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Encyclopedia > Permian

The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 251.0 ± 0.4 Ma (million years before the present; ICS 2004). It is the last period of the Palaeozoic Era. In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The International Commission on Stratigraphy concerns itself with stratigraphy on a global scale. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ...

Paleozoic era
Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian

Contents

The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ... The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... Disambiguation: Devonian is sometimes used to refer to the Southwestern Brythonic language, and the people of the county of Devon are sometimes referred to as Devonians The Devonian is a geologic period of the Paleozoic era spanning from roughly 415 to 360 million years ago. ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ...

Subdivisions

The three primary subdivisions of the Permian Period are given below from youngest to oldest, and include faunal stages also from youngest to oldest. Additional age/stage equivalents or subdivisions are given in parentheses. Epoch and age refer to time, and equivalents series and stage refer to the rocks. Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ...


Lopingian Epoch

Changhsingian Age (Djulfian/Ochoan/Dewey Lake/Zechstein)
Wuchiapingian Age (Dorashamian/Ochoan/Longtanian/Rustler/Salado/Castile/Zechstein)

Guadalupian Epoch

Capitanian Age (Kazanian/Zechstein)
Wordian Age (Kazanian/Zechstein)
Roadian Age (Ufimian/Zechstein)

Cisuralian Epoch

Kungurian Age (Irenian/Filippovian/Leonard/Rotliegendes)
Artinskian Age (Baigendzinian/Aktastinian/Rotliegendes)
Sakmarian Age (Sterlitamakian/Tastubian/Leonard/Wolfcamp/Rotliegendes)
Asselian Age (Krumaian/Uskalikian/Surenian/Wolfcamp/Rotliegendes)

Oceans

Sea levels in the Permian remained generally low, and near-shore environments were limited by the collection of almost all major landmasses into a single continent -- Pangaea. One continent, even a very large one, has less shoreline than six to eight smaller ones. This could have in part caused the widespread extinctions of marine species at the end of the period by severely reducing shallow coastal areas preferred by many marine organisms. For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... A landmass is a large extent of land. ... Map of Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea (derived from Παγγαία, Greek meaning all earth) is the name given to the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before the process of plate tectonics separated each of the component continents into their current configuration. ...


Paleogeography

During the Permian, all the Earth's major land masses except portions of East Asia were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean ("Panthalassa", the "universal sea"), and the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that was between Asia and Gondwana. The Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic Era. Large continental landmasses create climates with extreme variations of heat and cold ("continental climate") and monsoon conditions with highly seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea. Such dry conditions favored gymnosperms, plants with seeds enclosed in a protective cover, over plants such as ferns that disperse spores. The first modern trees (conifers, ginkgos and cycads) appeared in the Permian. Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Map of Pangaea Pangaea or Pangea (derived from Παγγαία, Greek meaning all earth) is the name given to the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before the process of plate tectonics separated each of the component continents into their current configuration. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Cimmerian Plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present-day Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The Paleo-Tethys Ocean was an ancient Paleozoic ocean. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts and southwest coasts of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a storm whose direction depends on the specific season. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Divisions Pinophyta - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... This article is about a biological reproductive structure; for the video game, see Spore (video game). ... For other uses, see Tree (disambiguation). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and sometimes known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ...


Three general areas are especially noted for their Permian deposits: the Ural Mountains (where Perm itself is located), China, and the southwest of North America, where the Permian Basin in the U.S. state of Texas is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world. Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... The Permian Basin is a basin in the western part of the U.S. state of Texas, from just south of Lubbock to just south of Midland & Odessa, and it extends Westward into the Southeastern part of New Mexico. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


Life

Permian marine deposits are rich in fossil mollusks, echinoderms, and brachiopods. Fossilized shells of two kinds of invertebrates are widely used to identify Permian strata and correlate them between sites: fusulinids, a kind of shelled amoeba-like protist that is one of the foraminiferans, and ammonoids, shelled cephalopods that are distant relatives of the modern nautilus. Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Classes  ?Helicoplacoidea †  ?Arkarua †  ?Homalozoa † Eleutherozoa Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Pelmatozoa Crinoidea Edrioasteroidea† Blastoidea † Cystoidea † Eocrinoidea † † = extinct Echinoderms . ... Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a phylum of animals. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Superfamilies Archaediscacea Colaniellacea Earlandiacea Endothyracea Fusulinacea Geinitzinacea Moravamminacea Nodosinellacea Palaeotextulariacea Parathuraminacea Ptychocladiacea Tetrataxacea Tournayellacea The fusulinids are an extinct group of foraminiferan protozoa. ... Typical phyla Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: ) are a diverse group of organisms, comprising those eukaryotes that are not animals... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusk class Cephalopoda... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ...


Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi, arthropods, and various types of tetrapods. Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Permian Tetrapods were amphibians and reptiles that lived during the Permian Period. ...


The Permian began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian there was a major transition in vegetation. The swamp-loving lycopod trees of the Carboniferous, such as Lepidodendron and Sigillaria, were replaced by the more advanced conifers, which were better adapted to the changing climatic conditions. Lycopods and swamp forests still dominated the South China continent because it was an isolated continent and it sat near or at the equator. Oxygen levels were probably high there. The Permian saw the radiation of many important conifer groups, including the ancestors of many present-day families. The ginkgos and cycads also appeared during this period. Rich forests were present in many areas, with a diverse mix of plant groups. Species See text. ... Sigillaria is the name of a genus of primitive trees which flourished in the early carboniferous period. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... FOREST, which describes itself as the voice and friend of the smoker, is a United Kingdom political pressure group that campaigns for the right of people to smoke tobacco and opposes attempts to ban or reduce tobacco consumption, as well as casting doubt on medical claims of the health risks... South China continent, also known as South China craton (or the South Chinese craton) was an ancient continent (craton) that contained todays South and Southeast China (named after), Indochina, and parts of Southeast Asia (ie. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and sometimes known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ...


A number of important new insect groups appeared at this time, including the Coleoptera (beetles) and Diptera (flies). For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ...


Permian tetrapods consisted of temnospondyli, lepospondyli and batrachosaur amphibians and sauropsids and synapsid (pelycosaurs and therapsids) reptiles. This period saw the development of a fully terrestrial fauna and the appearance of the first large herbivores and carnivores. Groups Edopoidea Edopidae Cochleosauridae Euskelia Eryopoidea Eryopidae Zatrachydidae Dissorophoidea Limnarchia Dvinosauria Archegosauridae Stereospondyli Trematosauroidea Capitosauroidea Metoposauroidea Plagiosauroidea Rhytidosteidae Brachyopoidea Brachyopidae Chigutosauridae Temnospondyli are an important and extremely diverse taxon of small to giant labyrinthodont amphibians that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods. ... Groups Acherontiscidae Adelospondyli Aïstopoda Lysorophia Microsauria Nectridea Lepospondyli are a group of small but diverse Carboniferous to early Permian tetrapods. ... Groups Seymouriamorpha Cotylosauria Solenodonsaurus Westlothiana lizziae Diadectomorpha Amniota Batrachosauria (Frog Saurians) is a name given either to very reptile-like amphibians dating from the Carboniferous and Permian periods, or to amniotes and those amphibians very closely related to them. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Superclasses Anapsida Eurapsida Diapsida Reptilia was an old kingdom or phylum classification that has since been divided into 4 classes. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... The pelycosaurs were smallish to large (upto 3 meters or more) primitive Late Paleozoic synapsid reptiles. ... Groups Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Anomodontia Theriodontia    Cynodontia       (...mammals) Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are a group of synapsids. ... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... The mammoth, an extinct genus of megafauna. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals...


Early Permian terrestrial faunas were dominated by pelycosaurs and amphibians, the middle Permian by primitive therapsids such as the dinocephalia, and the late Permian by more advanced therapsids such as gorgonopsians and dicynodonts. Towards the very end of the Permian the first archosaurs appeared (proterosuchid thecodonts); during the following, Triassic, period these latter would evolve into more advanced types, eventually into dinosaurs. Also appearing at the end of the Permian were the first cynodonts, which would go on to evolve into mammals during the Triassic. Another group of therapsids, the therocephalians (such as Trochosaurus), arose in the Middle Permian. Families   Estemmenosuchidae   Brithopodidae   Anteosauridae   Deuterosauridae   Styracocephalidae   Titanosuchidae   Tapinocephalidae Dinocephalia are a clade of large early therapsids that flourished during the Middle Permian, but became extinct leaving no descendants. ... Gorgonopsids as seen in Walking with Monsters Gorgonopsia (Gorgon face) is a suborder of synapsids. ... Clades & Genera see Taxonomy The Dicynodontia are a taxon of Therapsids or mammal-like reptiles. ... Groups Proterosuchidae     Erythrosuchidae         Euparkeriidae             Archosauria Archosauriformes (Greek for ruling reptiles, + form) are a clade of diapsid reptiles that developed from Archosauromorph ancestors some time in the Late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... Genera see Taxonomy Proterosuchidae (or Chasmatosuchidae) are an early, most certainly paraphyletic, assemblage of basal archosaurs whose fossils are known from the the Latest Permian of Russia and the Early Triassic of southern Africa, Russia, China, Australia, and Antarctica. ... Thecodont (socket-toothed reptile), is a catch-all (paraphyletic) group, now considered an obsolete term, that was formerly used to describe a group of the earliest archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 200 Ma (million years ago). ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta, or dog teeth, were one of the most diverse groups of therapsids. ... Families See Taxonomy The Therocephalians are a lineage of therapsids, and therefore sometimes described as mammal-like reptiles. ... Species Trochosaurus is an extinct genus of mammal-like reptile. ...


Permian-Triassic extinction event

Main article: Permian-Triassic extinction event

The Permian ended with the most extensive extinction event recorded in paleontology: the Permian-Triassic extinction event. 90% to 95% of marine species became extinct, as well as 70% of all land organisms. On an individual level, perhaps as many as 99.5% of separate organisms died as a result of the event.[1] The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... For the Big Finish Productions audio play, see The Extinction Event. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ...


There is also significant evidence that massive flood basalts from magma output contributed to environmental stress leading to mass extinction. The reduced coastal habitat and highly increased aridity probably also contributed.


Another hypothesis involves ocean venting of hydrogen sulfide gas. Portions of deep ocean will periodically lose all of its dissolved oxygen allowing bacteria that live without oxygen to flourish and produce hydrogen sulfide gas. If enough hydrogen sulfide accumulates in an anoxic zone, the gas can rise into the atmosphere. Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Oceanic Anoxic Events occur when the Earths oceans become completely depleted of O2 below the surface levels. ...


Oxidizing gases in the atmosphere would destroy the toxic gas, but the hydrogen sulfide would soon consume all of the atmospheric gas available to change it. Hydrogen sulfide levels would increase dramatically over a few hundred years.


Modeling of such an event indicate that the gas would destroy ozone in the upper atmosphere allowing ultraviolet radiation to kill off species that had survived the toxic gas (Kump, et al, 2005). Of course, there are species that can metabolize hydrogen sulfide. For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... UV redirects here. ...


An even more speculative hypothesis is that intense radiation from a nearby supernova was responsible for the extinctions. Though this has been proven highly unlikely. Multiwavelength X-ray image of the remnant of Keplers Supernova, SN 1604. ...


Trilobites, which had thrived since Cambrian times, finally became extinct before the end of the Permian. Orders Agnostida Redlichiida Corynexochida Lichida Phacopida Proetida Asaphida Harpetida Ptychopariida Nektaspida (doubtful order) Trilobites are extinct arthropods in the class Trilobita. ... The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ...


In 2006, a group of American scientists from the Ohio State University reported evidence for a possible huge meteorite crater (Wilkes Land crater) with a diameter of around 500 kilometers in Antarctica. The crater is located at a depth of 1.6 kilometers beneath the ice of Wilkes Land in eastern Antarctica. The scientists speculate that this impact may have caused the Permian-Triassic extinction event, although its age is bracketed only between 100 million and 500 million years ago. They also speculate that it may have contributed in some way to the separation of Australia from the Antarctic landmass, which were both part of a supercontinent called Gondwana. The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... Map of Antarctica, with Wilkes Land slightly to the right The Wilkes Land crater is a proposed name for a 300 mile (500 km) -wide geological feature, located in Wilkes Land, Antarctica, and centered at , that has been explained as an impact crater. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ...


See also

List of fossil sites: // Elliot Formation, South Africa (Triassic) Fayum Formation, Egypt (Eocene) Karoo Desert, South Africa (Permian-Triassic) Lothagam, Kenya (Miocene) Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (Pliocene) Rusinga Island, Kenya (Miocene) Tendaguru, Tanzania (Jurassic) López de Bertodano Formation (Cretaceous) Mount Kirkpatrick (Jurassic) Barun Goyot Formation, Mongolia (Cretaceous) Bissekty Formation, Uzbekistan... Permian Tetrapods were amphibians and reptiles that lived during the Permian Period. ...

Notes

    References

    • Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's) http://www.stratigraphy.org/gssp.htm Accessed April 30, 2006.
    • Kump, L.R., A. Pavlov, and M.A. Arthur (2005). "Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia". Geology 33 (May): 397-400. DOI:10.1130/G21295.1. 

    A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

    External links

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
    Permian
    • University of California offers a more modern Permian stratigraphy
    • Classic Permian strata in the Glass Mountains of the Permian Basin
    • International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). Geologic Time Scale 2004. Retrieved on September 19, 2005.
    • Examples of Permian Fossils
    Permian period
    Cisuralian Guadalupian Lopingian
    Asselian | Sakmarian
    Artinskian | Kungurian
    Roadian | Wordian
    Capitanian
    Wuchiapingian
    Changhsingian

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Palaeos Paleozoic: Permian: The Permian Period (1677 words)
    The Permian period was named in 1841 by the geologist Murchison after a tour of Imperial Russia to include the "vast series of beds of marls, schists, limestones, sandstones, and conglomerates" that overlay the Carboniferous formations in the eastern part of the country.
    The early Permian saw the continuation of the Carboniferous biomes, with polar tundra regions and warm wet tropical swamp forests.
    During the Permian, the crocodile-bird lineage (Archosauromorpha) had not yet diverged from the lizard-snake (Lepidosauromorpha) clade.
    Permian (340 words)
    The Permian is named for extensive exposures in the region around the city of Perm in Russia.
    During the Permian, all the Earth's major land masses except portions of East Asia were collected into a single landmass known as Pangea.
    The Permian Basin in the U.S state of Texas is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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