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Encyclopedia > Peripheral nerve

The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. Unlike the central nervous system however, the PNS is not protected by bone or the blood-brain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Bold text Headline text TAT HE IS STUPID DONT LISTEN TO HIM, HES A GOOF BALL WHO WILL END UP PUMPING YOUR GAS WHEN YOUR OLDER Nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. ... Neurons (also spelled neurones or called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... The Central Nervous System (CNS) represents the largest part of the Nervous System. ... The Central Nervous System (CNS) represents the largest part of the Nervous System. ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and most parts of the central nervous system itself. ... The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles. ... // Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, perspiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ...


Specific nerves

The 12 cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, and mainly control the functions of the anatomic structures of the head with some exceptions. CN X receives visceral sensory information from the thorax and abdomen, and CN XI is responsible for innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, neither of which are exclusively in the head. Cranial nerves are nerves which emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ...


Spinal nerves take their origins from the spinal cord. They control the functions of the rest of the body. In humans, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal. The naming convention for spinal nerves is to name it after the vertebra immediately above it. Thus the fourth thoracic nerve originates just below the fourth thoracic vertebra. This convention breaks down in the cervical spine. The first spinal nerve originates above the first cervical vertebra and is called C1. This continues down to the last cervical spinal nerve, C8. There are only 7 cervical vertabra and 8 cervical spinal nerves. The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...


The first 4 cervical spinal nerves, C1 through C4, split and recombine to produce a variety of nerves that subserve the neck and back of head. Spinal nerve C1 is called the suboccipital nerve which provides motor innervation to muscles at the base of the skull. C2 and C3 form many of the nerves of the neck, providing both sensory and motor control. These include the greater occipital nerve which provides sensation to the back of the head, the lesser occipital nerve which provides sensation to the area behind the ears, the greater auricular nerve and the lesser auricular nerve. See occipital neuralgia. The phrenic nerve arises from nerve roots C3, C4 and C5. It innervates the diaphragm, enabling breathing. If the spinal cord is transected above C3, then spontaneous breathing is not possible. See myelopathy The first spinal nerve, the suboccipital nerve exits the spinal cord between the skull and the first cervical vertebra, the atlas. ... A Hippopotamuss skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of vertebrates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... The lesser occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. ... A right human ear. ... The greater auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The lesser auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... Occipital Neuralgia is a medical condition characterized by chronic pain in the upper neck, back of the head, and behind the ears. ... The phrenic nerve arises from spinal nerves C3, C4 and C5. ... A diagram of the thoracic muscles featuring the diaphragm In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and mobility. ...


Brachial Plexus

The last 4 cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1,combine to form the brachial plexus, a tangled array of nerves, splitting, combining and recombining, to form the nerves that subserve the arm and upper back. Although the brachial plexus may appear tangled, it is highly organized and predictable, with little variation between people. See brachial plexus injuries. The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... A common neurologic injury from trauma (such as being hit by a car) is that of brachial plexus avulsion. ...


The first nerve off the brachial plexus is the dorsal scapular nerve, arising from C5 nerve root, and innervating the rhomboids and the levator scapulae muscles. The long thoracic nerve arises from C5, C6 and C7 to innervate the serratus anterior. The brachial plexus first forms three trunks, the superior trunk, composed of the C5 and C6 nerve roots, the middle trunk, made of the C7 nerve root, and the inferior trunk, made of the C8 and T1 nerve roots. The suprascapular nerve is an early branch of the superior trunk. It innervates the suprascapular and infrascapular muscles, part of the rotator cuff. See rotator cuff for rotator cuff injuries The trunks reshuffle as they traverse towards the arm into cords. There are three of them. The lateral cord is made up of fibers from the anterior and middle trunk. The posterior cord is made up of fibers from all three trunks. The medial cord is composed of fibers solely from the medial trunk. The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, specifically from spinal nerves C4 and C5. ... This article is about mathematics. ... The long thoracic nerve supplies motor innervation to the serratus anterior muscle. ... Serratus anterior Serratus anterior muscle is the surface of upper 9 ribs at side of chest - anterior aspect along entire length of medial border of scapula - (protraction) draws medial border of scapula away from vertebrae (upward rotation). ... The Nervus suprascapularis (Suprascapular nerve) is a nerve of the plexus brachialis. ... The rotator cuff is an anatomical term given to the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. ... The rotator cuff is an anatomical term given to the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. ... ARM may stand for: Most likely: ARM Ltd (originally Advanced RISC Machines) ARM architecture CPU design or one of its derivatives developed by ARM Ltd (originally called The Acorn RISC Machine) Adjustable rate mortgage Annotated Reference Manual (C++) Artificial rupture of membranes (see amniotic sac) the ISO 3166-1 3...


The lateral cord gives rise to the following nerves:

The posterior cord gives rise to the following nerves: Location The clavicular head of the pectoralis major takes its origin from the anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle. ... The major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly within the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the arm muscles that flex the forearm (the biceps brachii and brachialis). ... A person flexing his biceps brachii In human anatomy, the biceps brachii is a muscle on the upper arm that acts to flex the elbow. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ...

  • The upper subscapular nerve, C7 and C8, to the subscapularis muscle of the rotator cuff.
  • The lower subscapular nerve, C5 and C6, to the teres major also of the rotator cuff.
  • The thoracodorsal nerve, C6, C7 and C8, to the latissimus dorsi muscle.
  • The axillary nerve, which supplies sensation to the shoulder and motor to the deltoid muscle and the teres minor muscle.
  • The radial nerve, which innervates the triceps brachii muscle, the brachioradialis muscle, the extensor muscles of the fingers and wrist (extensor carpi radialis muscle), and the extensor and abductor muscles of the thumb. See radial nerve injuries.

The medial cord gives rise to the following nerves: The rotator cuff is an anatomical term given to the group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. ... Latissimus dorsi is a large flat muscle located on the back. ... The axillary nerve is a nerve of the human body, that comes off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus at the level of the axilla (armpit). ... Deltoid can refer to: deltoid muscle deltoid (curve) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body, that supplies the arm, the forearm and the hand. ... Triceps brachii The triceps brachii muscle is a large three-headed skeletal muscle found in humans. ... Brachioradialis is a muscle located in the forearm, that acts to flex the elbow. ...

  • The median pectoral nerve, C8 and T1, to the pectoralis muscle
  • The medial brachial cutaneous nerve, T1
  • The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, C8 and T1
  • The median nerve, partly. The other part comes from the lateral cord. C7, C8 and T1 nerve roots. The first branch of the median nerve is to the pronator teres muscle, then the flexor carpi radialis, the palmaris longus and the flexor digitorum superficialis. The median nerve provides sensation to the anterior palm, the anterior thumb, index finger and middle finger. It is the nerve compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • The ulnar nerve originates in nerve roots C7, C8 and T1. It provides sensation to the ring and pinky fingers. It innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, the flexor digitorum profundus muscle to the ring and pinky fingers, and the intrinsic muscles of the hand (the interosseous muscle, the lumbrical muscles and the flexor pollicus brevis muscle). This nerve traverses a groove on the elbow called the cubital tunnel, also known as the funny bone. Striking the nerve at this point produces an unpleasant sensation in the ring and little fingers.

The remainder of the thoracic spinal nerves, T3 through T12, do little recombining. They form the intercostal nerves, so named because the run between the ribs. For points of reference, the 7th intercostal nerve terminates at the lower end of the sternum, also known as the xyphoid process. The 10th intercostal nerve terminates at the umbilicus, aka the belly button. Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... In anatomy, flexor carpi radialis is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and abduct the hand. ... Flexor digitorum superficialis is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers. ... The thumbs up gesture is a sign of approval in many cultures. ... The Index finger The index finger or forefinger is the second digit of a human hand, located between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... Carpal tunnel syndrome is a disorder in which the median nerve is compressed at the wrist causing symptoms like tingling, pain, coldness, and sometimes weakness in parts of the hand. ... The ulnar nerve is a nerve that in humans runs down the arm and forearm, and into the hand. ... In anatomy, flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and adduct the hand. ... The flexor digitorum profundis is a muscle in the forearm that flexes the fingers. ... The lumbrical muscles are intrinsic muscles in the fingers that allow flexion at the metacarpophalangeal joints, while maintaining extension at the interphalangeal joints. ... The Cubital Tunnel is a channel which allows the Ulnar nerve (commonly known as the funny bone) to travel over the elbow. ... The human rib cage. ... Sternum or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... The xyphoid process or xiphoid process is a small cartilaginous extension to the lower part of the sternum which may become ossified in the adult. ... An umbilicus which appears as a depression in the abdomen is referred to as an innie. The umbilicus (commonly called a navel, or belly or tummy button), is essentially a scar caused at birth by the removal of the umbilical cord from a newborn baby. ...

  • Lumbar spinal nerves
  • Sacral spinal nerves
  • Coccygeal spinal nerves

See also

  • Peripheral nervous system disease



Nervous system

Brain - Spinal cord - Central nervous system - Peripheral nervous system - Somatic nervous system - Autonomic nervous system - Sympathetic nervous system - Parasympathetic nervous system The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The Central Nervous System (CNS) represents the largest part of the Nervous System. ... The somatic nervous system is that part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles. ... // Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, perspiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ... The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one half of the autonomic nervous system; the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is the other. ... The parasympathetic nervous system is one of two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Peripheral nervous system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1071 words)
The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example.
The first nerve off the brachial plexus, or plexus brachialis, is the dorsal scapular nerve, arising from C5 nerve root, and innervating the rhomboids and the levator scapulae muscles.
The radial nerve, or nervus radialis, which innervates the triceps brachii muscle, the brachioradialis muscle, or musculus brachioradialis,, the extensor muscles of the fingers and wrist (extensor carpi radialis muscle), and the extensor and abductor muscles of the thumb.
Neuron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1944 words)
In vertebrates, neurons are found in the brain, the spinal cord and in the nerves and ganglia of the peripheral nervous system.
The myelin sheath in peripheral nerves normally runs along the axon in sections about 1 mm long, punctuated by unsheathed nodes of Ranvier which contain a high density of voltage-gated ion channels.
Nerve cell bodies stained with basophilic dyes show numerous microscopic clumps of Nissl substance (named after German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Franz Nissl, 1860–1919), which consists of rough endoplasmic reticulum and associated ribosomes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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