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Encyclopedia > Perfume

Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. Look up perfume in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ... A fixative is a liquid, similar to varnish, which is usually sprayed over a finished piece of artwork to better preserve it and prevent smudging. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...

Bottles of some notable commercial perfumes: (clockwise from top left) Bois De Violette, Serge Lutens, 1992; Angel, Thierry Mugler, 1994; Shalimar, Guerlain, 1925; Beyond Paradise, Estée Lauder, 2003; No. 5, Chanel, 1921 (Pre-1950 bottle); Cabochard, Parfums Grès, 1959 (original bottle); Bellodgia, Caron, 1927; Arpège, Lanvin, 1927 (original bottle); Nombre Noir, Shiseido, 1981; Mitsouko, Guerlain, 1919; Pour Un Homme, Caron, 1934.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 226 KB) Summary Bottles of some notable commercial perfumes: (clockwise from top left) Bois De Violette, Serge Lutens, 1992; Angel, Thierry Mugler, 1994; Shalimar, Guerlain, 1925; Beyond Paradise, Estée Lauder, 2003; , Chanel, 1921 (Pre-1950 bottle); Cabochard, Parfums Gr... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 226 KB) Summary Bottles of some notable commercial perfumes: (clockwise from top left) Bois De Violette, Serge Lutens, 1992; Angel, Thierry Mugler, 1994; Shalimar, Guerlain, 1925; Beyond Paradise, Estée Lauder, 2003; , Chanel, 1921 (Pre-1950 bottle); Cabochard, Parfums Gr... {{}}Serge Lutens (born 14 March 1942) is a French photographer, filmmaker, perfumer and fashion designer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vétiver by Guerlain. ... Estée Lauder Companies Inc. ... Not to be confused with Channel. ... Grès was a French haute couture fashion house. ... Parfums Caron is a French perfume house, established by Ernest Daltroff (1867-1941) in 1904. ... Jeanne Lanvin (1867-1946), born in Brittany, France, began as a milliner in 1890, but is famous for the robe de style and semi-modern fashion techniques. ... Shiseido Company, Ltd. ... Vétiver by Guerlain. ... Parfums Caron is a French perfume house, established by Ernest Daltroff (1867-1941) in 1904. ...

Describing a perfume

Shelves of perfumes
Shelves of perfumes

The precise formulas of commercial perfumes are kept secret. Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex chemical procedures and ingredients that they would be of little use in providing a useful description of the experience of a scent. Nonetheless, connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts [1]. Download high resolution version (536x617, 94 KB) An array of perfumes in an English home. ... Download high resolution version (536x617, 94 KB) An array of perfumes in an English home. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information used by a business to obtain an advantage over competitors within the same industry or profession. ...


The most practical way to start describing a perfume is according to its concentration level, the family it belongs to, and the notes of the scent, which all affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent[2][3]


Concentration levels

Perfume oil is necessarily diluted with a solvent because undiluted oils (natural or synthetic) contain high concentrations of volatile components that will likely result in allergic reactions and possibly injury when applied directly to skin or clothing.


By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling lipids such as jojoba, fractionated coconut oil or wax. The concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil is as follows: Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Binomial name (Link) C.K.Schneid. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ...

  • Perfume extract (Extrait): 20%-40% (IFRA: typical 25%) aromatic compounds
  • Eau de Parfum (EdP): 10-30% (typical ~15%) aromatic compounds
  • Eau de Toilette (EdT): 5-20% (typical ~10%) aromatic compounds
  • Eau de Cologne (EdC): 2-5% aromatic compounds
  • EdS (Edition S): typical ~1% aromatic compounds

As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent created. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Therefore, although the oil concentration of a perfume in Eau de Parfum (EdP) dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in Eau de Toilette (EdT) from within the same range, the actual amounts can vary between perfume houses. An EdT from one house may be stronger than an EdP from another. Original Eau de Cologne Bottle of Original Eau de Cologne Bottle of Eau de Cologne Trojnoj Eau de Cologne (French for water of Cologne, Kölnisch Wasser in German) is a type of light perfume that originated in Cologne, Germany and is defined by its typical concentration of about 2...


Furthermore, some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration name may not only differ in their dilutions, but actually use different perfume oil mixtures altogether. For instance, in order to make the EdT version of a fragrance brighter and fresher than its EdP, the EdT oil may be "tweaked" to contain slightly more top notes or fewer base notes. In some cases, words such as "extrême", "intense" or "concentrée" appended to fragrance names might indicate completely different fragrances that relates only because of a similar perfume accord. An example of this would be Chanel‘s Pour Monsieur and Pour Monsieur Concentrée.


Eau de Cologne (EdC) was originally a specific fragrance of a citrus nature and weak in concentration made in Cologne, Germany. However in recent decades the term has become generic for a weakly concentrated perfume of any kind. EdS, launch 1994, collection of new nature-near perfumes and cosmetics (Jojoba-perfumes) with very low irritating potential. Original Eau de Cologne Bottle of Original Eau de Cologne Bottle of Eau de Cologne Trojnoj Eau de Cologne (French for water of Cologne, Kölnisch Wasser in German) is a type of light perfume that originated in Cologne, Germany and is defined by its typical concentration of about 2... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ...


Olfactive families

Grouping perfumes, like any taxonomy, can never be a completely objective or final process. Many fragrances contain aspects of different families. Even a perfume designated as "single flower", however subtle, will have undertones of other aromatics. "True" unitary scents can rarely be found in perfumes as it requires the perfume to exist only as a singular aromatic material. For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


Classification by olfactive family is a starting point for a description of a perfume, but it cannot by itself denote the specific characteristic of that perfume.


Traditional

The traditional classification which emerged around 1900 comprised the following categories:

  • Single Floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower; in French called a soliflore. (e.g. Serge Lutens' Sa Majeste La Rose, which is dominated by rose.)
  • Floral Bouquet: Containing the combination of several flowers in a scent.
  • Ambery: A large fragrance class featuring the scents of vanilla and animal scents together with flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins, which bring to mind Victorian era imagery of the Middle East and Far East.
  • Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, typically of sandalwood and cedar. Patchouli, with its camphoraceous smell, is commonly found in these perfumes.
  • Leather: A family of fragrances which features the scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather.
  • Chypre: Meaning Cyprus in French, this includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli, and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by François Coty. A notable example is Mitsouko (meaning mystery in Japanese) by Guerlain.
  • Fougère: Meaning Fern in French, built on a base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss. Houbigant's Fougère Royale pioneered the use of this base. Many men's fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterized by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent.

{{}}Serge Lutens (born 14 March 1942) is a French photographer, filmmaker, perfumer and fashion designer. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... Camphor, also known as 1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo(2,2,1)heptan-2-one, d-camphor, d-(+)-camphor, (+)-2-bornanone, d-2-bornanone, 1,7,7-Trimethylnorcamphor, 2-Camphanone, 2-camphonone, Bornan-2-one, or Caladryl has the chemical formula C10H16O. Camphor is a white transparent waxy crystalline solid... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Chypre is a name used to describe a family of perfumes, usually based on a top note of citrus and woody base notes, usually from oak moss. ... Bergamot can refer to: Bergamot orange Bergamot (herb) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. ... Binomial name Benth. ... Labdanum is a sticky brown resin obtained from the shrub Cistus ladanifer, more commonly known as the rock rose. ... François Coty (May 3, 1874 – July 25, 1934) was a French perfume manufacturer and the founder of the right-wing paramilitary group Solidarité Française. ... Look up Example in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vétiver by Guerlain. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Coumarin is a chemical compound; a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... Binomial name Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. ... For the Biblical scholar see Charles François Houbigant Houbigant was a perfume manufacturer founded in Paris, France in 1775 by Jean-François Houbigant of Grasse (1752-1807), originally selling gloves, perfumes, and bridal bouquets[1]. The original shop, called A la Corbeille de Fleurs, was in the rue...

Modern

Since 1945, due to great advances in the technology of perfume creation (i.e., compound design and synthesis) as well as the natural development of styles and tastes; new categories have emerged to describe modern scents:

  • Bright Floral: combining the traditional Single Floral & Floral Bouquet categories.
  • Green: a lighter and more modern interpretation of the Chypre type.
  • Oceanic/Ozone: the newest category in perfume history, appearing in 1991 with Christian Dior's Dune. A very clean, modern smell leading to many of the modern androgynous perfumes.
  • Citrus or Fruity: An old fragrance family that until recently consisted mainly of "freshening" eau de colognes due to the low tenacity of citrus scents. Development of newer fragrance compounds has allowed for the creation of primarily citrus fragrances.
  • Gourmand: scents with "edible" or "dessert"-like qualities. These often contain notes like vanilla and tonka bean, as well as synthetic components designed to resemble food flavors. An example is Thierry Mugler's Angel.

If referring to a flower, see disambiguation under bisexual Androgyny is the state of indeterminate gender, or characteristics of gender. ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Fragrance wheel

The Fragrance wheel is a relatively new classification method that is widely used in retail and in the fragrance industry. The method was created in 1983 by Michael Edwards, a consultant in the perfume industry, who designed his own scheme of fragrance classification.The new scheme was created in order to simplify fragrance classification and naming scheme, as well as to show the relationships between each of the individual classes[4].


The five standard families consist of Floral, Oriental, Woody,Fougère, and Fresh, with the former four families being more "classic" while the latter consisting of newer bright and clean smelling citrus and oceanic fragrances that have arrived due to improvements in fragrance technology. With the exception of the Fougère family, each of the families are in turn divided into three sub-groups and arranged around a wheel:

  1. Floral
    1. Floral
    2. Soft Floral
    3. Floral Oriental
  2. Oriental
    1. Soft Oriental
    2. Oriental
    3. Woody Oriental
  3. Woody
    1. Wood
    2. Mossy Woods
    3. Dry Woods
  4. Fresh
    1. Citrus
    2. Green
    3. Water
  5. Fougère

The Fougère family is placed at the center of this wheel since they are a large family of scents that usually contain fragrance elements from each of the other four families; citrus from the fresh family, oak moss and woods from the woody family, coumarin and incense from the Oriental family, and lavender from the floral family.


In this classification scheme, Chanel No.5, which is traditionally classified as a "Floral Aldehyde" would be located under Soft Floral sub-group, and "Amber" scents would be placed within the Oriental group. As a class, Chypres is more difficult to place since they would be located under parts of the Oriental and Woody families. For instance, Guerlain Mitsouko, which is classically identified as a chypre will be placed under Mossy Woods, but Hermès Rouge, a chypre with more floral character, would be placed under Floral Oriental.


Fragrance Notes

Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of 'notes', making the harmonious chord of the scent. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ...

  • Top notes: The scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Top notes consist of small, light molecules that evaporate quickly. They form a person's initial impression of a perfume and thus are very important in the selling of a perfume. The scents of this note class are usually described as "fresh," "assertive" or "sharp." The compounds that contribute to top notes are strong in scent, very volatile, and evaporate quickly. Citrus and ginger scents are common top notes. Also called the head notes.
  • Middle notes: The scent of a perfume that emerges just prior to when the top notes dissipate. The middle note compounds form the "heart" or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time. Not surprisingly, the scent of middle note compounds is usually more mellow and "rounded." Scents from this note class appear anywhere from two minutes to one hour after the application of a perfume. Lavender and rose scents are typical middle notes. They are also called the "heart notes".
  • Base notes: The scent of a perfume that appears close to the departure of the middle notes. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Compounds of this class are often the fixatives used to hold and boost the strength of the lighter top and middle notes. Consisting of large, heavy molecules that evaporate slowly, compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and "deep" and are usually not perceived until 30 minutes after the application of the perfume or during the period of perfume dry-down. Some base notes can still be detectable in excess of twenty-four hours after application, particularly the animalic notes.

Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... In perfumery, a base note (pronounced like the musical term bass note) is a class of odorants that evaporates very slowly and are typically not perceived until perfume drydown. ...

Aromatics Sources

Plant sources

Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds. These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores, infections, as well as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit zest are the respective sources of petit grain, neroli, and orange oils. Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Neroli oil is a plant oil similar to bergamot produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree ( or Bigaradia). ... Orange oil is also know as d-limonene. ...

For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Diversity About 1200 species Species Some species: Croton acronychioides Croton alabamensis Croton argyratus Croton aridus Croton arnhemicus Croton californicus Croton ciliato-glandsulosus Croton cortesianus Croton coryi - Corys croton Croton corymbulosus - encilla, manzanilla Croton craco Croton crassifolius Croton dioicus - grassland croton Croton dissectistipulatus Croton draco Croton echinocarpus Croton eleuteria... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Safrole Safrole (chemical formula: C10H10O2, IUPAC name: 5-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole), also called shikimol, is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Blossom is a term given to the flowers of stone fruit trees (Genus Prunus) and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower profusely but for a short period of time. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... This article is about the shrub of genus Jasminum. ... Species About 30 species; see text. ... Binomial name Acacia farnesiana Acacia farnesiana, commonly known as Needle Bush, is so named because of its long, spiny leaves. ... Binomial name Polianthes tuberosa The tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) is a plant of the agave family Agavaceae. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Binomial name Cananga odorata (Lam. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Species 200-400, including: Litsea is a genus of evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs belonging to the Laurel family, Lauraceae. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... A twig is a small terminal branch section that bears leaves, buds and usually the flowers and fruit of plants. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Binomial name Benth. ... Binomial name L. Sage leaves - first variety Sage leaves - second variety Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species List of Viola species Violets (Viola) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species throughout the world, mainly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere but also in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Labdanum is a sticky brown resin obtained from the shrub Cistus ladanifer, more commonly known as the rock rose. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... Frankincense is an aromatic resin obtained from the tree Boswellia thurifera or . ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Commonly called benzoin, it is called benzoin resin here to distinguish it from the crystalline compound benzoin. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ... Shallot bulbs A bulb is an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that is used as food storage organs by a dormant plant. ... Species See text Iris is a genus of between 200-300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers which takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, referring to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Chrysopogon zizanoides (L.) Roberty Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a perennial grass of the Poaceae native to India. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Categories: | | | | ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... This article is about the herbs. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Rosewood refers to a number of richly hued timbers, brownish with darker veining. ... Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ...

Animal sources

  • Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose precursors were secreted and expelled by the Sperm Whale. Ambergris is commonly referred to as "amber" in perfumery and should not be confused with yellow amber, which is used in jewelry.
  • Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North American beaver.
  • Civet: Also called Civet Musk, this is obtained from the odorous sacs of the civets, animals in the family Viverridae, related to the Mongoose.
  • Honeycomb: Distilled from the honeycomb of the Honeybee.
  • Musk: Originally derived from the musk sacs from the Asian musk deer, it has now been replaced by the use of synthetic musks.

Ambergris Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. ... To oxidize an element or a compound is to increase its oxidation number. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm Whale range (in blue) The Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is the largest of all toothed whales and is the largest toothed animal alive, measuring up to 18 metres (60 ft) long. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... Castoreum is the glandular secretion of the beaver. ... Genera Chrotogale Cynogale Diplogale Hemigalus Arctogalidia Macrogalidia Paguma Paradoxurus Civettictis Viverra Viverricula Civets are mammals, most of which are species in the family Viverridae. ... For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ... Honeycomb Honeycombs on a Sacred fig tree A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. ... Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people... Musk is the name originally given to a perfume obtained originally from the strong-smelling substance secreted by a gland in the abdomen of the male musk deer, and hence applied to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odor. ...

Other natural sources

  • Lichens: Commonly used lichens include oakmoss and treemoss thalli.
  • "Seaweed": Distillates are sometimes used as essential oil in perfumes. An example of a commonly used seaweed is Fucus vesiculosus, which is commonly referred to as bladder wrack. Natural seaweed fragrances are rarely used due to their higher cost and lower potency than synthetics.

For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. ... Usnea is a common and genus name for several species of lichen that generally grow hanging from tree branches, resembling grey or greenish hair. ... The Heterokontophyta (Phaeophyta or brown algae, singular: brown alga) is a large group of mostly marine multicellular algae, including many seaweeds of colder Northern Hemisphere waters. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Bladder wrack is a seaweed that was the original source of iodine, discovered in 1812, and was used extensively to treat goiter, a swelling of the thyroid gland related to insufficient iodine. ...

Synthetic sources

Modern perfumes are almost exclusively made from synthetic odorants that are commonly synthesized from coal-tar and petroleum distillates, pine resins, or other relatively cheap organic feedstock. Synthetics can provide fragrances which are not found in nature. For instance, Calone, a compound of synthetic origin, imparts a fresh ozonous metallic marine scent that is widely used in contemporary perfumes. Synthetic aromatics are often used as an alternate source of compounds that are not easily obtained from natural sources. For example, linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds that can be cheaply synthesized from terpenes. Orchid scents (typically salicylates) are usually not obtained directly from the plant itself but are instead synthetically created to match the fragrant compounds found in various orchids. In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ... The olfactory impression of a fresh seashore is partly caused by algae metabolites. ... Linalool (IPA: ) is a naturally-occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). ... Coumarin is a chemical compound; a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ... Salicylic acid (from the Latin word for the willow tree, Salix, from whose bark it can be obtained) is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ...


The majority of the world's synthetic aromatics are created by relatively few companies. They include:

Each of these companies patents several processes for the production of aromatic synthetics annually. International Flavors and Fragrances (IFF) is a major producer of flavors and fragrances with sales of $1. ... Givaudan is the worlds largest producer of flavors and fragrances with sales of CHF 2,680 million in 2004. ... Firmenich SA is a private business specialising in flavors and fragrances and is a major worldwide chemical manufacturer. ... Takasago International Corporation is a major internation producer of flavors and fragrances situation in Japan, with presence in 22 countries worldwide. ... Symrise is a major producer of flavors and fragrances with sales of € 1,138. ... Mane SA is a major producer of flavors and fragrances with sales of €263 million in 2005 [1] Mane was founded in 1871 when Victor Mane started producing fragrant materials from regional flowers and plants. ...


See Aroma compound An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ...


Obtaining natural odorants

Before perfumes can be composed, the odorants used in various perfume compositions must first be obtained. Synthetic odorants are produced through organic synthesis and purified. Odorants from natural sources require the use of various methods to extract the aromatics from the raw materials. The results of the extraction are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. [5] Fragrance extraction are processes which involve extracting aromatic compounds from the raw materials using various methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression, or enfleurage. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ...


All these techniques will, to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds obtained from the raw materials. This is due to the use of heat, harsh solvents, or through exposure to oxygen in the extraction process which will denature the aromatic compounds, which either change their odor character or renders them odorless.

  • Maceration/Solvent extraction: The most used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern perfume industry. Raw materials are submerged in a solvent that can dissolve the desired aromatic compounds. Maceration lasts anywhere from hours to months. Fragrant compounds for woody and fibrous plant materials are often obtained in this manner as are all aromatics from animal sources. The technique can also be used to extract odorants that are too volatile for distillation or easily denatured by heat. Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include hexane, and dimethyl ether. The product of this process is called a "concrete".
    • Supercritical fluid extraction: A relatively new technique for extracting fragrant compounds from a raw material, which often employs Supercritical CO2. Due to the low heat of process and the relatively nonreactive solvent used in the extraction, the fragrant compounds derived often closely resemble the original odor of the raw material.
    • Ethanol extraction: A type of solvent extraction used to extract fragrant compounds directly from dry raw materials, as well as the impure oily compounds materials resulting from solvent extraction or enfleurage. Ethanol extraction is not used to extract fragrance from fresh plant materials since these contain large quantities of water, which will also be extracted into the ethanol.
  • Distillation: A common technique for obtaining aromatic compounds from plants, such as orange blossoms and roses. The raw material is heated and the fragrant compounds are re-collected through condensation of the distilled vapour.
    • Steam distillation: Steam from boiling water is passed through the raw material, which drives out their volatile fragrant compounds. The condensate from distillation are settled in a Florentine flask. This allows for the easy separation of the fragrant oils from the water. The water collected from the condensate, which retains some of the fragrant compounds and oils from the raw material is called hydrosol and sometimes sold. This is most commonly used for fresh plant materials such as flowers, leaves, and stems.
    • Dry/destructive distillation: The raw materials are directly heated in a still without a carrier solvent such as water. Fragrant compounds that are released from the raw material by the high heat often undergo anhydrous pyrolysis, which results in the formation of different fragrant compounds, and thus different fragrant notes. This method is used to obtain fragrant compounds from fossil amber and fragrant woods where an intentional "burned" or "toasted" odor is desired.
  • Expression: Raw material is squeezed or compressed and the oils are collected. Of all raw materials, only the fragrant oils from the peels of fruits in the citrus family are extracted in this manner since the oil is present in large enough quantities as to make this extraction method economically feasible.
  • Enfleurage: Absorption of aroma materials into wax and then extracting the odorous oil with ethyl alcohol. Extraction by enfleurage was commonly used when distillation was not possible due to the fact that some fragrant compounds denature through high heat. This technique is not commonly used in the present day industry due to its prohibitive cost and the existence of more efficient and effective extraction methods. [2]

Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... Irreversible egg protein denaturation and loss of solubility, caused by the high temperature (while cooking it) Denaturation is the alteration of a protein or nucleic acids shape through some form of external stress (for example, by applying heat, acid or alkali), in such a way that it will no... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Dimethyl ether, also known as methoxymethane, oxybismethane, methyl ether, wood ether, and DME, is a colorless gaseous ether with an ethereal odor. ... Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants. ... Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram Supercritical carbon dioxide refers to carbon dioxide with some unique properties. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... This article is about the band. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Florence flask A Florence flask (also known as a boiling flask) is a type of flask used as an item of laboratory glassware. ... An essential oil is a water-immiscible material produced by distillation from some plant material. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Expression may refer to: (in the vernacular) the act or particular way of expressing something (including an emotion through a facial expression or configuration) (in mathematics) a mathematical expression (in computing) a programming language expression (in computing) a vector graphics software Microsoft Expression (in genetics) the effect produced by a... Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Irreversible egg protein denaturation and loss of solubility, caused by the high temperature (while cooking it) Denaturation is the alteration of a protein or nucleic acids shape through some form of external stress (for example, by applying heat, acid or alkali), in such a way that it will no...

Fragrant extracts

Although fragrant extracts are known to the general public as the generic term "essential oils", a more specific language is used in the fragrance industry to describe the source, purity, and technique used to obtain a particular fragrant extract. An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ...


Of these extracts, only absolutes, essential oils, and tinctures are directly used to formulate perfumes.

  • Absolute: Fragrant materials that are purified from a pommade or concrete by soaking them in ethanol. By using a slightly hydrophilic compound such as ethanol, most of the fragrant compounds from the waxy source materials can be extracted without dissolving any of the fragrantless waxy molecules. Absolutes are usually found in the form of an oily liquid.
  • Concrete: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from raw materials through solvent extraction using volatile hydrocarbons. Concretes usually contain a large amount of wax due to the ease in which the solvents dissolve various hydrophobic compounds. As such concretes are usually further purified through distillation or ethanol based solvent extraction. Concretes are typically either waxy or resinous solids or thick oily liquids.
  • Essential oil: Fragrant materials that have been extracted from a source material directly through distillation or expression and obtained in the form of an oily liquid. Oils extracted through expression are sometimes called expression oils.
  • Pomade: A fragrant mass of solid fat created from the enfleurage process, in which odorous compounds in raw materials are adsorbed into animal fats. Pommades are found in the form of an oily and sticky solid.
  • Tincture: Fragrant materials produced by directly soaking and infusing raw materials in ethanol. Tinctures are typically thin liquids. [2]

Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The adjective hydrophilic describes something that likes water (from Greek hydros = water; philos = friend). ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants. ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...

Composing perfumes

Perfume compositions are an important part of many industries ranging from the luxury goods sectors, food services industries, to manufacturers of various household chemicals. The purpose of using perfume or fragrance compositions in these industries is to affect customers through their sense of smell and entice them into purchasing the perfume or perfumed product. As such there is significant interest in producing a perfume formulation that people will find aesthetically pleasing. Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ...


The Perfumer

The job of composing perfumes that will sell is left up to an expert on perfume composition or known in the fragrance industry as the perfumer. They are also sometimes referred to affectionately as "the Nose" due to their fine sense of smell and skill in smell composition. The perfumer is effectively an artist who is trained in depth on the concepts of fragrance aesthetics and who is capable of conveying abstract concepts and moods with their fragrance compositions. At the most rudimentary level, a perfumer must have a keen knowledge of a large variety of fragrance ingredients and their smells, and be able to distinguish each of the fragrance ingredients whether alone or in combination with other fragrances. As well, they must know how each ingredient reveals itself through time with other ingredients. The job of the perfumer is very similar to that of flavourists, who compose smells and flavourants for many commercial food products. This article is about flavor, the sensory impression. ...


The composition of a perfume typically begins with a brief by the perfumer's employer or an outside customer. The customers to the perfumer or their employers, are typically fashion houses or large corporations of various industries. Each brief will contain the specifications for the desired perfume, and will describe in often poetic or abstract terms what the perfume should smell like or what feelings it should evoke in those who smell it, along with a maximum per litre price of the perfume oil concentrate. This allowance, along with the intended application of the perfume will determine what aromatics and fragrance ingredients can/will be used in the perfume composition. For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ...


The perfumer will then go through the process of blending multiple perfume mixtures and will attempt to capture the desired feelings specified in the brief. After presenting the perfume mixtures to the customers, the perfumer may "win" the brief with their approval, and proceed to sell the formulation to the customer, often with modifications of the composition of the perfume. This process typically spans over several months to several years. The perfume composition will then be either used to enhance another product as a functional fragrance (shampoos, make-up, detergents, car interiors, etc.), or marketed and sold directly to the public as a fine fragrance. Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Alternatively, the perfumer may simply be inspired to create a perfume and produce something that later becomes marketable or successfully wins a brief. This usually happens in smaller or independent perfume houses. [1]


Technique

Although there is no single "correct" technique for the formulation of a perfume, there are general guidelines as to how a perfume can be constructed from a concept.


Basic framework

Perfume oils usually contain tens to hundreds of ingredients and these are typically organized in a perfume for the specific role they will play. These ingredients can be roughly grouped into four groups:

  • Primary scents: Can consist of one or a few main ingredients for a certain concept, such as "rose". Alternatively, multiple ingredients can be used together to create an "abstract" primary scent that does not bear a resemblance to a natural ingredient. For instance, jasmine and rose scents are commonly blends for abstract floral fragrances. Cola flavourant is a good example of an abstract primary scent.
  • Modifiers: These ingredients alter the primary scent to give the perfume a certain desired character: for instance, fruit esters may be included in a floral primary to create a fruity floral; calone and citrus scents can be added to create a "fresher" floral. The cherry scent in cherry cola can be considered a modifier.
  • Blenders: A large group of ingredients that smooth out the transitions of a perfume between different "layers" or bases. Common blending ingredients include linalool and hydroxycitronellal.
  • Fixatives: Used to support the primary scent by bolstering it. Many resins and wood scents, and amber bases are used for fixative purposes.

The top, middle, and base notes of a fragrance may have separate primary scents and supporting ingredients. For other uses, see Cola (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... The olfactory impression of a fresh seashore is partly caused by algae metabolites. ... Linalool (IPA: ) is a naturally-occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). ...


The perfume's fragrance oils are then blended with ethyl alcohol and water, aged in tanks for a minimum of 14 days and filtered through processing equipment to remove any sediment and particles before the solution can be filled into the perfume bottles. [citation needed] Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Fragrance bases

Instead of building a perfume from "ground up", many modern perfumes and colognes are made using fragrance bases or simply bases. Each base is essentially modular perfume that is blended from essential oils and aromatic chemicals, and formulated with a simple concept such as "fresh cut grass" or "juicy sour apple". Many of Guerlain's Aqua Allegoria line, with their simple fragrance concepts, are good examples of what perfume fragrance bases are like. Vétiver by Guerlain. ...


The effort used in developing bases by fragrance companies or individual perfumers may equal that of a marketed perfume, since they are useful in that they are reusable. On top of its reusability, the benefit in using bases for construction are quite numerous:

  1. Ingredients with "difficult" or "overpowering" scents that are tailored into a blended base may be more easily incorporated into a work of perfume
  2. A base may be better scent approximations of a certain thing than the extract of the thing itself. For example, a base made to embody the scent for "fresh dewy rose" might be a better approximation for the scent concept of a rose after rain than plain rose oil.
  3. The concept of a perfume can be relatively quickly roughed out from a brief for purposes of feedback by cobbling together multiple bases and presented. Smoothing out the "edges" of the perfume can be done after a positive responses to the perfume concept.

Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ...

Reverse engineering

Creating perfumes through reverse engineering with analytical techniques such as GC/MS can reveal some of the formula for a particular perfume but most perfumes are difficult to analyze because of their complexity, particularly due to presence of essential oils and other ingredients consisting of complex chemical mixtures. However, "anyone armed with good GC/MS equipment and experienced in using this equipment can today, within days, find out a great deal about the formulation of any perfume... customers and competitors can analyze most perfumes more or less precisely."[6] This article has been listed as needing cleanup for over two months. ...


Recreating perfumes in this manner is very expensive, unless one has access to the same complex ingredients as the original formulators.


Furthermore the deliberate addition of inert ingredients to obscure the formula makes identification of components difficult. Antique or badly preserved perfumes undergoing this analysis can also be difficult due to the numerous degradation by-products and impurities that may have resulted from breakdown of the odorous compounds. However, these ingredients and compounds can usually be ruled-out or identified using gas chromatograph (GC) smellers, which allow individual chemical components to be identified both through their physical properties and their scent.


History of perfume and perfumery

Main article: History of Perfume
Egyptian scene depicting the preparation of Lily perfume
Egyptian scene depicting the preparation of Lily perfume

The word perfume used today derives from the Latin "per fumum", meaning through smoke. Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt but was developed and further refined by the Romans and the Arabs. Although perfume and perfumery also existed in East Asia, much of its fragrances are incense based. Egyptian scene depicting the preparation of Lily perfume The History of Perfume is thought to have begun in antiquity and its origins may likely never be confirmed. ... Image File history File links Description French: La préparation du parfum de lis - Antiquité égyptienne du musée du Louvre. ... Image File history File links Description French: La préparation du parfum de lis - Antiquité égyptienne du musée du Louvre. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ...


The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a person named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia.[7] In the history of chemistry, a person named Tapputi is considered to be the world’s first chemist, a perfume-maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia. ...


Recently, archaeologists have uncovered what is believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. The perfumes were discovered in an ancient perfumery factory. At least 60 distilling stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume bottles were found in the 43,000-square-foot (4,000 m²) factory.[8] In ancient times people used herbs and spices, like almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, but not flowers.[9] Pyrgos is officially comprised of two villages, the larger Kato Pyrgos (Greek: Κατω Πυργος) and the smaller Pano Pyrgos (Πανω Πυργος). Together they have around 3000 inhabitants. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Mill. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Species Myrtus communis L. Myrtus nivellei Batt. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Bergamot can refer to: Bergamot orange Bergamot (herb) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ...


The Persian doctor and chemist Avicenna introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, (the procedure most commonly used today). He first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes were mixtures of oil and crushed herbs, or petals which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, and immediately became popular. Both of the raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry. (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...


Knowledge of perfumery came to Europe as early as the 14th century due partially to Arabic influences and knowledge. But it was the Hungarians who ultimately introduced the first modern perfume. The first modern perfume, made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution, was made in 1370 at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary and was known throughout Europe as Hungary Water. The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century, Italian refinements were taken to France by Catherine de' Medici's personal perfumer, Rene le Florentin. His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulas could be stolen en route. France quickly became the European center of perfume and cosmetic manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. During the Renaissance period, perfumes were used primarily by royalty and the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from the sanitary practices of the day. Partly due to this patronage, the western perfumery industry was created. By the 18th century, aromatic plants were being grown in the Grasse region of France to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, France remains the centre of the European perfume design and trade. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Elisabeth of Kujavia (died 1380) was Queen consort of Hungary and regent of Poland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth of Hungary ordered the first modern perfume called Hungary water at the time throughout Europe. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Grasse (Provençal Occitan: Grassa in classical norm or Grasso in Mistralian norm) is a town and episcopal see in southeast France, it is a commune of the Alpes-Maritimes département (of which it is a sous-préfecture), on the French Riviera. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ...


Health Issues

Some perfume ingredients can cause health problems.[10] Evidence in peer-reviewed journals shows that some fragrances can cause asthmatic reactions even when the participants could not actually smell the fragrances[11] . Many fragrance ingredients can cause allergic skin reactions[12] or nausea.[10] There is scientific evidence that some common ingredients, like certain synthetic musks, can disrupt the balance of hormones in the human body (endocrine disruption)[13] [14] and even cause cancer (especially in the case of the ubiquitous synthetic polycyclic molecules, assigned to the musk odor group). [15][16] Some research on natural aromatics have shown that many contain compounds that cause skin irritation[17], However many of the studies, such as IFRA's research claim that opoponax is too dangerous to be used in perfumery, are still incomplete and lack scientific consesus [18]. It is also true that sometimes inhalation alone can cause skin irritation[19]. Much remains to be learned about the effects of fragrance on human health and the environment. Opoponax is a variety of myrrh. ...


In some cases, an excessive use of perfumes may cause allergic reactions of the skin. For instance, acetophenone, ethyl acetate and acetone while present in many perfumes, are also known or potential respiratory allergens. Persons with multiple chemical sensitivity or respiratory diseases such as asthma may be responsive to even low levels of perfumes. Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Acetophenone is a crystalline ketone that is used as a solvent for cellulose ethers and esters in the manufacture of alcohol-soluble resins. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , Flash point −4 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylate esters Methyl acetate, Butyl acetate Related compounds Acetic acid, ethanol Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is described as a chronic condition characterized by a patients belief that they are experiencing several adverse and variable affects from exposure to otherwise low levels of multiple chemicals in modern human environments. ...


The perfume industry is not directly regulated for safety by the FDA in the US. Instead the FDA regulates the ingredients in the perfumes themselves and require that they be tested to the extent that they are Generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Protection of trade secrets prevents the listing of ingredients that might or might not be hazardous in perfumes. In Europe, the mandatory listing of any of a number of chemicals thought to be hazardous has just begun. Nevertheless these listing may themselves be misleading, since the harm presented by many of these chemicals (either natural or synthetic) are dependent on environmental conditions. For instance, linalool, which must be listed as an irritant, only causes skin irritation when it degrades to peroxides, and the use of antioxidants in perfumes could prevent this. European versions of some old favorite perfumes, like chypres and fougeres, which require the use of oakmoss extract, are being reformulated because of these new regulations. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. ...


Natural aromatics

  • Perfume composed only of natural materials can be more expensive due to the cost of some of these materials.[citation needed]
  • Some natural aromatics contain allergens or even carcinogenic compounds [17] [20].
  • The use of some natural materials, like sandalwood or musk, can lead to species endangerment and illegal trafficking.
  • Natural ingredients vary by the times and locations where they are harvested.
  • Natural ingredients have aromas that are highly complex and are difficult or have been impossible to obtain through modern-day synthetics.

The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ...

Synthetic aromatics

  • The production of synthetic materials may contribute to environmental problems, since their production involve known carcinogens such as aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Use of synthetic aromatics can make some perfumes available at widely-affordable prices. However, synthetic aromatics as a group are not necessarily cheaper than natural aromatics.
  • The excessive use of some synthetic materials like nitro-musks and macrocyclic musks has led to pollution problems, such as with the Great Lakes. [citation needed]
  • There are many newly-created synthetic aromas that bear no olfactory relationship to any natural material.
  • Synthetic aromatics are more consistent than natural aromatics.

An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...

Natural musk

Main article: Musk

Musk was traditionally taken from the male musk deer Moschus moschiferus. This requires the killing of the animal in the process. Although the musk pod is produced only by a young male deer, musk hunters usually did not discriminate between the age and sex of the deers. Due to the high demand of musk and indiscriminate hunting, populations were severely depleted. As a result, the deer is now protected by law and international trade of musk from Moschus moschiferus is prohibited: Musk is the name originally given to a perfume obtained originally from the strong-smelling substance secreted by a gland in the abdomen of the male musk deer, and hence applied to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odor. ...

Musk deer are protected under national legislation in many countries where they are found. The musk deer populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan are included in Appendix I of CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This means that these musk deer and their derivatives are banned from international commercial trade. [10]

Due to the rarity and high price of natural musk, as well as for legal and ethical reasons, it is the policy of many perfume companies to use synthetic musk instead. Numerous synthetic musks of high quality are readily available and approved safe by IFRA. However, many synthetic musks have been found in human fat, mother's milk [11], and the bottom of the Great Lakes [12], .


Preserving perfume

Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly stored in the presence of:

Proper preservation of perfumes involve keeping them away from sources of heat and storing them where they will not be exposed to light. An opened bottle will keep its aroma intact for up to a year, as long as it is full or nearly so, but as the level goes down, the presence of oxygen in the air that is contained in the bottle will alter the perfume's smell character, eventually distorting them.[1] For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminium bottles or in their original packaging when not in use, and refrigerated at a relatively low temperatures between 3-7 degrees Celsius. Although it is difficult to completely remove oxygen from the headspace of a stored flask of fragrance, opting for spray dispensers instead of rollers and "open" bottles will minimize oxygen exposure. Sprays also have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus, which will degrade and alter the quality of a perfume. Aluminum redirects here. ...


Lists of perfumes

Further information: List of Famous Perfumes
Further information: List of celebrity endorsed perfumes

Perfume List of Celebrity endorsed perfumes ^ The Perfume 2000. ... In recent years, celebrities have signed contracts with perfume houses to associate their name with a signature scent, as a self-promotion campaign. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... Fragrance oils, also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds or natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Sex in advertising is the use of sexual attraction as a tool of persuasion to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale, generally using attractive models. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Burr, Chandler (2003). The Emperor of Scent: A Story of Perfume, Obsession, and the Last Mystery of the Senses. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50797-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Fortineau, Anne-Dominique (2004). "Chemistry Perfumes Your Daily Life". Journal of Chemical Education.81(1)
  3. ^ Edwards, Michael (2006). "Fragrances of the World 2006". Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-9756097-1-8
  4. ^ Osborne, Grant (2001-05-01). Interview with Michael Edwards. Basenotes. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  5. ^ Camps, Arcadi Boix (2000). "Perfumery Techniques in Evolution". Allured Pub Corp. ISBN 0-931710-72-3
  6. ^ Calkin, Robert R. & Jellinek, J. Stephen (1994). "Perfumery: practice and principles". John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 0-471-58934-9
  7. ^ Strathern, Paul (2000). Mendeleyev's Dream - The Quest For the Elements. New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 0425184676. 
  8. ^ 4,000-Year-Old Perfumes Found
  9. ^ Fox News: Ancient Perfumes Recreated, Put on Display in Rome
  10. ^ a b Deborah Gushman (June/July 2002). The Nose Knows. Hana Hou! Vol. 5, No. 3.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ [4]
  15. ^ [5]
  16. ^ [6]
  17. ^ a b Environmental and Health Assessment of Substances in Household Detergents and Cosmetic Detergent Products [7]
  18. ^ [8]
  19. ^ [9]
  20. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15274728&dopt=Abstract

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hana Hou! is an American bi-monthly English language inflight magazine[1] published for Hawaiian Airlines by Honolulu-based Pacific Travelogue Inc. ...

Further reading

  • Edwards, Michael (1997). "Perfume Legends: French Feminine Fragrances". Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-646-27794-4
  • Moran, Jan (2000). "Fabulous Fragrances II: A Guide to Prestige Perfumes for Women and Men". Crescent House Publishing. ISBN 0-9639065-4-2
  • Turin, Luca (2006). "The Secret of Scent". Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-21537-8

External links

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