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Encyclopedia > Permaculture
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Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design.

The word permaculture, coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s, is a portmanteau of permanent agriculture as well as permanent culture. Through a series of publications, Mollison, Holmgren and their associates documented an approach to designing human settlements, in particular the development of perennial agricultural systems that mimic the structure and interrelationship found in natural ecologies. Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Download high resolution version (522x746, 138 KB)Permaculture mandala by Graham Burnett used with permission ( This image is copyrighted and is not licenced under the GFDL. The licence holder allows anyone to use it for any non-commercial purpose, provided that the artist Graham Burnett is credited. ... Download high resolution version (522x746, 138 KB)Permaculture mandala by Graham Burnett used with permission ( This image is copyrighted and is not licenced under the GFDL. The licence holder allows anyone to use it for any non-commercial purpose, provided that the artist Graham Burnett is credited. ... Bill Mollison (born 1928 in Tasmania, Australia) is a researcher, author, scientist, teacher, naturalist and has been called the father of permaculture, an integrated system of design co-developed with David Holmgren that encompasses not only agriculture, horticulture, architecture and ecology but also economic systems, land access strategies and legal... David Holmgren (born 1955) is an ecologist, ecological design engineer and writer. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


Permaculture design principles extend from the position that "The only ethical decision is to take responsibility for our own existence and that of our children" (Mollison, 1990). The intent was that, by rapidly training individuals in a core set of design principles, those individuals could become designers of their own environments and able to build increasingly self-sufficient human settlements — ones that reduce society's reliance on industrial systems of production and distribution that Mollison identified as fundamentally and systematically destroying the earth's ecosystems. All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ...


While originating as an agro-ecological design theory, permaculture has developed a large international following of individuals who have received training through intensive two week long 'permaculture design courses'. This 'permaculture community' continues to expand on the original teachings of Mollison and his associates, integrating a range of alternative cultural ideas, through a network of training, publications, permaculture gardens, and internet forums. In this way permaculture has become both a design system as well as a loosely defined philosophy or lifestyle ethic. Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. ... Alternative culture is a catch-all phrase used predominately by the media and the marketing industry to refer to a variety of separate sub-cultures – (which are either loosely related or near-totally unrelated) – and are perceived by the general public as being outside or on the edge of so...

Contents

Origins

In the mid 1970s, two Australians, Dr. Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, started to develop ideas that they hoped could be used to create stable agricultural systems. This was a result of their perception of a rapidly growing use of destructive industrial-agricultural methods. They saw that these methods were poisoning the land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of soil from previously fertile landscapes. A design approach called "permaculture" was their response and was first made public with the publication of Permaculture One in 1978. Bill Mollison (born 1928 in Tasmania, Australia) is a researcher, author, scientist, teacher, naturalist and has been called the father of permaculture, an integrated system of design co-developed with David Holmgren that encompasses not only agriculture, horticulture, architecture and ecology but also economic systems, land access strategies and legal... David Holmgren (born 1955) is an ecologist, ecological design engineer and writer. ... Agriculture (from Agri Latin for ager (a field), and culture, from the Latin cultura cultivation in the strict sense of tillage of the soil. A literal reading of the English word yields tillage of the soil of a field.) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ...


The term permaculture initially meant "permanent agriculture" but this was quickly expanded to also stand for "permanent culture" as it was seen that social aspects were an integral part of a truly sustainable system. Mollison and Holmgren are widely considered to be the co-originators of the modern permaculture concept.


After the publication of Permaculture One, Mollison and Holmgren further refined and developed their ideas by designing hundreds of permaculture sites and organising this information into more detailed books. Mollison lectured in over eighty countries and his two-week Design Course was taught to many hundreds of students. By the early 1980s, the concept had moved on from being predominantly about the design of agricultural systems towards being a more fully holistic design process for creating sustainable human habitats. Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... The term habitat comes from ecology, and includes many interrelated features, especially the immediate physical environment, the urban environment or the social environment. ...


By the mid 1980s, many of the students had become successful practitioners and had themselves begun teaching the techniques they had learned. In a short period of time permaculture groups, projects, associations, and institutes were established in over one hundred countries. In 1991 a Television documentary by ABC productions called 'The Global Gardener' showed permaculture applied to a range of world-wide situations, bringing the concept to a much broader public.


Permaculture has developed from its origins in Australia into an international 'movement'. English permaculture teacher Patrick Whitefield, author of The Earth Care Manual and Permaculture in a Nutshell, suggests that there are now two strands of permaculture: a) Original and b) Design permaculture. Original permaculture attempts to closely replicate nature by developing edible ecosystems which closely resemble their wild counterparts. Design permaculture takes the working connections at use in an ecosystem and uses them as its basis. The end result may not look as "natural" as a forest garden, but still has an underlying design based on ecological principles. Look up Strand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Forest gardening (also known as 3-Dimensional Gardening) is a food production and land management system based on replicating woodland edge ecosystems, substituting trees (such as fruit or nut trees), bushes, shrubs, herbs and vegetables which have yields directly useful to humankind. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Elements of permaculture design

Permaculture principles draw heavily on the practical application of ecological theory to analyze the characteristics and potential relationships between design elements. Each element of a design is carefully analyzed in terms of its needs, outputs, and properties. For example a chicken needs water, moderated microclimate, food and other chickens, and produces meat, eggs, feathers and manure while doing a lot of scratching. Design elements are then assembled in relation to one another so that the products of one element feed the needs of adjacent elements. Synergy between design elements is achieved while minimizing waste and the demand for human labour or energy. Exemplary permaculture designs evolve over time, and can become extremely complex mosaics of conventional and inventive cultural systems that produce a high density of food and materials with minimal input. While techniques and cultural systems are freely borrowed from organic agriculture, sustainable forestry, horticulture, agroforestry, and the land management systems of indigenous peoples, permaculture's fundamental contribution to the field of ecological design is the development of a concise set of broadly applicable organizing principles that can be transferred through a brief intensive training. Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ... Organic farming is a way of farming that avoids the use of synthetic chemicals and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and usually subscribes to the principles of sustainable agriculture. ... Sustainable forestry is a forest management concept. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Parkland in Burkina Faso: Sorghum grown under Faidherbia albida and Borassus akeassii near Banfora, Burkina Faso Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. ... The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Modern permaculture

Modern permaculture is a system design tool. It is a way of

  • 1. looking at a whole system or problem
  • 2. seeing connections between key elements (parts)
  • 3. observing how the parts relate,
  • 4. planning to mend sick systems by applying ideas learnt from long-term sustainable working systems.

In permaculture, we are learning from the working systems of nature to plan to fix the sick landscapes of human agricultural and city systems. We can apply systems thinking to the design of a kitchen tool as easily to the re-design of a farm. In permaculture we apply it to everything we need in order to build a sustainable future. Commonly, “Initiatives that are taken tend to evolve from strategies that focus on efficiency (for example, more accurate and controlled uses of inputs and minimisation of waste) to substitution (for example, from more to less disruptive interventions, such as from biocides to more specific biological controls and other more benign alternatives) to redesign -- fundamental changes in the design and management of the operation (Hill & MacRae 1995, Hill et al 1999)." "Permaculture is about helping people make redesign choices: setting new goals and a shift in thinking that affects not only their home but their actions in the workplace, borrowings and investments" (A Sampson-Kelly and Michel Fanton 1991). Examples include the design and employment of complex transport solutions, optimum use of natural resources such as sunlight, "radical design of information-rich, multi-storey polyculture systems" (Mollison & Slay 1991). "This progression generally involves a shift in the nature of one’s dependence -- from relying primarily on universal, purchased, imported, technology-based interventions to more specific locally available knowledge and skill-based ones. This usually eventually also involves fundamental shifts in world-views, senses of meaning, and associated lifestyles (Hill 1991). My experience is that although efficiency and substitution initiatives can make significant contributions to sustainability over the short term, much greater longer-term improvements can only be achieved by redesign strategies; and, furthermore, that steps need to be taken at the outset to ensure that efficiency and substitution strategies can serve as stepping stones and not barriers to redesign...” (Hill 2000)


Influences

mature species on a keyline irrigation channel, 'Orana' Farm Temperate Victoria Australia Photo courtesy: PermacultureVisions
mature species on a keyline irrigation channel, 'Orana' Farm Temperate Victoria Australia Photo courtesy: PermacultureVisions

The term permanent agriculture was first coined by Franklin Hiram King in his classic book from 1911, Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. In this context, permanent agriculture is understood as agriculture that can be sustained indefinitely. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (780x1064, 450 KB) Photo by April Sampson-Kelly of PermacultureVisions. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (780x1064, 450 KB) Photo by April Sampson-Kelly of PermacultureVisions. ... Franklin Hiram King (8 June 1848 – 4 August 1911) was an American agricultural scientist who was born on a farm near Whitewater, Wisconsin, attended country schools, and received his professional training first at Whitewater State Normal School and at Cornell University. ... In the 1909, American agronomist F.H. King toured China, Korea, and Japan, studying traditional fertilization, tillage, and general farming practices. ...


This definition was supported by Australian P. A. Yeomans (Water for Every Farm, 1973) who introduced an observation-based approach to land use in Australia in the 1940's, based partially on his understanding of geology. Yeomans introduced Keyline Design as a way of managing the supply and distribution of water of a site. P.A. Yeomans (1904-1984) was an Australian inventor known for the Keyline system for the development of land and increasing the fertility of that land. ... Keyline Planning may be best known as a technique for maximizing beneficial use of water resources of a piece of land. ... Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ...


The work of Howard T. Odum was also an early influence, especially for Holmgren [1]. Odum's work focused on system ecology, in particular the Maximum power principle, which examines the energy of a system and how natural systems tend to maximise the energy embodied in a system. For example, the total calorific value of woodland is very high with its multitude of plants and animals. It is an efficient converter of sunlight into biomass. A wheat field, on the other hand, has much less total energy and often requires a large energy input in terms of fertiliser. Another early influence was the work of Esther Deans where she pioneered No-Dig Gardening methods. Other recent influences include the VAC system in Vietnam which is a government supported system to build Vegetable Aquaculture and Animal enClosures that cycle resources. Howard Thomas Odum (1924-2002), commonly known as H.T. Odum or Tom Odum, was an eminent American ecosystem ecologist and a professor at the University of Florida. ... The concpet of maximum power has been proposed as the fourth principle of energetics. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Esther Dean, poet, writer, gardener, conservationist, became famous in the 1970-1980s for her books which developed a no dig method of gardening by covering her lifeless soil (you can also cover the lawn) with newspaper and then wads of weed-free straw. ...


Core values

Permaculture is a broad-based and holistic approach that has many applications to all aspects of life. At the heart of permaculture design and practice is a fundamental set of ‘core values’ or ethics which remain constant whatever a person's situation, whether they are creating systems for town planning or trade; whether the land they care for is only a windowbox or an entire forest. These 'ethics' are often summarised as; For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... A windowbox is a box for growing plants. ... This article is about a community of trees. ...

  • Earthcare – recognising that the Earth is the source of all life (and is possibly itself a living entity- see Gaia theory) and that we recognise and respect that the Earth is our valuable home and we are a part of the Earth, not apart from it.
  • Peoplecare – supporting and helping each other to change to ways of living that are not harming ourselves or the planet, and to develop healthy societies.
  • Fairshare (or placing limits on consumption) - ensuring that the Earth's limited resources are utilised in ways that are equitable and wise.

Everyone needs to eat and drink, and it is the issue of food production where permaculture had its origins. It started with the belief that for people to feed themselves sustainably they need to move away from reliance on industrialised agriculture. Where industrial farms use fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel, natural gas..) driven technology specialising in each farm producing high yields of a single crop, permaculture stresses the value of low inputs into the land and diversity in terms of what is grown. The model for this was an abundance of small scale market and home gardens for food production with food miles being a primary issue. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A Gaia theory is a class of scientific models of the biosphere in which life fosters and maintains suitable conditions for itself by affecting Earths environment. ... Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... This article is about concept of equity in Anglo-American jurisprudence. ... For the 1986 American crime film, see Wisdom (film). ... A meal is an instance of eating, specifically one that takes place at a specific time and includes specific, prepared foodstuffs. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids. ... The food industry is the complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ... A crop is any plant that is grown in significant quantities to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, or for another economic purpose. ... Home Garden is a census-designated place located in Kings County, California. ... Food miles is an expression for the concept that the mileage of food before it reaches the consumer (or the plate) is a potential indicator for the environmental impact of the food and its components. ...


The permaculture design innovation

The core of permaculture has always been in supplying a design toolkit for human habitation. This toolkit helps the designer to model a final design based on an observation of how ecosystems themselves interact. A simple example of this is how the Sun interacts with a plant by providing it with energy to grow. This plant may then be pollinated by bees or eaten by deer. These may disperse seed to allow other plants to grow into tall trees and provide shelter to these creatures from the wind. The bees may provide food for birds and the trees provide roosting for them. The tree's leaves will fall and rot, providing food for small insects and fungus. There will be a web of intricate connections that allow a diverse population of plant life and animals to survive by giving them food and shelter. One of the innovations of permaculture design was to appreciate the efficiency and productivity of natural ecosystems and seek to apply this to the way human needs for food and shelter are met. One of the most notable proponents of this design system has been David Holmgren, who based much of his permaculture innovation on zone analysis. For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... -1... Roost Records (also known as Royal Roost Records) was a record label established in 1949, primarily to record jazz, taking its secondary name from the New York club with which it was associated. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... David Holmgren (born 1955) is an ecologist, ecological design engineer and writer. ... Zoning in Permaculture design refers to a method of ensuring that elements are correctly placed. ...


O'BREDIM design methodology

O'BREDIM is a mnemonic based on Observation, Boundaries, Resources, Evaluation, Design, Implementation and Maintenance. For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...

  • Observation allows you to first see how the site functions within itself, to gain an understanding of its initial relationships. Some people recommend a year-long observation of a site before anything is planted. During this period all factors, such as lay of the land, natural flora and so forth, can be brought into the design. A year allows the site to be observed through all seasons, although it must be realised that, particularly in temperate climates, there can be substantial variations between years.
  • Boundaries refer to physical ones as well as to those your neighbours might place on you, for example.
  • Resources would include the people involved, funding, as well as what you can grow or produce in the future.
  • Evaluation of the first three will then allow you to prepare for the next three. This is a careful phase of taking stock of what you have at hand to work with.
  • Design is always a creative and intensive process, and you must stretch your ability to see possible future synergetic relationships.
  • Implementation is literally the ground-breaking part of the process when you carefully dig and shape the site.
  • Maintenance is then required to keep your site at a healthy optimum, making minor adjustments as necessary. Good design will preclude the need for any major adjustments.

Synergy (from the Greek synergos, συνεργός meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than that predicted by knowing only the separate effects of the individual agents. ...

Patterns

Herb spiral

The use of patterns both in nature and reusable patterns from other sites is often key to permaculture design. This echoes the Pattern language of Christopher Alexander used in architecture which has been an inspiration for many permaculture designers. All things, even the wind, the waves and the earth on its axis, moving around the Sun, form patterns. In pattern application, permaculture designers are encouraged to develop: 1. Awareness of the patterns that exist in nature (and how these function) 2. Application of pattern on sites in order to satisfy specific design needs. "The application of pattern on a design site involves the designer recognising the shape and potential to fit these patterns or combinations of patterns comfortably onto the landscape" Sampson-Kelly. We can use branching for the direction of our paths, rather than straight paths with square angles. Or we may use lobe-like paths of the main path (these are known as keyhole paths) that minimise waste and compaction of the soil. Image File history File links Herb_spiral. ... Image File history File links Herb_spiral. ... A pattern language is a special form of textual documentation, used to document successful solutions to typical challenges in a design process. ... Christopher Alexander (born October 4, 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is an architect noted for his theories about design, and for more than 200 building projects in California, Japan, Mexico and around the world. ... This article is about building architecture. ...


Permaculture zones

Main article: Zones (Permaculture)

Permaculture zones are a way of organizing design elements in a human environment based on the frequency of human use. Frequently manipulated or harvested elements are located close to the house in zones one and two, while less frequently manipulated elements of the design are farther away from the house. Zoning in Permaculture design refers to a method of ensuring that elements are correctly placed. ...


Links and connections

Also key to the permacultural design model is that useful connections are made between components in the final design. The formal analogy for this is a natural mature ecosystem. So, in much the same way as there are useful connections between Sun, plants, insects and soil there will be useful connections between different plants and their relationship to the landscape and humans. Another innovation of the permaculture design is to design a landuse or other system that has multiple outputs. In terms of Holmgren's application of H.T. Odum's work, a useful connection is viewed as one that maximises power: that is, maximizes the rate of useful energy transformation. A comparison which illustrates this is between a wheat field and a forest. “It is not the number of diverse things in a design that leads to stability, it is the number of beneficial connections between these components” Mollison 1988. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


Layers/'stacking'

The seven layers of the forest garden.

In permaculture and forest gardening, seven layers are identified: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1491x936, 50 KB) Forest garden diagram to replace the one that currently existat the Forest gardening article. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1491x936, 50 KB) Forest garden diagram to replace the one that currently existat the Forest gardening article. ...

  1. The canopy
  2. Low tree layer (dwarf fruit trees)
  3. Shrubs
  4. Herbaceous
  5. Rhizosphere (root crops)
  6. Soil Surface (cover crops)
  7. Vertical Layer (climbers, vines)

The 8th layer, or Mycosphere (fungi), is often included in layering. Look up Canopy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Rhizosphere is the zone of soil that is directly influenced by roots. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ... Broadly defined, a cover crop is any annual, biennial, or perennial plant grown as a monoculture (one crop type grown together) or polyculture (multiple crop types grown together), to improve any number of conditions associated with sustainable agriculture. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


A mature ecosystem such as ancient woodland has a huge number of relationships between its component parts: trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects and other animals. Plants grow at different heights. This allows a diverse community of life to grow in a relatively small space. Plants come into leaf and fruit at different times of year. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Ancient Woodland is a term used in the United Kingdom to refer specifically to woodland dating back to at least 1600 in England and Wales, (or 1750 in Scotland). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Understory (or understorey) is the term for the area of a forest which grows in the shade of the overstory or canopy. ... Groundcover is any plant used for the purpose of growing over an area of ground to hide it or to protect it from erosion or drought. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera...

Layering in temperate garden.
Layering in temperate garden.

For example, in the UK, wild garlic comes into leaf on the woodland floor in the time before the top canopy re-appears with the spring. A wood suffers very little soil erosion as there are always roots in the soil. It offers a habitat to a wide variety of animal life which the plants rely on for pollination and seed distribution. The productivity of such a forest in terms of how much new growth it produces exceeds the most productive wheat field. It is in this observation of how more productive a wood may be on far less input of fertilizers that the potential productivity of a permaculture design is modelled. The many connections in a wood contribute together to a proliferation of opportunities for amplifier feedbacks to evolve that in turn maximise energy flow through the system. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (376x608, 72 KB) Young Ryan in our permaculture garden NSW Australia shows the layering or stacking of plants in the permaculture system: species in view from top are: Ice-Cream bean (Inga Edulis) Mulberry, Peach, Mango, avocado, strawberry feijoa, pineapple sage... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (376x608, 72 KB) Young Ryan in our permaculture garden NSW Australia shows the layering or stacking of plants in the permaculture system: species in view from top are: Ice-Cream bean (Inga Edulis) Mulberry, Peach, Mango, avocado, strawberry feijoa, pineapple sage... Binomial name L. Ramsons, buckrams, wild garlic, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic or bears garlic (Allium ursinum) is a wild relative of chives. ... Look up Canopy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ...

Further information: Forest gardening

Here is a photo of a layered warm temperate garden in NSW, Australia (courtesy of PermacualtureVisions). There are several layers: the canopy layer is Inga Edulis (Ice Cream Bean, the middle stratum contains Plum and Peach, Mango, Mulberry and nurse plants such as native wattle. There are shrubs such as sage and woody herbs, ground covers such as sweet potato and vines such as passionfruit and kiwi fruit. The tubers consist of onions and taro. Forest gardening (also known as 3-Dimensional Gardening) is a food production and land management system based on replicating woodland ecosystems, substituting trees (such as fruit or nut trees), bushes, shrubs, herbs and vegetables which have yields directly useful to mankind. ...


Polyculture

Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. It includes crop rotation, multi-cropping, and inter-cropping. Alley cropping is a simplification of the layered system which typically uses just two layers, with alternate rows of trees and smaller plants. Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... In agriculture, multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same space during a single growing season. ... A cropping system of coconut and banana (Satavic Farms) Intercropping is the practice of cultivating an additional crop in the spaces available between the main crop. ...


Guilds

Permaculture Guilds are groups of plants which work particularly well together. These can be those observed in nature such as the White Oak guild which centers on the White Oak tree and includes 10 other plants. Native communities can be adapted by substitution of plants more suitable for human use. Binomial name Quercus alba L. The White oak (Quercus alba) is one of the most magnificent of oaks. ... Look up native in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Three Sisters of maize, squash and beans is a well known guild. The British National Vegetation Classification provides a comprehensive list of plant communities in the UK. Guilds can be thought of as an extension of companion planting. The Three Sisters are the three main agricultural crops of some Native American groups in North America: squash, maize, and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For other uses, see Bean (disambiguation). ... The British National Vegetation Classification or NVC is a system of classifying natural habitat types in Britain according to the vegetation they contain. ... Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is planting of different crops in close physical proximity. ...


Increase edge

See also edge effect

Permaculturists maintain that where vastly differing systems meet, there is an intense area of productivity and useful connections. The greatest example of this is the coast. Where the land and the sea meet there is a particularly rich area that meets a disproportionate percentage of human and animal needs. This is evidenced by the fact that the overwhelming majority of humankind lives within 100 km of the sea. So this idea is played out in permacultural designs by using spirals in the herb garden or creating ponds that have wavy undulating shorelines rather than a simple circle or oval. Edges between woodland and open areas have been claimed to be the most productive.[1] An edge effect is the effect of the juxtaposition of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. ...


Perennial plants

Perennial plants are often used in permaculture design. As they do not need to be planted every year they require less maintenance and fertilisers. They are especially important in the outer zones and in layered systems. Ken Fern of Plants For A Future has spent many years investigating suitable perennial plants. Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ... Plants For A Future (PFAF) is an online not for profit resource for those interested in edible and useful plants of temperate regions. ...

Further information: List of useful plants

This page contains a list of useful plants which can be used in Permaculture. ...

Animals

Many permaculture designs involve animals. Chickens can be used as a method of weed control and also as a producer of eggs, meat and fertiliser. Agroforestry combines trees with grazing animals. Parkland in Burkina Faso: Sorghum grown under Faidherbia albida and Borassus akeassii near Banfora, Burkina Faso Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ...


Some projects are critical of the use of animals (see vegan organic gardening). However not all permaculture sites farm the animals. The animals are pets and can be treated as co-habitators and co-workers of the site, eating foods normally unpalatable to people such as slugs, termites, being an integral part of the pest management by eating some pests, supplying fertiliser through their droppings and controlling some weed species. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Annual monoculture (anti-pattern)

Annual monoculture such as a wheatfield can be considered a pattern to be avoided in terms of space (height is uniform) and time (crops grow at the same rate until harvesting). During growth and especially after harvesting the system is prone to soil erosion from rain. The field requires a hefty input of fertilizers for growth and machinery for harvesting. The work is more likely to be repetitive, mechanised and rely on fossil fuels. A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... This article is about gathering crops. ... Prone refers to the perceived likelihood of being affected by something. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ...


No pattern should be hard and fast and depending on the design considerations they can be broken. An example of this is broadscale permaculture practiced at Ragmans Lane Farm, which has a component of annual farming. Here the amount of human involvement is a key factor influencing the design.


Energy

Applying these values means using fewer non-renewable sources of energy, particularly petroleum based forms of energy. Burning fossil fuels contributes to greenhouse gases and global warming; however, using less energy is more than just combatting global warming. Food production should be a fully renewable system; but using current agricultural systems this is not the case. Industrial agriculture requires large amounts of petroleum, both to run the equipment, and to supply pesticides and fertilizers. Permaculture is in part an attempt to create a renewable system of food production that relies upon minimal amounts of energy. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ...


For example permaculture focuses on maximizing the use of trees (agroforestry) and perennial food crops because they make a more efficient and long term use of energy than traditional seasonal crops. A farmer does not have to exert energy every year replanting them, and this frees up that energy to be used somewhere else. Parkland in Burkina Faso: Sorghum grown under Faidherbia albida and Borassus akeassii near Banfora, Burkina Faso Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... This article is about divisions of a year. ...


Traditional pre-industrial agriculture was labor intensive, industrial agriculture is fossil fuel intensive and permaculture is design and information intensive and petrofree. Partially permaculture is an attempt to work smarter, not harder; and when possible the energy used should come from renewable sources such as wind power, passive solar designs or biofuels. These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use, without the assistance of other energy sources. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ...


A good example of this kind of efficient design is the chicken greenhouse. By attaching the chicken coop to a greenhouse you can reduce the need to heat the greenhouse by fossil fuels, as the chicken's bodies heat the area. The chickens scratching and pecking can be put to good use to clear new land for crops. Their manure can be used to fertilise the soil. Feathers could be used in compost or as a mulch. In a conventional factory situation all these chicken outputs are seen as a waste problem. So in factories cooled by huge air conditioners, the chicken waste is extracted. All the energy is focused on egg production. Thus it is a further principle of permaculture that "pollution is energy in the wrong place". This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... A chicken coop is a building where chickens are kept on a farm or homestead. ... Look up scratch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A 1/2 peck apple bag A peck is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of dry volume, equivalent in each of these systems to 8 dry quarts, or 16 dry pints. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... A handful of compost A double-wide bin with compost at different stages of decomposition Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials. ... In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


Holmgren's 12 design principles

David Holmgren has developed 12 design principles for permaculture:

  1. observe and interact
  2. catch and store energy
  3. obtain a yield
  4. apply self-regulation and accept feedback
  5. use and value renewable resources and services
  6. produce no waste
  7. design from patterns to details
  8. integrate rather than segregate
  9. use small and slow solutions
  10. use and value diversity
  11. use edges and value the marginal
  12. creatively use and respond to change

Permaculture design for ecologinomic (ecology-economic) ethics

A basic principle is thus to "add value" to existing crops. A permaculture design therefore seeks to provide a wide range of solutions by including its main ethics (see above) as an integral part of the final value-added design. Crucially, it seeks to address problems that include the economic question of how to either make money from growing crops or exchange crops for labour such as in the LETS scheme. Each final design therefore should include economic considerations as well as give equal weight to maintaining ecological balance, making sure that the needs of people working on the project are met and that no one is exploited. Community-based economics or just community economics encourages local substitution and a rejection of outside energy subsidy and coercion. ... Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) are local, non-profit exchange networks in which all kinds of goods and services can be traded without the need for money. ...


Community economics require a balance between the three aspects that comprise a community, justice, environment and economics aka the triple bottom line. This approach is also referred to as the Triple E (EEE)which stands for ecological-economics-ethics. A cooperative farmer's market could be an example of this structure. The farmers are the workers and owners.


Examples

One way of doing this is through designing a system that has "multiple outputs" For example, a wheat field interspersed with walnuts will reduce soil erosion, act as a windbreak and provide a walnut crop as well as a wheat crop. As there are two crops to manage the work will be more interesting. Here the system comes into conflict with conventional agriculture and economics. By interplanting trees in wheat fields there is a reduction in the wheat yield. The field is also harder to harvest using machinery, as the operator has to drive around the trees. Most farms specialise in a few crops at a time and seek to maximise surplus in order to increase profit. This surplus can only be maintained with a massive injection of fossil fuels. So, as things stand it is quite hard for a permaculture farm to compete with a "conventional " farm in order to grow basic fruit and vegetables. For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... A windbreak,or shelterbelt, is usually made up of one or more rows of trees planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to prevent soil erosion. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Surplus means the quantity left over, after conducting an activity; the quantity which has not been used up, and can refer to: budget surplus, the opposite of a budget deficit economic surplus Surplus product or surplus value in Marxian economics physical surplus in the economic theory of Piero Sraffa Operating... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ...


Critiques

John Robin has been one the strongest critics of permaculture, criticising it for its potential to spread environmental weeds, reflecting a divide between native plant advocates and permaculture.[2] Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ...


Besides using non-indigenous species, through permaculture higher densities of certain trees (e.g. fruit-trees, nuts, ...) are planted than would be the case in nature. Finally, these fruit-trees, nuts, and hedge-trees are sometimes (if not mostly) selected (cross-bred) varieties which - although they provide higher yield, better growing conditions and such like - are not natural.


Some critics have argued that permaculture is best suited to tropical, Mediterranean or desert conditions, and is largely unsuitable for a cool temperate country such as the UK. [citation needed]


Permaculture in the tropics, as expressed in 'Permaculture: A Designer's Manual', did not produce significant amounts of food or fruit when applied in Northern New South Wales and Queensland, largely since the closed canopy is not conducive to fruit production. The system, whilst very healthy in and of itself, yielded very little produce.[citation needed]


The perceived lack of evidential data about the performance of the system and lack of a central body representing the system have also been sources of criticism.


Bill Mollison himself has also been critical of itinerant teachers of permaculture who would go on to teach after only a short course. At one point Mollison unsuccessfully tried to trademark the term permaculture to prevent this practice.


Perhaps the strongest criticism of permaculture is to be found in the Review of Toby Hemenway's book Gaia's Garden, which was published in the Winter 2001 edition of the Whole Earth Review.[3] In it, Greg Williams critiques the view that woods were more highly productive than farmland based on the theory of ecological succession which says that net productivity declines as ecosystems mature. He also criticised the lack of scientifically respectable data and questions whether permaculture is applicable to more than a small number of dedicated people. Hemenway's response in the same magazine disputes Williams's claim on productivity as focusing on climax rather than on maturing forests, citing data from ecologist Robert Whittaker's book Communities and Ecosystems. Hemenway is also critical of Williams's characterisation of permaculture as simply forest gardening.[4] Whole Earth Review is the former name of a magazine once known as CoEvolution Quarterly and now known as Whole Earth. ... Robert Whittaker (1920-1980) was an American vegetation ecologist, active in the 1950s through the 1970s. ...


Contemporary examples

In the years since its conception, permaculture has become a successful approach to designing sustainable systems. Its adaptability and emphasis on meeting human needs means that it can be utilized in every climatic and cultural zone.[citation needed] However, at the moment the large proportion of practitioners are only likely to be inspired individuals and there is a distinct lack of broadscale permaculture projects. Nevertheless, permaculture has also been used successfully as a development tool to help meet the needs of indigenous communities at risk from exploitation by free-market economics.[citation needed] The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Permaculture is now well-established across the world and there are some inspiring examples of its use:


Africa

Zimbabwe has sixty schools designed using permaculture, with a national team working within the schools' curriculum development unit. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has produced a report on using permaculture in refugee situations after successful use in camps in Southern Africa and Macedonia. The Biofarming approach applied in Ethiopia has very similar features and can be considered as permaculture. It is mainly promoted by BEA (NGO) based in Addis Ababa. Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


Oceania

Australia

The development of permaculture co-founder David Holmgren's home plot at Melliodora, Central Victoria, has been well documented at his website and published in e-book format [2]. Victoria is an Australian state, resting at the southern end of the Great Dividing Range, which stretches along the east coast and terminates near Ballarat. ... A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device In computing, an e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ebook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ...


Designed from permaculture principles, Crystal Waters is a socially and environmentally responsible, economically viable rural subdivision north of Brisbane, Australia. Crystal Waters was designed by Max Lindegger, Robert Tap, Barry Goodman and Geoff Young, and established in 1987. It received the 1996 World Habitat Award (assessed by Dr Wally N’Dow) for its "pioneering work in demonstrating new ways of low impact, sustainable living". Eighty-three freehold residential and two commercial lots occupy 20% of the 259ha (640 acre) property. The remaining 80% is the best land, and is owned in common. It can be licensed for sustainable agriculture, forestry, recreation and habitat projects. For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... The World Habitat Awards were established in 1985 by the Building and Social Housing Foundation as part of its contribution to the United Nations International Year of Shelter for the Homeless. ...


Asia

Indonesia

The Indonesian Development of Education and Permaculture assisted in disaster relief in Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 Tsunami [3]. They have also developed Wastewater Gardens, a small-scale sewage treatment systems similar to Reedbeds. Indonesian Development of Education and Permaculture (Yayasan IDEP) is an Indonesian non-profit foundation that was formally established in Bali, Indonesia in 1998, at the height of Indonesia’s economic crisis. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[1] was a great undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004 with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... A reedbed in summer Reedbeds are basically ’temporary’ habitats. ...


Thailand

The Panya Project, located in Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai, Thailand, is a sustainable living project implementing permaculture principals and hosting permaculture workshops for both English and Thai language speakers. In the fall of 2006, the project hosted a PDC taught by Geoff Lawton of the Permaculture Research Institute of Australia, and subsequently put in over 500 meters of swales and a 2 million liter dam. The community at The Panya Project uses permaculture to help regenerate what used to be a monocrop mango plantation, actively transforming it into a biodiverse food forest, organic farm and education center. They also incorporate natural building into their design, i.e. wattle and cob and adobe brick. Learn more about this project at The Panya Project [4]


Europe

Cyprus

Two acres of land at Ayia Skepi Therapeutic Centre in Filani village, a drug rehabilitation centre about 25km from Nicosia, are being developed by Emily Markides, Julia Yelton, Charles Yelton and the residents of the detoxification centre. District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ...


United Kingdom

Robert Hart's forest garden in Shropshire, England

There are a number of example permaculture projects in the UK, including: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (484x657, 54 KB) Summary Photo of Robert Harts forest garden by Graham Burnett ( quercus robur ) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (484x657, 54 KB) Summary Photo of Robert Harts forest garden by Graham Burnett ( quercus robur ) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • Ragmans Lane, a 60 acre farm in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire [5].
  • Tir Penrhos Isaf, near Dolgellau, developed by Chris and Lyn Dixon since 1986 [6].
  • Plants for a Future is a vegan-organic project based at Lostwithiel in Cornwall that is researching and trialing edible and otherwise useful plant crops for sustainable cultivation. Their online database currently features over 7,000 such species that can be grown within the UK [7]. A collaborative version of the database is in development by the permaculture.info project. The project has a second, larger property in North Devon, for which it is seeking a new group to take over.
  • Prickly Nut Woods is a ten acre woodland near Haslemere, Surrey that is managed by Ben Law. He is using a 'whole system' permacultural approach, utilising a wide variety of woodland products and documenting a complex web of relationships. He has built a house almost entirely using products from the woodland, which was featured in Channel 4's Grand Designs TV series [8].
  • Agroforestry Research Trust, a not for profit organisation based in Dartington, Devon that runs a 2 acre forest garden and publishes the journal Agroforestry News [9]
  • Middlewood Trust, a permculture based farm in North Lancashire running courses in permaculture, crafts, forestry and sustainability [10]
  • The RISC Roof Garden, on top of a development education centre in Reading city centre and inspired by Robert Hart's permaculture forest garden in Shropshire, is an excellent example of urban permaculture design. [11]. It is used by schools, educators and designers as an educational resource for sustainable development and is a member of the National Gardens Scheme. The garden is comprised of dense plantings of over 180 species of edible and medicinal plants and is fed by rainwater and composted waste from the centre.

Other projects tend to be more community oriented, particularly in urban areas. These include Naturewise, a north London based group who tend a number of forest gardens and allotments as well as running regular permaculture introductory and design courses [12]; and Organiclea, a workers cooperative who are involved in developing local food growing and distribution initiatives around the Walthamstow area of east London [13]. The Forest of Dean is a geographical, historical and cultural region in the county of Gloucestershire, England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... Plants For A Future (PFAF) is an online not for profit resource for those interested in edible and useful plants of temperate regions. ... It has been suggested that Veganic gardening be merged into this article or section. ... 12th century bridge at Lostwithiel, crossing the river Fowey Lostwithiel (Cornish: Lostwydhyel) is a civil parish and small town in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom at the head of the estuary of the River Fowey. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Haslemere is a town in Surrey in southern England, with a population of nearly 14,000. ... This article is about the English county. ... Woodland management is the practice of managing woodlands, whether for the maximising of timber production, or for the conservation of wildlife. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Grand Designs is a Channel 4 TV series covering unusual architectural house-building projects, presented by Kevin McCloud and produced by Talkback. ... Dartington is a village in Devon, England. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A typical allotment plot, Essex, England Allotment gardens are characterized by a concentration in one place of a few or up to several hundreds of land parcels that are assigned to individual families. ... A worker cooperative is a cooperative owned and operated by its worker-owners. There are no outside or consumer owners in a worker cooperative -- only the workers own shares of the business. ... , Walthamstow is a town in the London Borough of Waltham Forest, North East London, England. ...


The UK Permaculture Association publishes an extensive directory of other projects and example sites throughout the country [14].


North America

United States of America

  • The Northeastern Permaculture Network brings together enthusiasts in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. [5]
  • The Seattle Permaculture Guild is active in that city. [6]
  • Promoting urban permaculture in Los Angeles is Path to Freedom [7].

Cuba

Cuba has in the past 18 years transformed their food production using bio-dynamic farming and permaculture. Havana produces up to 50% of its food requirements from within the city limits, all of it organic and produced by people in their homes, gardens and in municipal spaces. Read more about how and why the Cubans made this happen at The Power of Community


South America

Brazil

IPEC - Ecocentro at the Instituto de Permacultura e Ecovilas do Cerrado - the Institute of Permaculture and Ecovillage of the Cerrado IPEC can refer to: Indian Point Energy Center International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Categories: | ... The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. ... Parkland in Burkina Faso: Sorghum grown under Faidherbia albida and Borassus akeassii near Banfora, Burkina Faso Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Appropriate technology is technology that is appropriate to the environmental, cultural and economic situation it is intended for. ... aqua·pon·ics Pronunciation - Spelled: [ak-wuh-pon-iks] IPA: /ˈækwəˈpɒnɪks/ - noun (used with a singular verb) The symbiotic cultivation of plants and aquatic animals in a recirculating environment. ... Bioregional democracy (or the Bioregional State) is a set of environment concerns, e. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... Eco-Communalism is an environmental philosophy based on ideals of simple living, local economies, and self-sufficiency (often associated with the ideologies of socialism, communalism, and sustainability). ... Ecovillages are intended to be socially, economically and ecologically sustainable intentional communities. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Forest gardening (also known as 3-Dimensional Gardening) is a food production and land management system based on replicating woodland ecosystems, substituting trees (such as fruit or nut trees), bushes, shrubs, herbs and vegetables which have yields directly useful to mankind. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... Whole redirects here. ... Image:Indonesia home garden. ... Masanobu Fukuoka (福岡 正信 Fukuoka Masanobu), born February 2, 1913, author of The One-Straw Revolution, The Road Back to Nature and The Natural Way Of Farming, is one of the pioneers of no-till grain cultivation. ... No-till farming, also known as conservation tillage or zero tillage is a way of growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Organic horticulture. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Sheet mulching is a gardening and landscaping method that allows planting into or on top of the ground and is a form of no-dig gardening: the process of covering any base or unwanted plant material including weeds, old lawn or open ground with a layers of materials known as... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... A sustainable habitat is an ecosystem that produces food and shelter for people and other organisms, without resource depletion and in such a way that no external waste is produced. ... Sustainable living might best be defined as a lifestyle that could, hypothetically, be sustained unmodified for many generations without exhausting any natural resources. ... Systems Ecology is a transdiscipline which studies ecological systems, or ecosystems. ... The Natural Step is a nonprofit organization founded in Sweden in 1989 by Swedish scientist, Karl-Henrik Robèrt. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ...

References

  1. ^ Plants for a Future - The woodland edge
  2. ^ http://www.holmgren.com.au/html/Writings/weeds.html
  3. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0GER/is_2001_Winter/ai_81790195
  4. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0GER/is_2001_Winter/ai_81790196
  5. ^ Northeastern Permaculture Wikispace
  6. ^ Seattle Permaculture Guild
  7. ^ Path to Freedom

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  • Holmgren, David. "Update 49: Retrofitting the suburbs for sustainability". CSIRO Sustainability Network
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  • Paull, J. "Permanent Agriculture: Precursor to Organic Farming", Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania, no.83, pp. 19-21, 2006. Organic eprints.
  • Rosemary Morrow, Earth User’s Guide to Permaculture ISBN 0-86417-514-0
  • Whitefield, Patrick. The Earth Care Manual. Permanent Publications (UK) (2004), ISBN 1-85623-021-X.
  • Whitefield, Patrick. Permaculture In A Nutshell. Permanent Publications (UK) (1993), ISBN 1-85623-003-1.
  • Woodrow, Linda. The Permaculture Home Garden. Penguin Books (Australia).
  • Yeomans, P.A. Water for Every Farm: A practical irrigation plan for every Australian property, K.G. Murray Publishing Company, Pty, Ltd, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1973).

Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... Permanent Publications is a UK based business that specialises in the publication and distribution of books related to permaculture. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

Learning resources

  • permaculture wiki encyclopedia - is a collaborative permaculture encyclopedia built using the wikimedia engine.
  • Understanding the role of Permaculture in sustainability- How permaculture is a systems design tool not just a focus on strategy and efficiency
  • Permaculture Education Wiki - Information on sustainability
  • Permaculture Primer - Contains information explaining principles, concepts, components and associated movements
  • Permaculture a Beginners Guide - a 'pictorial walkthrough'
  • permaculture videos - a collection of free online streaming permaculture related videos.
  • Introduction to permaculture
  • Holmgren Design Services - Contains teaching material about permaculture by David Holgrem
  • 15 pamphlets based on the 1981 Permaculture Design Course given by Bill Mollison
  • The 15 1981 pamphlets all in 1 pdf-file
  • 'Unwelcome Guests' 2x1 hr downloadable radio broadcasts explaining permaculture
  • The Pacific Edge website includes The Permaculture Papers, a personal memoir of Permaculture in Australia by one-time Permaculture teacher and journalist, Russ Grayson, as well as articles on sustainability.
  • The Permaculture Association (Britain) - Includes many resources useful both within the UK and wider international perspective
  • PermacultureVisions free information Sustainability Strategies for the Home, Children and Community]
  • Keyline Design and Permaculture Design Courses Australia Felix Permaculture.

Portals

  • The Permaculture Research Institute, AU - contains articles, picture galleries and a forum
  • Permaculture Activist, US Permaculture Portal
  • Permaculture TV

Publications

  • The Permaculture Global Report - reports on Permaculture projects
  • Tagari Publications - Publishers for the Permaculture Institute. Publishers of Mollison's books. It includes a blog with articles on the subject
  • Permaculture Magazine - solutions for sustainable living. Also publish and sell books, tools & products related to permaculture and sustainable living.

Link resources

  • PermaTasWiki - Links - Exhaustive reference in Global Permaculture resources/weblinks in Wiki format

Conferences

  • 2007 North East Permaculture Convergence - July 6-8, 2007 North East Permaculture Convergence in Ithaca, NY
  • 8th International Permaculture Conference - in Brazil, 2007
  • The Seventh International Permaculture Conference and Convergence - in Motovun, Croatia, 2005. Summary and Key Points on every talk.
  • Sixth International Permaculture Conference & Convergence - in Perth & Bridgetown, Western Australia, 1996. Ellaborate information on the presentations.

Others

  • Permacultura America Latina - permaculture projects throughout Latin America
  • Permaculture Reflections - contains articles on permaculture.
  • Permaculture Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
  • Phoenix Permaculture Guild, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
  • Permaculture Institute, Pojoaque, New Mexico, USA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Permaculture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4324 words)
The word 'permaculture', coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s, is derived as a contraction of permanent agriculture, or permanent culture.
Permaculture is also about careful and contemplative observation of nature and natural systems, and of recognizing universal patterns and principles, then learning to apply these ‘ecological truisms’ to one’s own circumstances.
At the heart of permaculture design and practice is a fundamental set of ‘core values’ or ethics which remain constant whatever a person's situation, whether they are creating systems for town planning or trade; whether the land they care for is only a windowbox or an entire forest.
PcIntro.htm (5400 words)
Permaculture is built upon an ethic of caring for the earth and interacting with the environment in mutually beneficial ways.
Permaculture is: the design of land use systems that are sustainable and environmentally sound; the design of culturally appropriate systems which lead to social stability; a design system characterized by an integrated application of ecological principles in land use; an international movement for land use planning and design; an ethical system stressing positivism and cooperation.
Permaculture is unique among alternative farming systems (e.g., organic, sustainable, eco-agriculture, biodynamic) in that it works with a set of ethics that suggest we think and act responsibly in relation to each other and the earth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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