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Encyclopedia > Peroxide

A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. Superoxides, dioxygenyls, ozones and ozonides compound are considered separately. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... Dioxygenyl ion IUPAC Name Molecular oxygen CAS Number 58238-79-2 Molecular formula O2 ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Ozonide is an unstable, reactive polyatomic anion O3-, derived from ozone, or an organic compound similar to organic peroxide formed by a reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound. ...


Colloquial meaning

Main article: hydrogen peroxide

In common usage, peroxide is an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH or H2O2) sold for use as a disinfectant or mild bleach. The usual peroxide used in commercial applications is a dilute solution containing traces of stabilisers, and is sold in either brown glass, or brown opaque polyethene bottles to minimise the rate of decomposition. The concentrations sold are generally either 3% (w/v) or 6% (w/v); these are sometimes described as "10 volume" and "20 volume", respectively. This refers to the relative volume of oxygen gas produced, at STP, or the ideal state of gas, from the complete decomposition of the peroxide. 6% (w/v) hydrogen peroxide is strong enough to bleach skin, causing white blotches caused by tiny bubbles of oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is also used to bleach hair. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Disinfection of a floor using a mop Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. ... In chemistry, to bleach something generally means to whiten it or oxidize it. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The tail of a Lufthansa airliner (Airbus A319) in flight, showing the horizontal stabilizer Mathematics: see Group action. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... Polyethylene or polyethene is one of the simplest and most inexpensive polymers. ... In chemistry, concentration is the measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance. ... In biology percentage solutions are often preferred to molar ones. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ...


Due to the presence of catalase in blood, peroxide is only marginally effective in disinfecting open wounds, but excellent for bleaching blood stains. It is also often used as a disinfectant in the dairy industry because, after application, it leaves absolutely no harmful residues. Catalase (human erythrocyte catalase: PDB 1DGF, EC 1. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Dairy farm near Oxford, New York A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milk (mostly from cows, sometimes from buffalo, sheep or goats) and other farm animals, for human consumption. ...


Organic chemistry

Main article: Organic peroxide

In organic chemistry, peroxide is a specific functional group or a molecule containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond (R-O-O-R'). When the other oxygen bears a hydrogen, it is called a hydroperoxide (R-O-O-H). The radical HOO· is known as hydroperoxide radical, and is thought to be involved in combustion of hydrocarbons in air. The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Organic peroxides are organic molecules containing the peroxide functional group ROOR If the R is hydrogen, the compound is called organic hydroperoxide. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ...


Organic peroxides tend to decompose easily to free radicals of the form: In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ...

RO·

This makes them useful as catalysts for some types of polymerisation, such as the polyester resins used in glass-reinforced plastics. MEKP (methyl ethyl ketone peroxide) is commonly used for this purpose. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Polymerization is the formation of long, repeating organic polymer chains. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Insect trapped in resin. ... The composite Rutan VariEze, a home-build light aircraft Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), is a composite material or fiber-reinforced plastic made of a plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass. ... Categories: Stub | Explosive chemicals | Ketones | Peroxides ... Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) is an organic peroxide, a high explosive similar to acetone peroxide, and is quite dangerous to synthesize. ...


However, the same property also means that organic peroxides can accidentally initiate explosive polymerisation in materials with unsaturated chemical bonds. Since peroxides can form spontaneously in some materials, some caution must be exercised with such "peroxide-forming materials." Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine are explosive organic peroxide compounds; TATP may be formed accidentally as a waste product in some reactions. In addition, many liquid ethers in the presence of air, light, and metal slowly (over a period of months) form ether peroxides (e.g., diethyl ether peroxide), which are extremely unstable. As a consequence, it is recommended that ether be stored over potassium hydroxide, which not only destroys peroxides but also acts as a powerful desiccant. Extreme care must be taken with samples showing signs of crystal growth or precipitates. A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Acetone peroxide (triacetone triperoxide, peroxyacetone, TATP) is an organic peroxide. ... HMTD or Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine is an explosive often used in improvised explosive devices. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... Diethyl ether peroxides are a class of organic peroxides that slowly form in diethyl ether upon storage under air, light, or in the presence of metal by autoxidation. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ...


TATP is an easily synthesized, inexpensive, explosive compound that is difficult to detect by normal screening methods. Consequently, it is an explosive favored by terrorists. TATP was used in the 2005 London Underground bombings and the 2001 "shoe bomber." In 2002, a simple mass spectroscopy screening method was developed.[1] Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ...


Inorganic chemistry

In inorganic chemistry, peroxide is the anion O22−. It is highly basic, and present in ionic compounds. Pure peroxides (containing only cations and the peroxide anions) are usually formed by burning alkali metals or alkaline earth metals in air or oxygen. Sodium peroxide Na2O2 is a typical example. Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table (excluding hydrogen in all but one rare circumstance): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are the series of elements in Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra) (not always considered due to its radioactivity and very short half-life). ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


The peroxide ion contains two electrons more than the oxygen molecule. These two electrons, according to the molecular orbital theory, complete the two π* antibonding orbitals. This has as result a weakening of the bond strength of the peroxide ion and a greater length for the bond O-O : Li2O2 130 pm to BaO2 147 pm. Furthermore, the peroxide ion is diamagnetic. e- redirects here. ... In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a region in which an electron may be found in a molecule. ... Antibonding (or anti-bonding) is a type of chemical bonding. ... In chemistry, bond strength is measured between two atoms joined in a chemical bond. ... Diamagnetism is a very weak form of magnetism that is only exhibited in the presence of an external magnetic field. ...


The peroxides of the alkali metals and Ca, Sr and Ba are ionic. The peroxides of a number of electropositive metals such as Mg, the lanthanides and the uranyl-ion show an intermediary character, between ionic and covalent. The peroxides of metals such as Zn, Cd and Hg are mainly covalent. “Multivalent” redirects here. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ...


Peroxides are powerful oxidizers, and usually fairly unstable. Ionic peroxides react with water and diluted acids to form hydrogen peroxide. Organic compounds are oxidized to carbonates, even at normal temperatures. Sodium peroxide is a powerful oxidator of metals, such as iron. European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidising agents An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is referred to as A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ...


The oxides, peroxides and superoxides are closely related, forming a chain of oxygen ions of progressively higher oxidation number. An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It is used in the inorganic nomenclature of...


Barium peroxide is used in pyrotechnics and tracer ammunition, and was once used in the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide. Sodium peroxide is used as a carbon dioxide absorber and oxygen regenerator (e.g. in some submarines), through the reaction: Barium peroxide is a grey-white compound and oxidising agent. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ... Tracers from M16 rifles on U.S. Army firing range Tracer ammunition (tracers) use special bullets that are modified to accept a small pyrotechnic charge in their base. ... Sodium peroxide has formula Na2O2. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...

2Na2O2 + 2CO2 → 2Na2CO3 + O2

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Many Benefits of Hydrogen Peroxide By Dr. David G. Williams (4058 words)
Father Willhelm is the founder of "Educational Concern for Hydrogen Peroxide" (ECHO, a nonprofit organization dedicated to educating the public on the safe use and therapeutic benefits of hydrogen peroxide.) Much of the interest in hydrogen peroxide waned in the 1940's when prescription medications came on the scene.
Hydrogen peroxide is only one of the many components that help regulate the amount of oxygen getting to your cells.
Hydrogen peroxide is one of the few simple miracle substances still available to the public.
Peroxide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (675 words)
The usual peroxide used in commercial applications is a dilute solution containing traces of stabilisers, and is sold in either brown glass, or brown opaque polyethylene bottles to minimise the rate of decomposition.
Barium peroxide is used in pyrotechnics and tracer ammunition, and was once used in the manufacture of hydrogen peroxide.
Sodium peroxide is used as a carbon dioxide absorber and oxygen regenerator (e.g.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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