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Encyclopedia > Perennial plant
Red Valerian, a perennial plant.

A perennial plant or perennial (Latin per, "through", annum, "year") is a plant that lives for more than two years. Perennial plants are divided into two large groups, those that are woody and those that are herbaceous. All woody plants are perennials since they form woody tissue that persists from one year to the next. Woody perennials develop a woody base or root system from which the foliage and flower stems grow year after year while the plant is alive. In common usage the term perennial generally describes herbaceous perennials. Since herbaceous plants as a group include all non woody plants, they can be annual, biennial and/or perennial. Perennial plants can be short-lived (only a few years) or they can be long-lived, with some woody plants living for over 1,000 years. They can vary in size from only a few millimeters to over 100 meters tall. They include a wide assortment of plant groups from ferns and liverworts to the highly diverse flowering plants like Orchids and Grasses. Image File history File links Gtk-dialog-info. ... Garden Valerian growing on waste land near Bernal Heights Park, San Francisco. ... Garden Valerian growing on waste land near Bernal Heights Park, San Francisco. ... Binomial name Centranthus ruber (L.) DC. Red Valerian, Centranthus ruber is a popular garden flower with a number of other names, including Spur Valerian, Red Spur Valerian, Jupiters Beard and others. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A herb (pronounced hurb in Commonwealth English and urb in American English) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Orders Need to be entered Liverworts are non-vascular plants in the Class Marchantiopsida, formerly known as the Hepaticae. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Cut grass growing on in the Hudson River Park Tall grass growing wild at Lyme Park Grass covered house in Iceland. ...


Perennials that flower and fruit only once and then die are termed monocarpic or semelparous. However, most perennials are polycarpic, flowering over many seasons in their lifetime. A plant that flowers and sets seed and then dies. ... Semelparous Semelparous organisms produce all their offspring in a single group. ... Polycarpic plants are those that flower and set seeds many times before dying. ...


Perennials typically grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next. These structures include bulbs, tubers, woody crowns, rhizomes plus others. They might have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive periods of dormancy over cold or dry seasons during the year. Annuals produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation while the growing season is suitable, and the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials, in contrast, have specialized to survive under extreme environmental conditions: some have adapted to survive hot dry conditions, or to survive under cold temperatures. Those plants tend to invest a lot of resource into their adaptations and often do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. Many perennials produce relatively large seeds, which can have an advantage, with larger seedlings produced after germination that can better compete with other plants or more quickly develop leaves for photosynthesis. Annuals tend to produce many more seeds per plant since they will die at the end of the growing season, while perennials are not under the same pressure to produce large numbers of seeds but can produce seeds over many years. Ginger rhizome A rhizome is, in botany, a usually underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ...


In warmer and more clement climates, perennials grow continuously. In seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. For example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter. These plants are deciduous perennials. Regrowth is from existing stem tissue. In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round; these are evergreen perennials. Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


With their roots protected below ground in the soil layer, perennial plants are notably tolerant of wildfire. They are also less subject to extremes of cold in temperate and arctic winters, with less sensitivity than trees or shrubs. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, peat fire (gambut in Indonesia), bushfire (in Australasia), or hill fire, is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wildland areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. ...


Perennial plants dominate many natural ecosystems on land and in fresh water, with only a very few (e.g. Zostera) occurring in shallow sea water. They are particularly dominant in conditions too fire-prone for trees and shrubs, e.g., most plants on prairies and steppes are perennials; they are also dominant on tundra too cold for tree growth. In forests, perennial plants are of secondary importance to trees and shrubs, but are often still abundant on the forest floor. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Species Zostera japonica Zostera marina Zostera is a genus small genus of widely distributed aquatic grass, it is commonly called eelgrass. ... Prairie grasses Prairie refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically supported grasses and herbs, with few trees, and having generally a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Temperate rainforest on Northern Slopes of the Alborz mountain ranges, Iran A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A deciduous broadleaf (Beech) forest in Slovenia. ...


Perennial plants are usually better competitors than annual plants, especially under stable, resource-poor conditions. This is due to the development of larger root systems which can access water and soil nutrients deeper in the soil and to earlier emergence in the spring. ROOT is an object-oriented software package developed by CERN. It was originally designed for particle physics data analysis and contains several features specific to this field, but it is also commonly used in other applications such as astronomy and data mining. ...


Examples of evergreen perennials include Begonia and banana. Species About 1500 species; see text Begonia is a genus in the flowering plant family Begoniaceae. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Examples of deciduous perennials include goldenrod and mint. Species See text. ... MiNT (MiNT is Now TOS) is an alternative operating system (OS) kernel for the Atari ST computer and its successors which is free software. ...


Examples of monocarpic perennials include Agave and some species of Streptocarpus. Species see text. ... Species See text Streptocarpus is a genus of herbaceous plants in the flowering plant family Gesneriaceae, closely related to the genus Saintpaulia. ...


See also

Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Perennial Plant Association (67 words)
The Perennial Plant Symposium Trade Show will be held August 6,7, and 9 during the Perennial Plant Symposium to be held August 5-11, 2007.
The trade show will be held in Battelle Hall of the Greater Columbus Convention Center in Columbus, Ohio.
Exhibitor information may be obtained by contacting the Perennial Plant Association, 3383 Schirtzinger Road, Hilliard, OH 43026.
Perennial Plant Association (239 words)
The Perennial Plant Association has awarded the title of Perennial Plant of the Year to Nepeta ‘Walker’s Low’.
Great for perennial borders, but can be used in herb gardens, rock gardens, as a ground cover, or as a container plant.
From time to time we receive the question, "How is the Perennial Plant of the Year selected?" The selection process is quite simple – PPA members vote for the POY.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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