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Encyclopedia > Peronism

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Peronism (Spanish: Peronismo), or Justicialism (Spanish: Justicialismo), is an Argentine political movement based on the ideas and programs associated with former president Juan Perón. Perón's party, the Partido Justicialista (which lives on to this day), derived its name from the Spanish words for "justice" (justicia) and "socialist" (socialista). Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoic (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... The National Congress ( Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. ... The Argentine Senate is the upper house of parliament in Argentina. ... The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the National Congress, Argentinas parliament. ... This article lists political parties in Argentina. ... The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement. ... The Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical, or UCR) is the foremost opposition party in Argentina. ... This articles gives information on voting, elections and election results in Argentina. ... Argentina held national parliamentary elections on Sunday, 23 October 2005. ... Argentina will hold national presidential and legislative elections on 28 October 2007 to elect a president and for the Argentine Congress. ... The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. ... Argentina is subdivided in 23 provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 federal district (capital federal). ... Departments (Spanish: departamentos) form the second level of administrative division in the provinces of Argentina. ... This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine soldier and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Argentine political parties ...

Peronism has been difficult to define according to traditional political classifications, and probably different periods must be distinguished. A populist and nationalist movement, it has sometimes been accused of Fascist tendencies, and Perón's admiration for Mussolini is well documented. Furthermore, Argentina became a popular country of exile for ex-Nazis who entered clandestinity after World War II and fled using various ratlines [1]. However, this has been strongly disputed by others, inside and outside the Peronist movement, and it might as well be compared with Gaullism in France, which at first succeeded in creating in the immediate post-war period a large coalition from the left-wing (excluding only Communists) to the right-wing, before turning itself into a more conservative movement in the 1960s-70s. Furthermore, the absence of Perón himself, who lived during 20 years in exile in Franquist Spain, is also an important key to understand Peronism, as he could be invoked by all kind of Argentine sectors opposed to the current state of affairs. The memory of Eva Perón, in particular, was fondly conserved in workers' hearts, while at the contrary strongly despised by the "national bourgeoisie". Thus, the left-wing and Catholic Montoneros supported Perón as well as, at its end, the Fascist-leaning and strongly anti-Semitic Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara, one of Argentine's first guerrilla movement. All in all, Perón was a pragmatic figure, and through the course of his long career his views would frequently change. His ideology was nevertheless marked by some constants, including: Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... This article is about former Nazis; for active groups, see: Neo-Nazism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ratlines were systems of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe at the end of World War II. These escape routes mainly led toward safe havens in South America, particularly North America, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Chile. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (from French Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Conservatism is a political philosophy that usually favors traditional values and strong foreign defense. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... María Eva Duarte de Perón (May 7, 1919 – July 26, 1952) was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Domingo Perón (1895–1974) and the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analyzing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the middle class nobility, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... Official logo of Montoneros The Movimiento Peronista Montonero was an Argentinian radical leftist nationalist-catholic guerrilla group, active during the 1970s. ... The Movimiento Nacionalista Tacuara (MNT, Tacuara Nationalist Movement) was an Argentine far right group in the 1960s, which, after having violently opposed Peronism, later integrated Juan Perón’s right-wing “Special Formations”. Linked to the more conservative sectors of the Peronist movement, and directly inspired by Julio Meinvielle’s... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject. ... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... This box:  • • Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which legislative power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ...

Peronist policies

Perón's ideas were widely embraced by a variety of different groups in Argentina across the political spectrum. Perón's personal views would eventually become a burden on the ideology, his anti-clericalism did not strike a sympathetic chord amongst upper class Argentinians. Perón's public speeches were consistently nationalist and populist. It would also be difficult to separate Peronism from corporate nationalism, for Perón nationalized Argentina's large corporations, blurring distinctions between corporations and government. At the same time, the labor unions became corporate themselves, relinquishing the right to strike in agreements with Perón as Secretary of Welfare in the military government from 1943-45. In exchange, the state was to assume the role of negotiator between conflicting interests. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... National capitalism or corporate nationalism is a political and economic philosophy that expects private enterprise to work mainly towards the national good, rather than solely for profit maximization. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...

Peronism as fascism

Peronism is sometimes considered to be a fascist ideology, though this would be a rather shallow reading of Perón's government. After Perón was overthrown in a coup in 1955 (the Revolución Libertadora), led by General Aramburu, he spent 18 years in exile, mostly in Francisco Franco's Spain. Though his feelings for Franco were mixed, Perón never disguised his admiration for Benito Mussolini's domestic policies. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Revolución Libertadora (Spanish, Liberating Revolution) was a military uprising that ended the second presidential term of Juan Domingo Perón in Argentina, in 1955. ... Pedro Eugenio Aramburu Cilveti (May 21, 1903 – June 1, 1970) was a de facto president of Argentina from November 13, 1955 to May 1, 1958. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November or possibly 19 November[1] 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and commonly known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco (pron. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ...

Despite fascist comparisons, Perón and his administration never resorted to systematically organized violence. Peronism also lacked a strong interest in matters of foreign policy other than the belief that the political and economic influences of other nations should be kept out of Argentina and could thus be said to be somewhat isolationist. A foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ...

Peron, despite his ties to Mussolini, never showed parallels to Hitler's Nazi regime, and never exhibited racist ideas or views like that of the Third Reich or several other fascist regimes. However, under his regime many Nazi war criminals were granted asylum after the Second World War. In 2005, as a result of revelations in Uki Goñi's book The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina, Argentine President Néstor Kirchner ordered the repeal of a secret directive issued in 1938, under the presidency of Roberto María Ortiz, prohibiting Argentine diplomats from granting visas to Jews fleeing the Holocaust in Europe. This was the first admission by the Argentine government of the anti-Semitism that marked the country's immigration policies during and after World War II. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Uki Goñi is an Argentinian journalist, author and historian known for his work exposing the role of the Argentinian government under Juan Perón in organising ratline escape routes for ex-Nazi war criminals after Germanys defeat in World War II. His research, drawing on investigation in Argentinian...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoic (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... Jaime Gerardo Roberto Marcelino María Ortiz Lizardi (September 24, 1886 – July 15, 1942) was President of Argentina from 20 February 1938 to 27 June 1942. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Today, there are several Argentine political parties identifying themselves as Peronist.


  1. ^ Uki Goñi, The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina (Granta Books, 2002, ISBN 1862075816

Uki Goñi is an Argentinian journalist, author and historian known for his work exposing the role of the Argentinian government under Juan Perón in organising ratline escape routes for ex-Nazi war criminals after Germanys defeat in World War II. His research, drawing on investigation in Argentinian... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ...


  • Tomas Eloy Martinez, El Sueño Argentino' (The Argentine Dream, 1999) and Memorias del General (Memoirs of the General, 1996).

Tomás Eloy Martínez (born July 16, 1934 in Tucumán) is an Argentine journalist and writer. ...

See also

This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. Other related articles can be found at the Politics Portal.

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