Pereiaslav-Khmel'nyts'kyi (Ukrainian: Переяслав-Хмельницький, also spelled Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyy) is a town in Ukraine's Kyivs'ka oblast' by the Trubezh River, south from the capital city of Kyiv. It has about 25,000 inhabitants. It is also a center of Pereiaslavs'kyi raion (district). It should not be confused with the Khmelnytskyi city on the Southern Buh River, also in Ukraine.
Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi played a significant role in the history of Ukraine. It was mentioned for the first time in the text of the Rus' treaty with the Byzantine Empire (911) as Pereyaslav-Russki, to distinguish it from Pereyaslavets in Bulgaria. Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev built here in 992 the large fortress to protect the southern limits of Kievan Rus' from raids of nomads from steppes of currently Southern Ukraine. It was a capital of the Principality of Pereyaslav from the middle of the 11th century until its demolition by Tatars in 1239, during the Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'.
In the second half of the 16th century it became a center of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Bohdan Khmelnytsky called here the "Council of Pereyaslav", where the Ukrainian Cossacks had voted for a military alliance with Muscovy and accepted the Treaty of Pereyaslav. This event led finally to the unification of the Left-Bank Ukraine with Russia. The town was renamed Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in 1943 to honour this event.
The old lodge in museum of folk architecture.
The whole town was proclaimed a historical sanctuary. The largest sightseeings are:
The museum of folk architecture, presenting the architecture and traditions of Ukrainians from ancient times up to the 19th century, including a notable collection of wind mills from the 17–19th centuries.
Excavated ruins of buildings from the 10–11th centuries.
St. Michael's church (1646-66) and Ascension monastery (with cathedral built in 1695-1700).
The Treaty of Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav) was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Pereyaslav at that time) during the meeting, between the Cossacks of the Zaporizhian Host and Tsar Alexey I of Muscovy, following the Khmelnytsky rebellion.
The original copies of the treaty have perished, and the exact nature of the relationship stipulated by this treaty between Ukraine and Russia is a matter of scholarly controversy.
The second Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded on October 27, 1659 between son of Khmelnytsky, Yuri Khmelnytsky and Russian tsar and drastically limited the Ukranianian (Cossack) autonomy.
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