constructed (and added to) over long periods of time. In the later examples of the Decorated Period the omission of the circles in the tracery of windows had led to the employment of curves of double curvature which developed into flamboyant tracery: the introduction of the perpendicular lines was a reaction in the contrary direction. Church in Villach, Austria. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... Tracery is implementation of net-like decorations in a building used especially in Gothic architecture. ... Perpendicular is a geometric term that may be used as a noun or adjective. ...

Contents


Features of the style

Westminster Hall and its magnificent hammerbeam roof, pictured in the early 18th century
Westminster Hall and its magnificent hammerbeam roof, pictured in the early 18th century
Fan vaulting in Bath Abbey (restored)
Fan vaulting in Bath Abbey (restored)

This perpendicular linearity is particularly obvious in the design of windows, which became very large, sometimes of immense size, with slimmer stone mullions than in earlier periods, allowing greater scope for stained glass craftsmen. The mullions of the windows are carried up into the arch moulding of the windows, and the upper portion is subdivided by additional mullions. Buttresses and wall surfaces are likewise divided up into vertical panels. Another major development of this period was fan vaulting. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (633x860, 132 KB) Summary Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster, London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (633x860, 132 KB) Summary Westminster Hall in the Palace of Westminster, London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Download high resolution version (1612x2288, 463 KB) Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England, dating from a major restoration of the roof in the 1860s. ... Download high resolution version (1612x2288, 463 KB) Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England, dating from a major restoration of the roof in the 1860s. ... Mullion, Cornwall is also the name of a village in Cornwall off the Lizard. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ... A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Three different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture... A feature of English Gothic Architecture wherein the wherein the ribs supporting a roof radiate out from a pillar to create a fan pattern. ...


Doorways are frequently enclosed within a square head over the arch mouldings, the spandrels being filled with quatrefoils or tracery. Pointed arches were still used throughout the period, but ogee and "Tudor" arches were also introduced. A spandrel is originally a term from Architecture, but has more recently been given an analogous meaning in Evolutionary biology. ... The word quatrefoil etymologically means four leaves, and applies to general four-lobed shapes in various contexts. ... Ogee Arch Ogee is a shape consisting of a concave arc flowing into a convex arc, so forming an S-shaped curve with vertical ends. ...


Inside the church the triforium disappears, or its place is filled with panelling, and greater importance is given to the clerestory windows, which are often the finest features in the churches of this period. The mouldings are flatter and less effective than those of the earlier periods, and one of the chief characteristics is the introduction of large elliptical hollows. Triforium is an architectural term. ... Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... Church in Villach, Austria. ... Elliptical may refer to: Ellipse: a shape and mathematical construct Elliptical trainer: an exercise machine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Some of the finest features of this period are the magnificent timber roofs; hammerbeam roofs, such as those of Westminster Hall (1395), Christ Church Hall, Oxford, and Crosby Hall, appeared for the first time. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lumber. ... This photograph from 1896 shows the hammerbeam roof of Westminster Hall. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... College name Christ Church Named after Jesus Christ Established 1546 Sister College Trinity College Dean The Very Revd Christopher Andrew Lewis JCR President William Dorsey Undergraduates 426 Graduates 154 Home page Boat Club Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house of Christ, and thus once commonly and still...


Notable examples

The earliest examples of the Perpendicular Period, dating from 1360, are found at Gloucester Cathedral, where the masons of the cathedral would seem to have been far in advance of those in other towns; the fan-vaulting in the cloisters is particularly fine. Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... A mason is a worker in brick or stone, now most commonly involved in building walls, but previously also arches and vaults. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... Cloister of Saint Trophimus, in Arles, France A cloister (from latin claustrum) is part of cathedrals and abbeys architecture. ...


Among other buildings of note are the choir and tower of York Minster (13891407); the nave and western transepts of Canterbury Cathedral (13781411), and the tower, towards the end of the 15th century; New College, Oxford (13801386); the Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick (13811391); the nave and aisles of Winchester Cathedral (13991419); the transept and tower of Merton College, Oxford (14241450); Manchester Cathedral (1422); the central tower of Gloucester Cathedral (14541457), and that of Magdalen College, Oxford (14751480). The choir stalls in the quire of Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England A quire is the area of a church where the choir sits, also known as the choir. ... York Minster Close The southwest tower of York Minster Inside York Minster The interior of the tower York Minster is an imposing Gothic cathedral in York, northern England. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Canterbury Cathedral, N.W., ca. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events February 11 : Peace of ToruÅ„ 1411 signed in ToruÅ„, Poland Births September 21 - Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, claimant to the English throne (died 1460) Juan de Mena, Spanish poet (died 1456) Deaths June 3 - Duke Leopold IV of Austria (born 1371) November 4 - Khalil Sultan, ruler of... College name New College Named after Blessed Virgin Mary Established 1379 Sister College Kings College Warden Prof. ... Events September 8 - Battle of Kulikovo - Russian forces under Grand Prince Dmitrii Ivanovich defeat a mixed army of Tatars and Mongols (the Golden Horde), stopping their advance at Kulikovo. ... Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Habsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Map sources for Warwick at grid reference SP2865 Warwick (pronounced warrick ) is the historic county town of Warwickshire in England and has a population of 25,434 (2001 census). ... Events June 12 - Peasants Revolt: In England rebels arrive at Blackheath. ... Events August 5 - Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 Winchester Cathedral in Winchester, Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... Events January 19 - Hundred Years War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England which brings Normandy under the control of England. ... College name The House of Scholars of Merton Named after Walter de Merton Established 1264 Sister College Peterhouse Warden Prof. ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... Manchester Cathedral Categories: United Kingdom-related stubs | Buildings and structures stubs | British cathedrals | Greater Manchester ... Events August 31 - Henry VI becomes King of England. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... Events University of Freiburg founded. ... College name Magdalen College Named after Mary Magdalene Established 1458 Sister College Magdalene College President Professor David Clary FRS JCR President Iain Anstess Undergraduates 395 Graduates 230 Homepage Boatclub Magdalen College (pronounced ) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... Events August 29 - Treaty of Picquigny ends a brief war between France and England. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ...


Sherborne Abbey (1475–c.1580), particularly noted for its vast fan-vaulted roof, Bath Abbey (although restored in the 1860s) and Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster Cathedral (15031519) are notable later examples of this style. Sherborne Abbey The Abbey Church of St. ... Events August 29 - Treaty of Picquigny ends a brief war between France and England. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Bath Abbey at sunset Bath Abbey is the last in a series of monastic churches built in Bath and is still in active use. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Westminster Cathedral from Victoria Street The interior of Westminster Cathedral Westminster Cathedral is the motherchurch of the Roman Catholic faithful of the Archdiocese of Westminster and the metropolitan church of the Westminster Province, located at 42 Francis Street SW1 in the City of Westminster in London, England. ... 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ...


To those examples should be added the towers at St Giles' church Wrexham, Coventry, Evesham, and St Mary's at Taunton, the first being of such exceptional magnificence that it is known as one of the "Seven Wonders of Wales". All of a kind, Eton College Chapel, Eton, King's College Chapel, Cambridge (14461515) and Syon Abbey may also be put under this heading. Wrexham (Welsh: Wrecsam) is an industrial town in north-east Wales. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... Location within the British Isles The Market Place in Evesham, circa 1904 Evesham (or the Sham as it is known to its inhabitants) is a middle-sized, rural market town in Worcestershire, England. ... Map sources for Taunton at grid reference ST2324 Taunton is the county town of Somerset, England. ... The Seven Wonders of Wales is a traditional list of notable landmarks in Wales, commemorated in an anonymous rhyme: Pistyll Rhaeadr and Wrexham steeple, Snowdons mountain without its people, Overton yew trees, St Winefride wells, Llangollen bridge and Gresford bells. ... Never completed due to the Wars of the Roses, it should have been double its current length - a plaque on a building opposite the west end marks the point to which it should have reached. ... Kings College Chapel (partially obscured by the Gibbs Building), seen from The Backs Fan vaulting diagram Kings College Chapel is the chapel to Kings College of the University of Cambridge, and is one of the finest examples of late English Gothic or Perpendicular -style. ... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Syon Abbey, (or Sion Abbey) was a major medieval monastery of the Bridgettine Order, its major site bordering Brentford and Isleworth, Middlesex, England. ...


The Perpendicular style has occasionally been revived in more recent times: one fine example is Bristol University's Wills Memorial Building (19151925). The Wills Memorial Building The Wills Memorial Building is situated at the top of Park Street in Queens Road in Bristol, United Kingdom. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


External links

  • Britain Express - Architectural Guide
  • BTinternet architectural timeline
  • Looking at Buildings website: Gothic Windows and Tracery

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gothic architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2288 words)
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period.
The Gothic cathedral was supposed to be a microcosm representing the world, and each architectural concept, mainly the loftiness and huge dimensions of the structure, were intended to pass a theological message: the great glory of God versus the smallness and insignificance of the mortal being.
In England, some discrete Gothic details appeared on new construction at Oxford and Cambridge in the late 17th century, and at the Archbishop of Canterbury's residence Lambeth Palace, a Gothic hammerbeam roof was built in 1663 to replace a building that had been sacked during the English Civil War.
Perpendicular Period - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (565 words)
The Perpendicular Gothic period (or simply Perpendicular) is the third historical division of English Gothic architecture, and is so-called because it is characterised by an emphasis on vertical lines; it is also known as the Rectilinear style, or Late Gothic.
This perpendicular linearity is particularly obvious in the design of windows, which became very large, sometimes of immense size, with slimmer stone mullions than in earlier periods, allowing greater scope for stained glass craftsmen.
The earliest examples of the Perpendicular Period, dating from 1360, are found at Gloucester Cathedral, where the masons of the cathedral would seem to have been far in advance of those in other towns; the fan-vaulting in the cloisters is particularly fine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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