FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Peregrine falcon
Peregrine Falcon
Adult of subspecies pealei or tundrius, Alaska
Adult of subspecies pealei or tundrius, Alaska
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Falconiformes
Family: Falconidae
Genus: Falco
Species: F. peregrinus
Binomial name
Falco peregrinus
Tunstall, 1771
Global rangeYellow: Breeding summer visitor Green: Breeding resident Blue: Winter visitor Light blue: Passage visitor
Global range
Yellow: Breeding summer visitor
Green: Breeding resident
Blue: Winter visitor
Light blue: Passage visitor
Subspecies

17-19, see text For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Genera Daptrius Phalcoboenus Polyborus Milvago Herpetotheres Micrastur Spiziapteryx Polihierax Microhierax Falco The family Falconidae includes about 60 species of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ... Latin name redirects here. ... Marmaduke Tunstall (1743 - October 11, 1790) was an English ornithologist and collector. ... This article is about the zoological term. ...

Synonyms

Falco atriceps Hume
Falco kreyenborgi Kleinschmidt, 1929
Falco pelegrinoides madens Ripley & Watson, 1963
Rhynchodon peregrinus (Tunstall, 1771)
and see text In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Allan Octavian Hume (June 6, 1829 - July 31, 1912) son of Joseph Hume was a civil servant in British governed India, and a political reformer. ... Sidney Dillon Ripley (20 September 1913 - 12 March, 2001 ) was an ornithologist. ...

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known simply as the Peregrine,[2] and historically also as "Duck Hawk" in North America,[3] is a cosmopolitan bird of prey in the family Falconidae. It is a large falcon, about the size of a large crow, with the female being larger than the male,[4][5] and with a blue-gray back, barred white underside, and a black head and "mustache". About seventeen subspecies are recognized, which vary in appearance and range. A cosmopolitan distribution is a term applied to a biological category of living things meaning that this category can be found anywhere around the world. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Daptrius Phalcoboenus Polyborus Milvago Herpetotheres Micrastur Spiziapteryx Polihierax Microhierax Falco The family Falconidae includes about 60 species of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. ... For other uses, see Falcon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ...


The breeding range includes land regions from the Arctic tundra to the Tropics. Essentially, this species can be found everywhere on Earth, except in the polar regions, on very high mountains, in deserts, and most tropical rainforests making it the world's most widespread falcon, and in fact the most widespread bird of prey.[6] The only major ice-free landmass from where it is entirely absent is New Zealand. Both the English and scientific names of this species mean "wandering falcon" and refer to the migratory habits of some populations of this widespread species. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region For the ship, see SS Arctic. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


It feeds almost exclusively on medium-sized birds, but will occasionally hunt small mammals. It reaches sexual maturity at one year, and mates for life. It nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, in recent times on tall man-made structures.[7] The Peregrine Falcon became an endangered species due to the use of pesticides, especially DDT. Since the ban on DDT from the beginning of the 1970s onwards, the populations recovered, supported by large scale protection of nesting places and releases to the wild.[8] For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

The Peregrine Falcon has a body length of 34–50 cm (13–20 in) and a wingspan of around 80–120 cm (31–47 in).[4] The male and female have similar markings and plumage, but as in many birds of prey the Peregrine Falcon displays marked sexual dimorphism in size, with the female measuring up to 30 percent larger than the male.[9] Males weigh 440–750 g, and the noticeably larger females weigh 910–1500 g; for variation in weight between subspecies, see under that section below.[5] Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... If you are looking for other meanings of the term, refer to Bird of prey (disambiguation). ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ...


The back and the long, pointed wings of the adult are usually bluish black to slate grey with indistinct darker barring (see "Subspecies" below); the wingtips are black.[10] The underparts are white to rusty and barred with thin clean bands of dark brown or black.[11] The tail, colored like the back but with thin clean bars, is long, narrow and rounded at the end with a black tip and a white band at the very end. The top of the head and a "mustache" along the cheeks are black, contrasting sharply with the pale sides of the neck and white throat.[12] The cere is yellow, as are the feet, and the beak and claws are black.[13] The upper beak is notched near the tip, an adaptation which enables falcons to kill prey by severing the spinal column at the neck.[14][15] The immature bird is much browner with streaked, rather than barred, underparts, and has a pale bluish cere.[15] A cere is a fleshy, often waxy area above a birds beak. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... The eye is an adaptation. ... In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately behind (caudal to) the skull. ...


Taxonomy and systematics

This species was first described by Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 Ornithologia Britannica under its current binomial name.[16] The scientific name Falco peregrinus, means "wandering falcon" in Latin.[17] Indeed, the species' common name refers to its wide-ranging flights in most European languages.[18] The Latin term for falcon, falco, is related to falx, the Latin word meaning sickle, in reference to the silhouette of the falcon's long, pointed wings in flight.[14] Marmaduke Tunstall (1743 - October 11, 1790) was an English ornithologist and collector. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ...


The Peregrine Falcon belongs to a genus whose lineage includes the hierofalcons[19] and the Prairie Falcon (F. mexicanus). This lineage probably diverged from other falcons towards the end of the Late Miocene or in the Early Pliocene, about 8–5 million years ago (mya). As the Peregrine-hierofalcon group includes both Old World and North American species, it is likely that the lineage originated in western Eurasia or Africa. Its relationship to other falcons is not clear; the issue is complicated by widespread hybridization confounding mtDNA sequence analyses; for example a genetic lineage of the Saker Falcon (F. cherrug) is known[20] which originated from a male Saker producing fertile young with a female Peregrine ancestor some 100,000 years ago.[ref] For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Falco biarmicus Falco cherrug Falco jugger Falco rusticolus Synonyms Jerafalco Kaup, 1850 (unjustified emendation) Falco hierofalco (see text) The hierofalcons (literally, hawk-falcons) are four closely related species of falcon which make up the subgenus Hierofalco: Lanner Falcon, Falco biarmicus Laggar Falcon, Falco jugger Saker Falcon, Falco cherrug Gyrfalcon... Binomial name Schlegel, 1850 (Falco mexicanus) is a medium-sized falcon of western North America. ... The Late Miocene (also known as Upper Miocene) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages. ... In the geologic time scale, the Zanclean (also known as Tabianian, Dacian) is a stage which makes up the Early Pliocene or Lower Pliocene subepoch. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... This article is about a biological term. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Binomial name Falco cherrug Gray, 1834 The Saker Falcon, (Falco cherrug), is a large bird of prey. ...


Today, Peregrines are regularly hybridized in captivity with other species such as the Lanner Falcon (F. biarmicus) to produce the "perilanner", a somewhat popular bird in falconry as it combines the Peregrine's hunting skill with the Lanner's hardiness, or the Gyrfalcon to produce large, strikingly-colored birds for the use of falconers. As can be seen, the Peregrine is still genetically close to the hierofalcons, though their lineages diverged in the Late Pliocene (maybe some 2.5–2 mya in the Gelasian).[21] Binomial name Falco biarmicus Temminck, 1825 The Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus) is a large bird of prey that breeds in Africa, southeast Europe and just into Asia. ... Flying a Saker Falcon Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... // Binomial name Falco rusticolus Linnaeus, 1758 The Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus), also spelled Gyr Falcon (the g is pronounced as j in jar), and also sometimes spelled Gerfalcon, is the largest of all falcon species. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... In the geologic timescale, Gelasian is an ICS stage, part of the Pliocene epoch of the Neogene period. ...


Subspecies

Breeding ranges of the subspecies
Breeding ranges of the subspecies

Numerous subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon have been described, with 19 accepted by the Handbook of the Birds of the World.[22] The nominate subspecies Falco peregrinus peregrinus, described by Tunstall in 1771, breeds over much of temperate Eurasia between the tundra in the north and the Pyrenees, Mediterranean region and Alpide belt in the south.[23] It is mainly non-migratory in Europe, but migratory in Scandinavia and Asia. Males weigh 580–750 g, while females weigh 925–1,300 g.[5] It includes brevirostris, germanicus, rhenanus, and riphaeus. This article is about the zoological term. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... Marmaduke Tunstall (1743 - October 11, 1790) was an English ornithologist and collector. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Alpide belt extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ...


Falco peregrinus calidus, described by Latham in 1790, was formerly called leucogenys and includes caeruleiceps. It breeds in the Arctic tundra of Eurasia, from Murmansk Oblast to roughly Yana and Indigirka Rivers, Siberia. It is completely migratory, and travels south in winter as far as sub-Saharan Africa. It is paler than peregrinus, especially on the crown. Males weigh 588–740 g, while females weigh 925–1,333 g.[5] John Latham John Latham (June 27, 1740 - February 4, 1837) was an English physician, naturalist and author. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region For the ship, see SS Arctic. ... Murmansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Yana River (Яна in Russian), a river in Sakha in Russia, located between the Lena to the west and the Indigirka to the east. ... The Indigirka River (Индигирка in Russian), a river in Sakha in Russia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially...


Falco peregrinus japonensis, described by Gmelin in 1788, includes kleinschmidti and pleskei, and harterti seems to refer to intergrades with calidus. It is found from northeast Siberia to Kamchatka (though it is possibly replaced by pealei on coast there), and Japan. Northern populations are migratory, while those of Japan are resident. It is similar to peregrinus, but the young are even darker than those of anatum. Johann Friedrich Gmelin (August 8, 1748 - November 1, 1804) was a German naturalist and botanist. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ...

Australian race F. p. macropus
Australian race F. p. macropus

Falco peregrinus macropus, described by Swainson in 1837 is the Australian Peregrine Falcon. It is found in Australia in all regions except the southwest. It is non-migratory. It is similar to brookei in appearance, but is slightly smaller and the ear region is entirely black. The feet are proportionally large.[11] Falco peregrinus submelanogenys described by Mathews in 1912, is the Southwest Australian Peregrine Falcon. It is found in southwest Australia and is non-migratory. William Swainson William Swainson (October 8, 1789 - December 6, 1855), was an English ornithologist and artist. ... Gregory Macalister Mathews (September 10, 1876 - March 27, 1949) was an Australian ornithologist. ...


Falco peregrinus peregrinator, described by Sundevall in 1837, is known as the Indian Peregrine Falcon, Black Shaheen, or Indian Shaheen.[24] It was formerly sometimes known as Falco atriceps or Falco shaheen. Its range includes South Asia from Pakistan across India to Sri Lanka and Southeastern China. It is non-migratory. It is small and dark, with rufous underparts barred with lighter color. In Sri Lanka this species is found to favour the higher hills while the migrant calidus is more often seen along the coast.[25] Carl Jakob Sundevall (1801 - 1875) was a Swedish zoologist. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Falco peregrinus anatum, described by Bonaparte in 1838,[23] is known as the American Peregrine Falcon, or "Duck Hawk"; its scientific name means "Duck Peregrine Falcon". At one time, it was partly included in leucogenys. It is mainly found in the Rocky Mountains today. It was formerly common throughout North America between the tundra and northern Mexico, where current reintroduction efforts seek to restore the population.[23] Most mature anatum, except those that breed in more northern areas, winter in their breeding range. Most vagrants that reach western Europe seem to belong to the more northern and strongly migratory tundrius, only considered distinct since 1968. It is similar to peregrinus but is slightly smaller; adults are somewhat paler and less patterned below, but juveniles are darker and more patterned below. Males weigh 500–570 g, while females weigh 900–960 g.[26]Falco peregrinus cassini, described by Sharpe in 1873, is also known as the Austral Peregrine Falcon. It includes kreyenborgi, the Pallid Falcon[27] a leucistic morph occurring in southernmost South America, which was long believed to be a distinct species.[28] Its range includes South America from Ecuador through Bolivia, northern Argentina and Chile to Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Islands.[11] It is non-migratory. It is similar to nominate, but slightly smaller with a black ear region. The variation kreyenborgi is medium grey above, has little barring below, and has a head pattern like the Saker Falcon, but the ear region is white.[29] Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 _ July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Reintroduction is the deliberate release of animals from captivity into the wild. ... A form of albinism. ... A Morph, meaning form (from the Latin morpha), is a zoological term that descibes local populations or subpopulations of a single species of animal that may or may not be phenotypically distinct from the larger population as a whole. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... Binomial name Falco cherrug Gray, 1834 The Saker Falcon, (Falco cherrug), is a large bird of prey. ...

A captive bird of the subspecies pealei

Falco peregrinus pealei, described by Ridgway in 1873, is also known as Peale's Falcon, and includes rudolfi.[30] It is found in the Pacific Northwest of North America, northwards from the Puget Sound along the British Columbia coast (including the Queen Charlotte Islands), along the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the far eastern Bering Sea coast of Russia.[30] It is possibly found on the Kuril Islands and the coasts of Kamchatka as well. It is non-migratory. It is the largest subspecies, and it looks like an oversized and darker tundrius or like a strongly barred and large anatum. The bill is very wide.[31] Juveniles occasionally have pale crowns. Falco peregrinus tundrius, described by C.M. White in 1968, was at one time included in leucogenys It is found in the Arctic tundra of North America to Greenland. It migrates to wintering grounds in Central and South America.[31] Most vagrants that reach western Europe belong to this subspecies, which was previously united with anatum. It is the New World equivalent to calidus. It is smaller than anatum. It is also paler than anatum; most have a conspicuous white forehead and white in ear region, but the crown and "moustache" are very dark, unlike in calidus.[31] Juveniles are browner, and less grey, than in calidus, and paler, sometimes almost sandy, than in anatum. Image File history File links Peales. ... Image File history File links Peales. ... Robert Ridgway. ... Trinomial name Falco peregrinus pealei Ridgway, 1873 Introduction The Peales falcon is a subspecies of the Peregrine falcon. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... The Gulf of Alaska is an arm of the Pacific Ocean defined by the curve of the southern coast of Alaska, stretching from the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island in the west to the Alexander Archipelago in the east, where Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage are found. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Falco peregrinus madens, described by Ripley and Watson in 1963, is unusual in having some sexual dichromatism. If the Barbary Falcon (see below) is considered a distinct species, it is sometimes placed therein. It is found in the Cape Verde Islands, and is non-migratory;[11] it is endangered with only six to eight pairs surviving.[4] Males have a rufous wash on crown, nape, ears and back; underside conspicuously washed pinkish-brown. Females are tinged rich brown overall, especially on the crown and nape.[11] Falco peregrinus minor was first described by Bonaparte in 1850. It was formerly often perconfusus.[32] It is sparsely and patchily distributed throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa and widespread in Southern Africa. It apparently reaches north along the Atlantic coast as far as Morocco. It is non-migratory, and small and dark. Falco peregrinus radama, described by Hartlaub in 1861, is found in Madagascar and Comoros. It is non-migratory.[11] Sidney Dillon Ripley (20 September 1913 - 12 March, 2001 ) was an ornithologist. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Motto: Unity, Work, Progress Anthem: Cântico da Liberdade Capital Praia Largest city Praia Official language(s) Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese Creoles Government Republic  - President Pedro Pires  - Prime Minister José Maria Neves Independence from Portugal   - Recognized July 5, 1975  Area    - Total 4,033 km² (165th)   1,557 sq mi... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 _ July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area African countries considered sub-Saharan Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Karel Johan Gustav Hartlaub (November 8, 1814 - November 29, 1900) was a German physician and zoologist. ...


Falco peregrinus brookei, described by Sharpe in 1873, is also known as the Mediterranean Peregrine Falcon or the Maltese Falcon.[33] It includes caucasicus and most specimens of the proposed race punicus, though others may be pelegrinoides, Barbary Falcons (see also below), or perhaps the rare hybrids between these two which might occur around Algeria. They occur from the Iberian Peninsula around the Mediterranean, except in arid regions, to the Caucasus. They are non-migratory. It is smaller than the nominate subspecies, and the underside usually has rusty hue.[11] Males weigh around 445 g, while females weigh up to 920 g.[5] Richard Bowdler Sharpe (November 22, 1847 - December 25, 1909) was an English zoologist. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Falco peregrinus ernesti, described by Sharpe in 1894, is found from Indonesia to Philippines and south to Papua New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago. Its geographical separation from nesiotes requires confirmation. It is non-migratory. It differs from the nominate in the very dark, dense barring on its underside and its black ear coverts. Falco peregrinus furuitii, described by Momiyama in 1927, is found on the Izu and Ogasawara Islands. It is non-migratory. It is very rare, and may only remain on a single island.[4] It is a dark form, resembling pealei in color, but darker, especially on tail.[11] Falco peregrinus nesiotes described by Mayr in 1941,[34] is found in Fiji and probably also Vanuatu and New Caledonia. It is non-migratory.[35] The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, named in honour of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck and belonging to Papua New Guinea. ... Location Map of Islands The Izu Islands (伊豆諸島) are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshu, Japan. ... A map of the Ogasawara Islands south of Japan The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1,000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ...

Painting of subspecies babylonicus by John Gould
Painting of subspecies babylonicus by John Gould

Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides, first described by Temminck in 1829, is found in the Canary Islands through north Africa and the Near East to Mesopotamia. It is most similar to brookei, but is markedly paler above, with a rusty neck, and is a light buff with reduced barring below. It is smaller than the nominate subspecies; females weigh around 610 g.[5] Falco peregrinus babylonicus described by P.L. Sclater in 1861, is found in eastern Iran along the Hindu Kush and Tian Shan to Mongolian Altai ranges. It is paler than pelegrinoides, and somewhat similar to a small, pale Lanner Falcon. It is smaller than Peregrine Falcon; males weigh 330–400 g, while females weigh 513–765 g.[5] These last two races are often split as Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides.[5] There is a 0.6–0.7% genetic distance in the Peregine-Barbary Falcon ("peregrinoid") complex.[36] These birds inhabit arid regions from the Canary Islands along the rim of the Sahara through the Middle East to Central Asia and Mongolia. They have a red neck patch but otherwise differ in appearance from the Peregrine proper merely according to Gloger's Rule.[37] The Barbary Falcon has a peculiar way of flying, beating only the outer part of its wings like fulmars sometimes do; this also occurs in the Peregrine, but less often and far less pronounced.[38] The Barbary Falcon's shoulder and pelvis bones are stout by comparison with the Peregrine, and its feet are smaller.[39] They have no postzygotic reproduction barriers in place,[40] but they breed at different times of year than neighboring Peregrine Falcon subspecies.[41][42][43][44][45][46][47] John Gould John Gould (14 September 1804 – 3 February 1881) was an English ornithologist. ... Coenraad Jacob Temminck (March 31, 1778 - January 30, 1858) was a Dutch aristocrat and zoologist. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Philip Lutley Sclater (November 4, 1829 - June 27, 1913) was an English lawyer and zoologist. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Binomial name Falco biarmicus Temminck, 1825 The Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus) is a large bird of prey that breeds in Africa, southeast Europe and just into Asia. ... Binomial name Falco pelegrinoides Temminck, 1829 The Barbary Falcon (Falco pelegrinoides) is a medium-sized falcon about the size of a crow. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Glogers Rule is a zoological rule which states that within a species of endotherms, more heavily pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid environments, e. ... Species (Linnaeus, 1761) (A. Smith, 1840) For other uses, see Fulmar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... The pelvis (pl. ...

Ecology and behavior

Silhouettes in normal flight (left) and at the start of a stoop
Silhouettes in normal flight (left) and at the start of a stoop

The Peregrine Falcon lives mostly along mountain ranges, river valleys, coastlines, and increasingly in cities.[11] In mild-winter regions, it is usually a permanent resident, and some individuals, especially adult males, will remain on the breeding territory. Only populations that breed in arctic climes typically migrate great distances during the northern winter.[48] For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Eateries in pre-war shophouses along River Valley Road offer local delicacies. ... A coastal image featured on a United States postal stamp. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... The seven climes (klima, plural klimata, meaning inclination, referring to the angle between the axis of the celestial sphere and the horizon) was a notion of dividing the Earth into zones in Classical Antiquity. ...


The Peregrine Falcon is often stated to be the fastest animal on the planet in its hunting dive, the stoop, which involves soaring to a great height and then diving steeply at speeds of over 322 km/h (200 mph) hitting one wing of its prey, so as not to harm itself on impact.[14] A study testing the flight physics of an 'ideal falcon' found a theoretical speed limit at 400 km/h (250 mph) for low altitude flight and 625 km/h (390 mph) for high altitude flight.[49] Despite these theoretical values, measurements of real stoops by using radar resulted in maximum diving speeds of only 140 km/h (87 mph).[50] For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


The life span in the wild is up to 15.5 years.[5] Mortality in the first year is between 59–70%, declining to between 25–32% in adults.[5] Apart from anthropogenic threats like collision with man-made objects, the Peregrine may be killed by large eagles or large owls.[51] The Peregrine Falcon is host to a range of parasites and pathogens. It is a vector for Avipoxvirus, Newcastle disease virus, Falconid herpesvirus 1 (and possibly other Herpesviridae), and some mycoses and bacterial infections. Endoparasites include Plasmodium relictum (usually not causing malaria in the Peregrine Falcon), Strigeidae trematodes, Serratospiculum amaculata (nematode), and tapeworms. Known Peregrine Falcon ectoparasites are chewing lice[52] Ceratophyllus garei (a flea), and Hippoboscidae flies (Icosta nigra, Ornithoctona erythrocephala).[53] Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Several, see text. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Avipoxvirus is a memeber of the Poxviridae family that effects birds only. ... Newcastle disease is a highly contagious bird disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... The Term mycosis (plural: mycoses) refers to conditions in which fungi pass the resistance barriers of the human or animal body and establish infections. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of that host. ... Binomial name Avian malaria is most notably caused by Plasmodium relictum, a protist that infects birds in tropical regions. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Orders not necessarily a complete list Azygiida Echinostomida Opisthorchiida Plagiorchiida Strigeata Strigeatida Trematodes are also known as flukes. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Orders Subclass Cestodaria Amphilinidea Gyrocotylidea Subclass Eucestoda Aporidea Caryophyllidea Cyclophyllidea Diphyllidea Lecanicephalidea Litobothridea Nippotaeniidea Proteocephalidea Pseudophyllidea Spathebothriidea Tetraphyllidea Trypanorhyncha In biology, Cestoda is the class of parasitic flatworms, called cestodes or tapeworms, that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the bodies of various animals... A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of that host. ... Chewing lice (Mallophaga) have nearly 3000 species and represent the larger of the two traditional suborders of lice (cf. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Hippoboscidae, or louse flies (superfamily Hippoboscoidea), are obligate parasites of mammals and birds. ...


Feeding habits

Immature Peregrine Falcon using a USFWS ship as a convenient perch on which to eat its prey.
Immature Peregrine Falcon using a USFWS ship as a convenient perch on which to eat its prey.

The Peregrine Falcon feeds almost exclusively on medium sized birds such as doves, waterfowl songbirds and pigeons.[13] Other than bats taken at night,[54] it rarely hunts small mammals, but will on occasion take rats, voles, hares, mice and squirrels; the coastal populations of the large subspecies pealei feed almost exclusively on seabirds.[55] In the Brazilian mangrove swamp of Cubatão, a wintering falcon of the subspecies tundrius was observed while hunting successfully a juvenile Scarlet Ibis.[56] Insects and reptiles make up a small proportion of the diet, which varies greatly depending on what prey is available.[13] In urban areas, the main item of the Peregrine's diet is the feral pigeon, followed by other common city birds such as Common Starlings and Common Swifts.[54] The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Dove and Pigeon redirect here. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Cubatão is a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. ... Binomial name Eudocimus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 Range The Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber) is a species of ibis that occurs in tropical South America and Trinidad and Tobago. ... Binomial name Columba livia ( Gmelin, 1789) The Rock Dove (Columba livia), or feral pigeon, is a member of the family Columbidae, Doves and Pigeons. ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Starling or European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Swift range Young bird, not yet able to fly The Common Swift (Apus apus) is a small bird, superficially similar to the barn swallow or house martin. ...


The Peregrine Falcon hunts at dawn and dusk, when prey are most active, but in cities also nocturnally, particularly during migration periods when hunting at night may become prevalent. Nocturnal migrants taken by Peregrines include species as diverse as Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Black-necked Grebe, Virginia Rail and Common Quail.[54] It requires open space in order to hunt, and therefore often hunts over open water, marshes, valleys, fields and tundra. It searches for prey either from a high perch or from the air.[57] Once prey is spotted, it begins its stoop, folding back the tail and wings, with feet tucked.[58] The air pressure from a 200 mph (320 km/h) dive could possibly damage a bird's lungs, but small bony tubercles in a falcon's nostrils guide the shock waves of the air entering the nostrils (compare intake ramps and inlet cones of jet engines), enabling the bird to breathe more easily while diving by reducing the change in air pressure.[59] To protect their eyes, the falcons use their nictitating membranes (third eyelids) to spread tears and clear debris from their eyes while maintaining vision. Prey is struck and captured in mid-air; the Peregrine Falcon strikes its prey with a clenched foot, stunning or killing it, then turns to catch it in mid-air.[57] The Peregrine will drop it to the ground and eat it there if it is too heavy to carry. Prey is plucked before consumption.[59] Binomial name Coccyzus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, is a cuckoo. ... Binomial name Podiceps nigricollis Brehm, 1831 The Black-necked Grebe, Podiceps nigricollis †, is a member of the grebe family of water birds. ... Binomial name Rallus limicola (Vieillot, 1819) The Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola, is a small waterbird, of the family Rallidae. ... Binomial name Coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common Quail, Coturnix coturnix, is from the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... // Introduction Inlet cones (sometimes called shock cones) are a component of some supersonic aircraft. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Many species of land animals have a nictitating membrane, which can move across the eyeball to give the sensitive eye structures additional protection in particular circumstances. ...


Reproduction

Bird at nest, France
Bird at nest, France

The Peregrine Falcon is sexually mature at the end of the first year of age but in healthy populations they breed after two to three years of age. The pair mates for life and returns to the same nesting spot annually. The courtship flight includes a mix of aerial acrobatics, precise spirals, and steep dives.[10] The male passes prey it has caught to the female in mid-air. To make this possible, the female actually flies upside-down to receive the food from the male's talons. The Peregrine Falcon is territorial during the breeding season; nesting pairs are usually more than 1 km (0.6 miles) apart, and often much farther, even in areas with large numbers of pairs.[60] The distance between nests ensures sufficient food supply for pairs and their chicks. Within a breeding territory, a pair may have several nesting ledges; the number used by a pair can vary from one or two to seven in a 16 year period. The pair defends the chosen nest site against other Peregrines, and often against eagles or ravens.[61] Genera Several, see text. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ...


The Peregrine Falcon nests in a scrape, normally on cliff edges or, today regularly in many parts of its range, on tall buildings or bridges. Cliff nests are generally located under an overhang, on ledges with vegetation, and south-facing sites are favored.[62] In some regions, as in parts of Australia and on the west coast of Northern North-America, large tree hollows are used for nesting. Before the demise of most European peregrines, there was a large population of peregrines in central and western Europe using the disused nests of other large birds.[13] The female chooses a nest site, where she scrapes a shallow hollow in the loose soil, sand, gravel, or dead vegetation in which to lay eggs. No nest materials are added.[10] In remote, undisturbed areas such as the Arctic, steep slopes and even low rocks and mounds may be used as nest sites. The man-made structures used for breeding closely resemble the natural cliff ledges that the Peregrine prefers for its nesting locations.[63]

Peregrine Falcon chick
Peregrine Falcon chick

Mostly three to four eggs (range 1-5) are laid in the scrape.[64] The eggs are white to buff with red or brown markings.[64] They are incubated for 29 to 33 days, mainly by the female.[65] The male also helps with the incubation of the eggs over day, but at night only the female incubates. The date of egg-laying varies according to locality, but is generally from February to March in the Northern Hemisphere, and from July to August in the Southern Hemisphere (the Australian subspecies macropus may breed as late as November and equatorial populations may nest anytime between June and December). The female generally lays another clutch if the eggs are lost early in the nesting season, though this is extremely rare in the Arctic owing to the short summer season. As a result of some infertile eggs and natural losses of nestlings, the average number of young found in nests is 2.5, and the average number that fledges is about 1.5.[59][26] Image File history File links Peregrine_falcon_chick. ... Image File history File links Peregrine_falcon_chick. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


After hatching, chicks are covered with creamy-white down and have disproportionately large feet.[66] The male, which is called the "tiercel", brings food to the female and chicks, but the chicks are fed by the female, which stays at the nest and watches the young.[59] The hunting territory of the parents can extend a radius of 19 to 24 km (12-15 miles) from the nest site.[67] Chicks fledge 42 to 46 days after hatching, and remain dependent on their parents for up to two months.[68]


Relationship with humans

See also: Peregrine Falcons in popular culture

The Peregrine Falcon became an endangered species because of the use of pesticides, especially DDT during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s.[69] Pesticide biomagnification interfered with reproduction, thinning eggshells and reducing the number of eggs that survived to hatching.[57] The organochlorine build-up in the falcon's fat tissues would result in less calcium in the eggshells, leading to flimsier, more fragile eggs.[70] In several parts of the world, such as the eastern USA and Belgium, this species became extinct as a result.[71] Peregrine eggs and chicks are often targeted by black marketeers[72] and unscrupulous egg collectors, so it is normal practice not to publicize unprotected nest locations.[73] Peregrine Falcons in popular culture deals with the uses made of the image of the Peregrine Falcon. ... For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ... Biomagnification is a similar but distinct concept from bioaccumulation. ... An organochlorine compound is an organic compound of chlorine. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... Oology, or oölogy is the branch of zoology that deals with the study of eggs, especially birds eggs. ...


The Peregrine Falcon was used in falconry for more than 3,000 years, beginning with nomads in central Asia.[74] Due to its ability to dive at high speeds, it was highly sought-after and generally used by experienced falconers.[9] Peregrine Falcons are also occasionally used to scare away birds at airports to reduce the risk of bird-plane strikes, improving air-traffic safety.[75] Flying a Saker Falcon Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... F-16 canopy after a bird strike A bird strike (sometimes birdstrike, bird hit, or BASH [bird aircraft strike hazard]) in aviation, is a collision between an airborne animal (most often a bird, but also sometimes another species) and a man made vehicle, especially aircraft. ...


Recovery efforts

In the USA, Canada and Germany, Wildlife services in Peregrine Falcon recovery teams breed the species in captivity.[76] The chicks are usually fed through a chute or with a hand puppet mimicking a Peregrine's head, so they cannot see to imprint on the human trainers.[48] Then, when they are old enough, the rearing box is opened, allowing the bird to train its wings. As the fledgling gets stronger, feeding is reduced forcing the bird to learn to hunt. This procedure is called hacking back to the wild.[77] To release a captive-bred falcon, the bird is placed in a special cage at the top of a tower or cliff ledge for some days or so, allowing it to acclimate itself to its future environment.[77] Worldwide recovery efforts have been remarkably successful.[76] The widespread restriction of DDT use eventually allowed released birds to breed successfully.[48] The Peregrine Falcon was removed from the U.S. Endangered Species list on August 25, 1999.[48] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A hand munger is a type of puppet that is primarily controlled by a hand that occupies the interior of the puppet. ... Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. ... In falconry, to hack a newly-fledged hawk means to feed it but let it fly loose; when it has learned to fly and has started to hunt, it is caught and trained for falconry. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


Current status

Many Peregrine Falcons have settled in large cities, including London, Ontario, Derby, Brisbane and Cologne, and all across the U.S., where they nest on cathedrals, skyscraper window ledges, and the towers of suspension bridges. At least 18 pairs nested in New York City proper in 2005. In Virginia, state officials working with students from the Center for Conservation Biology of the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg successfully established nesting boxes high atop the George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge on the York River, the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge and Varina-Enon Bridge on the James River, and at other similar locations. Thirteen new chicks were hatched in this Virginia program during a recent year. Over 250 falcons have been released through the Virginia program.[78] In the UK, there has been a recovery of populations since the crash of the 1960s. This has been greatly assisted by conservation and protection work led by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Peregrines now breed in many mountainous and coastal areas, especially in the west and north, and nest in some urban areas, capitalizing on the urban pigeon populations for food.[79] For other places with the same name, see London (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge that has been created since ancient times as early as 100 AD. Simple suspension bridges, for use by pedestrians and livestock, are still constructed, based upon the ancient Inca rope bridge. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge (known locally as simply the Coleman Bridge) is a swing bridge that spans the York River between Gloucester County and York County at Yorktown, Virginia. ... York River can refer to: The York River in Virginia in the United States. ... Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge, on the James River near Hopewell, Virginia The Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge carries Virginia State Highway 156 across the James River between Jordans Point in Prince George County and Charles City County near the independent city of Hopewell, Virginia in the United States. ... Varina-Enon Bridge carries Interstate 295 across the James River near Dutch Gap between Chesterfield County and Henrico County near Richmond, Virginia. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ... The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is Europes largest wildlife conservation charity. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ BirdLife International 2004. Falco peregrinus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 October 2007.
  2. ^ Heinzel, H., Fitter, R., & Parslow, J. (1995). Birds of Britain and Europe, 5th ed. Collins ISBN 0-00-219894-0.
  3. ^ Friedmann, H. (1950). The birds of North and Middle America. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 50 (pt 11):1–793.
  4. ^ a b c d White (1994)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Snow et al. (1998)
  6. ^ J. Ferguson-Lees, D. A. Christie: Raptors of the World. Christopher Helm, London 2001. ISBN 0-7136-8026-1
  7. ^ Cade, T. J., M. Martell, P. Redig, T. Septon & H. Tordoff: Peregrine Falcons in urban North America. In: D. M. Bird, D. E. Varland & J. J. Negro (eds.): Raptors in Human Landscapes. London, San Diego; 1996: S. 3–13
  8. ^ T. J. Cade, J. H. Enderson, C. G. Thelander & C. M. White (Eds): Peregrine Falcon Populations – Their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, 1988. ISBN 0-9619839-0-6
  9. ^ a b Scholz (1993):p. 102
  10. ^ a b c Dewey & Potter (2002)
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ferguson-Lees, J & Christie, D. (2001):p.300
  12. ^ Terres, J. K. & National Audubon Society (1991):p.272
  13. ^ a b c d Beckstead, D. (2001)
  14. ^ a b c U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  15. ^ a b Terres (1991), White (1994), Snow (1998)
  16. ^ (Latin) Tunstall, Marmaduke (1771). Ornithologia Britannica: seu Avium omnium Britannicarum tam terrrestrium, quam aquaticarum catalogus, sermone Latino, Anglico et Gallico redditus: cui subjuctur appendix avec alennigenas, in Angliam raro advenientes, complectens.. London, J. Dixwell. 
  17. ^ University of Minnesota Raptor Center
  18. ^ E.g. French faucon pèlerin, German Wanderfalke, Italian falco pellegrino, Polish sokół wędrowny, Slovak sokol sťahovavý, Swedish pilgrimsfalk
  19. ^ Contra Helbig et al. (1994), Wink et al. (1998). The supposed basal position of the hierofalcons was due to them having a cytochrome b numt: see Wink & Sauer-Gürth (2000)
  20. ^ Helbig et al. (1994), Wink et al. (1998)
  21. ^ Helbig et al. (1994), Wink et al. (1998), Griffiths (1999), Wink & Sauer-Gürth (2000), Groombridge et al. (2002), Griffiths et al. (2004), Nittinger et al. (2005)
  22. ^ Vaurie (1961), White (1994), Snow et al. (1998)
  23. ^ a b c American Ornithologists' Union (1910):p.164
  24. ^ The shaheen (شاهین) of Arabic and Persian writers are usually Barbary Falcons; those in Indian (शाहीन) and Pakistani (شاہین) sources normally refer to peregrinator.
  25. ^ Döttlinger & Nicholls (2005)
  26. ^ a b White (1994), Michigan Department of Natural Resources (2007)
  27. ^ Also called "Kleinschmidt's Falcon", but this might equally refer to F. p. kleinschmidti which is a junior synonym of japonensis,
  28. ^ Ellis & Peres Garat (1983)
  29. ^ Ellis & Peres Garat (1983)
  30. ^ a b American Ornithologists' Union (1910):p.165
  31. ^ a b c Proctor, N. & Lynch, P. (1993):p.13
  32. ^ Vaurie, 1961
  33. ^ Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor levied a rent of these birds on the Knights Hospitaller when he donated the Island of Malta to them. Source of the name for Dashiell Hammett's novel.
  34. ^ Mayr (1941)
  35. ^ Peters, J. L.; Mayr, E. & Cottrell, W. (1979):p.423
  36. ^ Wink et al. (2000)
  37. ^ Döttlinger, 2002
  38. ^ Snow et al. 1998.
  39. ^ (Vaurie, 1961)
  40. ^ Blondel (1999)
  41. ^ Vaurie (1961)
  42. ^ Helbig et al. (1994)
  43. ^ Snow et al. (1998)
  44. ^ Wink et al. (1998)
  45. ^ Wink & Sauer-Gürth (2000)
  46. ^ Wink et al. (2000)
  47. ^ Wink et al. (2004)
  48. ^ a b c d U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1995)
  49. ^ Tucker (1998)
  50. ^ T. Alerstam: Radar observations of the stoop of the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus and the Goshawk Accipiter gentilis. Ibis 169, 1986: S. 267–273
  51. ^ Michigan Department of Natural Resources (2007)
  52. ^ Colpocephalum falconii which was described from specimens found on the Peregrine Falcon, Colpocephalum subzerafae, Colpocephalum zerafae and Nosopon lucidum (all Menoponidae), Degeeriella rufa (Philopteridae), Laemobothrion tinnunculi (Laemobothriidae). All are known from other Falco species too.(Dewey & Potter 2002, Dagleish 2003)
  53. ^ Raidal et al. (1999), Raidal & Jaensch (2000), Dewey & Potter (2002), Dalgleish (2003)
  54. ^ a b c Drewitt, Edward J. A.; Dixon, Nick (February 2008). "Diet and prey selection of urban-dwelling Peregrine Falcons in southwest England". British Birds 101: 58- 67. 
  55. ^ Terres, J. K. & National Audubon Society (1991):p.272
  56. ^ Olmos & Silva e Silva (2003) :p.111
  57. ^ a b c Ehrlich et al. (1992)
  58. ^ Terres, J. K. & National Audubon Society (1991):p.273
  59. ^ a b c d Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
  60. ^ Blood & Banasch (2001)
  61. ^ Blood & Banasch (2001)
  62. ^ Terres, J. K. & National Audubon Society (1991):p.273
  63. ^ White (1994), Blood & Banasch (2001)
  64. ^ a b Peterson, R. T (1976):p.171
  65. ^ Terres, J. K. & National Audubon Society (1991):p.273
  66. ^ Blood & Banasch (2001)
  67. ^ Towry (1987)
  68. ^ Snow (1994)
  69. ^ T. J. Cade, J. H. Enderson, C. G. Thelander & C. M. White (Eds): Peregrine Falcon Populations – Their management and recovery. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, 1988. ISBN 0-9619839-0-6
  70. ^ Brown (1976)
  71. ^ Snow (1994)
  72. ^ Trade in wild-caught Peregrine Falcons and their eggs and young is illegal in most jurisdictions. Falconers are advised to demand valid documentation even if they are able to legally purchase this species.
  73. ^ American Birding Association (2005)
  74. ^ Blood & Banasch (2001)
  75. ^ Kuzir (1999)
  76. ^ a b Reader's Digest Editors (2005):p.34
  77. ^ a b Aitken, G (2004):p.126
  78. ^ Center for Conservation Biology (2006)
  79. ^ The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

Marmaduke Tunstall (1743 - October 11, 1790) was an English ornithologist and collector. ... This article is about the oldest and largest campus of the University of Minnesota. ... French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. ... The Slovak language (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk) is an Indo-European language, more precisely a West Slavic language (together with mainly the Czech, Polish, and Sorbian languages). ... Swedish (svenska) is a language spoken principally in Sweden, Finland (Finland-Swedish, Swedish: finlandssvenska), Åland and in the coastland of Estonia Swedish is classified as a member of the East section of the Scandinavian languages, a sub-group of the Germanic group of the Indo-European language family. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ... CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... Numt (pronounced “new might”) is an abbreviated term for “nuclear mitochondrial DNA”, which describes any transfer or “transposition” of cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA sequences into the separate nuclear genome of a eukaryotic organism. ... In zoological nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names that pertain to the same taxon, for example two names for the same species. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... This article is about an agreement for payment for temporary use. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... This article is about the novel. ... Flying a Saker Falcon Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ...

References

  • American Birding Association (2005): Code of Birding Ethics. American Birding Association, Inc. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  • Aitken, G (2004): A New Approach to Conservation. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0754632830[1]
  • American Ornithologists' Union (1910): Check-list of North American Birds (Third Edition) American Ornithologists' Union.
  • Blondel, J. & Aronson, J. (1999): Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region: 136. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198500351
  • Beckstead, D. (2001) American Peregrine Falcon U.S. National Park Service Version of 2001-03-09. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  • Brown, L. (1976): Birds of Prey: Their biology and ecology: 226. Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-31306-9
  • BirdLife International (2004): Falco peregrinus IUCN 2006. downloaded 2006-05-12
  • Blood, D. & Banasch, U. (2001): Hinterland Who's Who Bird Fact Sheets: Peregrine Falcon. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  • Brillen, A (2007): Gestern bis Heute - Greifvogelschutz. Deutscher Falkenorden Landesverband Nordrhein-Westfalen. Retrieved 2007-10-15. [in German]
  • Brodkorb, P. (1964): Catalogue of Fossil Birds: Part 2 (Anseriformes through Galliformes). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 8(3): 195–335. PDF or JPEG fulltext
  • Center for Conservation Biology (2006): Falcon Populations. Version of 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  • Couve, E. & Vidal, C. (2003): Aves de Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y Península Antártcica. Editorial Fantástico Sur Birding Ltda. ISBN 956-8007-03-2
  • Dalgleish, R. C. (ed.) (2003): Birds and their associated Chewing Lice: Falconidae - Falcons, Caracaras. Version of 2003-08-30. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  • Dewey, T. & Potter, M. (2002): Animal Diversity Web: Falco peregrinus. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
  • Döttlinger, H. (2002): The Black Shaheen Falcon. Books on Demand. ISBN 3831136262[2]
  • Döttlinger, H. & M. Nicholls (2005): Distribution and population trends of the 'black shaheen' Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus peregrinator and the eastern Peregrine Falcon F. p. calidus in Sri Lanka. Forktail 21: 133–138 PDF fulltext
  • Ehrlich, P.; Dobkin D. & Wheye, D. (1992): Birds in Jeopardy: The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804719810
  • Ellis, D. H. & Garat, C. P. (1983): The Pallid Falcon Falco kreyenborgi is a color phase of the Austral Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus cassini). Auk 100(2): 269–271. PDF fulltext
  • Ferguson-Lees, J & Christie, D. (2001): Raptors of the World. Houghton Mifflin Field Guides. ISBN 0618127623
  • Griffiths, C. S. (1999): Phylogeny of the Falconidae inferred from molecular and morphological data. Auk 116(1): 116–130. PDF fulltext
  • Griffiths, C. S.; Barrowclough, G. F.; Groth, Jeff G. & Mertz, Lisa (2004): Phylogeny of the Falconidae (Aves): a comparison of the efficacy of morphological, mitochondrial, and nuclear data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(1): 101–109. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.11.019 (HTML abstract)
  • Groombridge, J. J.; Jones, C. G.; Bayes, M. K.; van Zyl, A.J.; Carrillo, J.; Nichols, R. A. & Bruford, M. W. (2002): A molecular phylogeny of African kestrels with reference to divergence across the Indian Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25(2): 267–277. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00254-3 (HTML abstract)
  • Helbig, A.J.; Seibold, I.; Bednarek, W.; Brüning, H.; Gaucher, P.; Ristow, D.; Scharlau, W.; Schmidl, D. & Wink, M. (1994): Phylogenetic relationships among falcon species (genus Falco) according to DNA sequence variation of the cytochrome b gene. In: Meyburg, B.-U. & Chancellor, R.D. (eds.): Raptor conservation today: 593–599. PDF fulltext
  • Kuzir, S. & Muzini, J (1999). Birds and air traffic safety on Zagreb airport (Croatia). The Environmentalist. 18(4):231–237 doi:10.1023/A:1006541304592
  • Mayr, E. (1941):Birds collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition. 45, Notes on New Guinea birds. 8. American Museum novitates 1133. PDF fulltext
  • Michigan Department of Natural Resources (2007): Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Retrieved 2007-08-12.
  • Mlíkovský, J. (2002): Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press, Prague. ISBN 80-901105-3-8 PDF fulltext
  • Nittinger, F.; Haring, E.; Pinsker, W.; Wink, M. & Gamauf, A. (2005): Out of Africa? Phylogenetic relationships between Falco biarmicus and other hierofalcons (Aves Falconidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 43(4): 321–331. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2005.00326.x PDF fulltext
  • Olmos, Fábio & Silva e Silva, Robson (2003): Guará: Ambiente , Fauna e Flora dos Manguezais de Santos-Cubatão, Brasil. São Paulo, Empresa das Artes. ISBN 85-89-138-06-2
  • Reader's Digest Editors (2005): Book Of North American Birds. Reader's Digest. ISBN 0895773511[3]
  • Peters, J. L.; Mayr, E. & Cottrell, W. (1979): Check-list of Birds of the World. Museum of Comparative Zoology.
  • Peterson, R. T (1976): A Field Guide to the Birds of Texas: And Adjacent States. Houghton Mifflin Field Guides. ISBN 0395921384
  • Proctor, N. & Lynch, P. (1993): Manual of Ornithology: Avian Structure & Function. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300076193
  • Raidal, S. & Jaensch, S. (2000): Central nervous disease and blindness in Nankeen kestrels (Falco cenchroides) due to a novel Leucocytozoon-like infection. Avian Patholog 29(1): 51–56. doi:10.1080/03079450094289 PDF fulltext
  • Raidal, S.; Jaensch, S. & Ende, J. (1999): Preliminary Report of a Parasitic Infection of the Brain and Eyes of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus and Nankeen Kestrels Falco cenchroides in Western Australia. Emu 99(4): 291–292. doi:10.1071/MU99034A
  • The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (2007): Peregrine Falcon: Threats Version of 2003-03-29. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
  • Scholz, F. (1993): Birds of Prey. Stackpole Books. ISBN 0811702421
  • Snow, D. W.; Perrins, Christopher M.; Doherty, P. & Cramp, S. (1998): The complete birds of the western Palaearctic on CD-ROM. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192685791
  • State of Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (2007): State of Queensland Environmental Protection Agency/Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. [4]. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  • Tchernov, E. (1968): Peregrine Falcon and Purple Gallinule of late Pleistocene Age in the Sudanese Aswan Reservoir Area. Auk 85(1): 133. PDF fulltext
  • Terres, J. K. & National Audubon Society (1991): The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Wings Books, New York. Reprint of 1980 edition. ISBN 0517032880
  • Towry, R. K. (1987): Wildlife habitat requirements. Pages 73-210 in R. L. Hoover & D. L. Wills (editors) Managing Forested Lands for Wildlife. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Colorado, USA.
  • Tucker, V. A. (1998): Gliding flight: speed and acceleration of ideal falcons during diving and pull out. Journal of Experimental Biology 201(3): 403–414. PDF fulltext
  • University of Minnesota Raptor Center (2004): Peregrine Falcon. Version of 2004-06-25. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1999): All About the Peregrine Falcon. Version of 1999-08-20. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1995): United States Department of the Interior[5]. Version of 1995-07-20. Retrieved 2007-10-15.
  • Vaurie, C. (1961): Systematic notes on Palearctic birds. No. 44, Falconidae, the genus Falco. (Part 1, Falco peregrinus and Falco pelegrinoides). American Museum Novitates 2035: 1–19. fulltext
  • White, C. M. (1994): 60. Peregine Falcon. In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors): Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 2 (New World Vultures to Guineafowl): 274–275, plate 28. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-15-6
  • White, C. M.; Olsen, P. D. & Kiff, L. F. (1994): Family Falconidae. In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors): Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 2 (New World Vultures to Guineafowl): 216–275, plates 24–28. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-15-6
  • Wink, M. & Sauer-Gürth, H. (2000): Advances in the molecular systematics of African raptors. In: Chancellor, R.D. & Meyburg, B.-U. (eds): Raptors at Risk: 135–147. WWGBP/Hancock House, Berlin/Blaine. PDF fulltext
  • Wink, M.; Seibold, I.; Lotfikhah, F. & Bednarek, W. (1998): Molecular systematics of holarctic raptors (Order Falconiformes). In: Chancellor, R.D., Meyburg, B.-U. & Ferrero, J.J. (eds.): Holarctic Birds of Prey: 29–48. Adenex & WWGBP. PDF fulltext
  • Wink, M.; Döttlinger, H.; Nicholls, M. K. & Sauer-Gürth, H. (2000): Phylogenetic relationships between Black Shaheen (Falco peregrinus peregrinator), Red-naped Shaheen (F. pelegrinoides babylonicus) and Peregrines (F. peregrinus). In: Chancellor, R.D. & Meyburg, B.-U. (eds): Raptors at Risk: 853–857. WWGBP/Hancock House, Berlin/Blaine. PDF fulltext
  • Wink, M.; Sauer-Gürth, H.; Ellis, D. & Kenward, R. (2004): Phylogenetic relationships in the Hierofalco complex (Saker-, Gyr-, Lanner-, Laggar Falcon). In: Chancellor, R.D. & Meyburg, B.-U. (eds.): Raptors Worldwide: 499–504. WWGBP, Berlin. PDF fulltext
  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (2003): Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Version of 2003-01-07. Retrieved 2007-08-13.

The American Birding Association (ABA) is a non_profit organization of people interested in birding. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Ornithologists Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States government agency that deals with U.S. National Parks and U.S. National Monuments. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database that collects the natural history, classification, species characteristics, conservation biology, and distribution information of thousands of species of animals. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Ernst Mayr Ernst Walter Mayr (July 5, 1904, Kempten, Germany – February 3, 2005, Bedford, Massachusetts U.S.), was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. ... The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is the agency of the state of Michigan charged with maintaining natural resources such as state parks, state forests, and recreation areas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Roger Tory Peterson (August 28, 1908 – July 28, 1996), was an American naturalist, ornithologist, artist, and educator, and held to be one of the founding inspirations for the 20th century environmental movement. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Emu, subtitled Austral Ornithology (ISSN 0158-4197), is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union (RAOU). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... Headquarter of National Audubon Society in New York. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Handbook of Birds of the World vol. ... Handbook of Birds of the World vol. ... The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) is an agency of the state of Wisconsin. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikispecies has information related to:

Conservation organizations: Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is the proposed name for a collaborative bio-encyclopedia, written by experts[1][2], which aims to build an encyclopedia of separate articles for all known species, including video, sound, images, graphics, and text. ...

Video and other media of Peregrines:


  Results from FactBites:
 
Peregrine Falcon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2161 words)
The Peregrine Falcon is the fastest creature on the planet in its hunting dive, the stoop, in which it soars to a great height, then free falls at speeds in excess of 420 km/h (260mph) into either wing of its prey, so as not to harm itself on impact.
The Mediterranean Peregrine Falcon, in this context known as the Maltese Falcon, was the annual rent required by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V when he donated the Island of Malta to the Knights Hospitaller in 1530.
The Peregrine is used owing to the historical importance of the bird in the Isle of Man's.
Peregrine Falcon (353 words)
This falcon is found on every continent except Antarctica, and lives in a wide variety of habitats from tropics, deserts, and maritime to the tundra, and from sea level to 12,000 feet.
Peregrines are highly migratory in the northern part of their range.
Peregrines may use a variety of hunting techniques, but typically prey is captured in the air after fast pursuit or a rapid dive to catch the prey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m