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Encyclopedia > Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect

five 32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard
Year created: July 1993
Created by: Intel
Superseded by: PCI Express (2004)

Width: 32 bits
Number of devices: 1 per slot
Capacity 133 MB/s
Style: Parallel
Hotplugging? no
External? no
64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4
64-bit PCI expansion slots inside a Power Macintosh G4

The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (in practice almost always shortened to PCI), specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. These devices can take any one of the following forms: The three-letter abbreviation PCI may refer to: // Project Concern International A Humanitarian Organization Peripheral Component Interconnect — standard specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. ... Download high resolution version (780x800, 187 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... In computing, a parallel port is an interface from a computer system where data is transferred in or out in parallel, that is, on more than one wire. ... ImageMetadata File history File links 64bitpci. ... ImageMetadata File history File links 64bitpci. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... The Power Macintosh G4 (Power Mac G4) was series of personal computers made by Apple. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers and typically is controlled by device driver software. ... For an account of the words periphery and peripheral as they are used in biology, sociology, politics, computer hardware, and other fields, see the periphery disambiguation page. ... This article is about the machine. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ...

The PCI bus is common in modern PCs, where it has displaced ISA and VESA Local Bus as the standard expansion bus, but it also appears in many other computer types. The bus will eventually be succeeded by PCI Express from 2004 and onwards. Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... An expansion card (also expansion board, adapter card or accessory card) in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to add additional functionality to a computer system. ... A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ...


The PCI specification covers the physical size of the bus (including wire spacing), electrical characteristics, bus timing, and protocols. The specification can be purchased from the PCI Special Interest Group (PCI-SIG). The PCI-SIG or Peripheral Component Interconnect Special Interest Group is an electronics industry consortium responsible for specifying the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), PCI-X, and PCI Express (PCIe) computer busses. ...

Contents

History

Work on PCI began at Intel's Architecture Lab circa 1990. PCI 1.0, which was merely a component-level specification, was released on June 22, 1992. PCI 2.0, which was the first to establish standards for the connector and motherboard slot, was released on April 30, 1993. PCI 2.1 was released on June 1, 1995. Look up work in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Intel Architecture Labs, also known as IAL, is the development arm of Intel Corporation for the Intel Architecture segment of its business. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


PCI was immediately put to use in servers, replacing MCA and EISA as the server expansion bus of choice. In mainstream PCs, PCI was slower to replace VESA Local Bus (VLB), and did not gain significant market penetration until late 1994 in second-generation Pentium PCs. By 1996 VLB was all but extinct, and manufacturers had adopted PCI even for 486 computers.[1] EISA continued to be used alongside PCI through 2000. Apple Computer adopted PCI for professional Power Macintosh computers (replacing NuBus) in mid-1995, and the consumer Performa product line (replacing LC PDS) in mid-1996. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Intel486[1] brand refers to Intels family of i486 (incl. ... Apple Inc. ... The Power Mac G5, the last model of the series. ... NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus, originally developed at MIT as a part of the NuMachine workstation project, and eventually used by Apple Computer and NeXT Computer. ... A Macintosh Performa 5200, an all-in-one desktop similar to the iMac. ... LC PDS Ethernet card. ...


Later revisions of PCI added new features and performance improvements, including a 66 MHz 3.3 V standard and 133 MHz PCI-X, and the adaptation of PCI signaling to other form factors. Both PCI-X 1.0b and PCI-X 2.0 are backward compatible with some PCI standards. With the introduction of the serial PCI Express standard in 2004, motherboard manufacturers have included progressively fewer PCI expansion slots in favor of the new standard. Although it is still common to see both interfaces implemented side-by-side, traditional PCI is likely to slowly die out in coming years. MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Josephson junction array chip developed by NIST as a standard volt. ... For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ...


The system firmware examines each device's PCI Configuration Space and allocates resources. Each device can request up to six areas of memory space or I/O port space. A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... One of the major improvements Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) had over other I/O architectures was its configuration mechanism. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ...


They can also have an optional ROM that can contain executable x86 or PA-RISC code, Open Firmware or an EFI driver. Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... HP PA-RISC 7300LC Microprocessor PA-RISC is a microprocessor architecture developed by Hewlett-Packards Systems & VLSI Technology Operation. ... Open Firmware (also, OpenBoot) is a hardware-independent firmware (computer software which loads the operating system), developed by Mitch Bradley at Sun Microsystems, and used in post-NuBus PowerPC-based Apple Macintosh computers, Sun Microsystems SPARC based workstations and servers, IBM POWER systems, Pegasos systems, and the laptop designed by... The workings of the Extensible Firmware Interface The Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware. ...


In a typical system, the operating system queries all PCI buses at startup time to find out what devices are present and what system resources (memory, interrupt lines, etc.) each needs. It then allocates the resources and tells each device what its allocation is.


The PCI configuration space also contains a small amount of device type information, which helps an operating system choose device drivers for it, or at least to have a dialogue with a user about the system configuration.


Version

  • Card
    • 32-bit, 33MHz (added in Rev. 2.0)
    • 64-bit, 33MHz (added in Rev. 2.0)
    • 32-bit, 66MHz (3.3V only, added in Rev. 2.1)
    • 64-bit, 66MHz (3.3V only, added in Rev. 2.1)
  • Slot

Look up desktop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ABIT KT7, an ATX format motherboard A motherboard is a printed circuit board used in a personal computer. ... Look up server in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ABIT KT7, an ATX format motherboard A motherboard is a printed circuit board used in a personal computer. ... Look up server in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ABIT KT7, an ATX format motherboard A motherboard is a printed circuit board used in a personal computer. ... For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ...

Interrupts

Devices are required to follow a protocol so that the interrupt lines can be shared. The PCI bus includes four interrupt lines, all of which are available to each device. However, they are not wired in parallel as are the other traces. The positions of the interrupt lines rotate between slots, so what appears to one device as the INTA# line is INTB# to the next and INTC# to the next. Single-function devices always use their INTA# for interrupt signaling, so the device load is spread fairly evenly across the four available interrupt lines. This alleviates a common problem with sharing interrupts. In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ...


PCI bridges (between two PCI buses) map the four interrupt traces on each of their sides in varying ways. Some bridges use a fixed mapping, and in others it is configurable. In the general case, software cannot determine which interrupt line a device's INTA# pin is connected to across a bridge. The mapping of PCI interrupt lines onto system interrupt lines, through the PCI host bridge, is similarly implementation-dependent. The result is that it can be impossible to determine how a PCI device's interrupts will appear to software. Platform-specific BIOS code is meant to know this, and set a field in each device's configuration space indicating which IRQ it is connected to, but this process is not reliable.


PCI interrupt lines are level-triggered. This was chosen over edge-triggering in order to gain an advantage when servicing a shared interrupt line, and for robustness: edge triggered interrupts are easy to miss. However, this efficiency gain comes at the cost of flexibility, and one interrupting device can block all other devices on the same interrupt line. (See "level-triggered interrupt" for explanation.) In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ...


Later revisions of the PCI specification add support for message-signalled interrupts. In this system a device signals its need for service by performing a memory write, rather than by asserting a dedicated line. This alleviates the problem of scarcity of interrupt lines. Even if interrupt vectors are still shared, it does not suffer the sharing problems of level-triggered interrupts. It also resolves the routing problem, because the memory write is not unpredictably modified between device and host. Finally, because the message signaling is in-band, it resolves some synchronization problems that can occur with posted writes and out-of-band interrupt lines. In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... In-band signalling is the act of transmitting metadata and network control information together with the regular data sent. ... Out-of-band signaling is telecommunication signaling (exchange of information in order to control a telephone call) that is done on a channel that is dedicated for the purpose and separate from the channels used for the telephone call. ...


PCI Express does not have physical interrupt lines at all. It uses message-signalled interrupts exclusively. PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ...


Conventional hardware specifications

A typical 32-bit PCI card, in this case a SCSI adapter from Adaptec
A typical 32-bit PCI card, in this case a SCSI adapter from Adaptec
A PCI-X Gigabit Ethernet expansion card
A PCI-X Gigabit Ethernet expansion card

These specifications represent the most common version of PCI used in normal PCs. Image File history File linksMetadata 32-bit_PCI_card. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 32-bit_PCI_card. ... Scuzzy redirects here. ... Adaptec, Inc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3405x2270, 4680 KB)[edit] Summary Intel PRO/1000 MT Server Adapter [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3405x2270, 4680 KB)[edit] Summary Intel PRO/1000 MT Server Adapter [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802. ...

  • 33.33 MHz clock with synchronous transfers
  • peak transfer rate of 133 MB per second for 32-bit bus width (33.33 MHz × 32 bits ÷ 8 bits/byte = 133 MB/s)
  • peak transfer rate of 266 MB/s for 64-bit bus width
  • 32-bit or 64-bit bus width
  • 32-bit address space (4 gigabytes)
  • 32-bit I/O port space (now deprecated)
  • 256-byte configuration space
  • 5-volt signaling
  • reflected-wave switching

In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ... Synchronization is coordination with respect to time. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... In computer software standards and documentation, deprecation is the gradual phasing-out of a software or programming language feature. ... In computer science a byte (pronounced bite) is a unit of measurement of information storage, most often consisting of eight bits. ... Reflected-wave switching is a signalling technique used in backplane computer buses such as PCI. A backplane computer bus is a type of multilayer printed circuit board that has at least one (almost) solid layer of copper called the ground plane, and at least one layer of copper tracks that...

Variants

Conventional

  • Later versions of PCI allow (and in the latest versions require) 3.3V slots (keyed differently) on motherboards and allow for cards that are either double keyed for both voltages or even 3.3V only.
  • PCI 2.2 allows for 66 MHz signalling (requires 3.3 volt signalling) (peak transfer rate of 533 MB/s)
  • PCI 2.3 permits use of 3.3 volt and universal keying, but does not allow 5 volt keyed add in cards.
  • PCI 3.0 is the final official standard of the bus, completely removing 5-volt capability.
  • PCI-X doubles the width to 64-bit, revises the protocol, and increases the maximum signaling frequency to 133 MHz (peak transfer rate of 1014 MB/s)
  • PCI-X 2.0 permits a 266 MHz rate (peak transfer rate of 2035 MB/s) and also 533 MHz rate, expands the configuration space to 4096 bytes, adds a 16-bit bus variant and allows for 1.5 volt signaling
  • Mini PCI is a new form factor of PCI 2.2 for use mainly inside laptops
  • CardBus is a PC card form factor for 32-bit, 33 MHz PCI
  • CompactPCI, uses Eurocard-sized modules plugged into a PCI backplane.
  • PC/104-Plus is an industrial bus that uses the PCI signal lines with different connectors.

For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ... Mini PCI Wi-Fi card Type IIIB Mini PCI is a standard for a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard and is an adaptation of the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eurocard is a European standard format for PCB cards, which can be plugged together into a standardized subrack. ... A backplane is a circuit board (usually a printed circuit board) that connects several connectors in parallel to each other, so that each pin of each connector is linked to the same relative pin of all the other connectors, forming a computer bus. ... PC/104 (or PC104) is an embedded computer standard by the PC/104 Consortium, that defines both a form factor and computer bus. ...

Physical card dimensions

Full-size card

The original "full-size" PCI card is specified as a height of 107 mm (4.2 inches) and a depth of 312 mm (12.283 inches). The height includes the edge card connector. However, most modern PCI cards are half-length or smaller (see below) and many PCs cannot fit a full size card.


Backplate

In addition to these dimensions the physical size and location of a card's backplate are also standardized. The backplate is the part that fastens to the card cage to stabilize the card and also contains external connectors, so it usually attaches in a window so it is accessible from outside the computer case.


The card itself can be a smaller size, but the backplate must still be full-size and properly located so that the card fits in any standard PCI slot.


Half-length extension card (de-facto standard)

This is in fact the practical standard now - the majority of modern PCI cards fit inside this length. Look up De facto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Width: 0.6 inches (15.24 mm)
  • Depth: 6.9 inches (175.26 mm)
  • Height: 4.2 inches (106.68 mm)

Low profile (half height) card

The PCI organisation has defined a standard for "low profile" cards, which basically fit in the following ranges:

  • Height: 1.42 inches (36.07 mm) to 2.536 inches (64.41 mm)
  • Depth: 4.721 inches (119.91 mm) to 6.6 inches (167.64 mm)

The bracket is also reduced in height, to a standard 3.118 inches (79.2 mm).


These cards may be known by other names such as "slim".


Low Profile PCI FAQ


Low Profile PCI Specification


Mini PCI

This is a specialist version of PCI slot intended for laptops and the like, and is not usually used by consumers. Mini PCI FAQ


Other physical variations

Typically consumers systems specify "N x PCI slots" without specifying actual dimensions of the space available. In some small form-factor systems, this may not be sufficient to allow even "half-length" PCI cards to fit. Despite this limitation, these systems are still useful because many modern PCI cards are considerably smaller than half-length.


Card keying

Typical PCI cards present either one or two key notches, depending on their signaling voltage. Cards requiring 3.3 volt have a notch near the front of the card (where the external connectors are) while those requiring 5 volt have a notch near on the other side. So called "Universal cards" have both key notches and can accept both types of signal.


See also

This is a list of device bandwidths: the channel capacity (or, more informally, bandwidth) of some computer devices employing methods of data transport is listed by bit/s, kilobit/s (kbit/s), megabit/s (Mbit/s), or gigabit/s (Gbit/s) as appropriate and also MB/s or megabytes per... The Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture was introduced in 1996 and is widely used as the on-chip bus for ARM processors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mini PCI Wi-Fi card Type IIIB Mini PCI is a standard for a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard and is an adaptation of the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus. ... NuBus is a 32-bit parallel computer bus, originally developed at MIT as a part of the NuMachine workstation project, and eventually used by Apple Computer and NeXT Computer. ... Zorro II is the name of the general purpose expansion bus used by the Amiga 2000 computer. ... Released as the expansion bus of the Commodore Amiga 3000 in 1990, the Zorro III computer bus was used to attach peripheral devices to an Amiga motherboard. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Accelerated Graphics Port (also called Advanced Graphics Port, often shortened to AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computers motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. ... PCI Express (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O, not to be mistaken with PCI-X) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. ... For other meanings of PCI, see PCI (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ VLB was designed for 486-based systems, yet even the more generic PCI was to gain prominence on that platform.

External links

One of the major improvements Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) had over other I/O architectures was its configuration mechanism. ...

References

  1. ^ VLB was designed for 486-based systems, yet even the more generic PCI was to gain prominence on that platform.

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