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Encyclopedia > Perchloroethylene
Properties

General

Name Tetrachloroethylene
Chemical formula Cl2C=CCl2
Appearance Colorless liquid

Physical

Formula weight 131.4 amu
Melting point 254 K (-19 C)
Boiling point 394 K (121.1 C but see discussion)
Density 1.63 103 kg/m3 (liquid)
Solubility insoluble in water

Thermochemistry

ΔfH0gas ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid ? kJ/mol
S0gas, 1 bar ? J/molK
S0liquid, 1 bar ? J/molK
S0solid ? J/molK

Safety

Ingestion May cause nausea, vomiting. May damage liver and kidneys. May cause symptoms like for inhalation.
Inhalation May irritate mucous membranes. Can cause headache, dizziness, stupor, unconsciousness.
Skin May cause skin irritation, severe burns.
Eyes May cause severe irritation
More info Hazardous Chemical Database (http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/chemicals/8/7139.html)

SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.


Disclaimer and references

Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. It is also used to make other chemicals and is used in some consumer products.


Other names for tetrachloroethylene include perchloroethylene, PCE, and tetrachloroethene. It is a nonflammable liquid at room temperature. It evaporates easily into the air and has a sharp, sweet odor. Most people can smell tetrachloroethylene when it is present in the air at a level of 1 part tetrachloroethylene per million parts of air (1 ppm) or more, although some can smell it at even lower levels.


Michael Faraday first synthesized tetrachloroethylene in 1821 by heating hexachloroethane until it decomposed into tetrachloroethylene and chlorine.

Contents

Production

Most tetrachloroethylene is produced ethylene via 1,2-dichloroethane. When 1,2-dichloroethane is heated to 400C with chlorine, tetrachloroethylene can result from the chemical reaction

ClCH2CH2Cl + 3 Cl2 → Cl2C=CCl2 + 4 HCl

This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminum chloride, or by activated carbon. Trichloroethylene is a major byproduct of the reaction, and since both are salable commercial chemicals, typical industrial practice is to collect both products and then separate them by distillation.


A somewhat smaller amount of tetrachlorethylene is made from a mixture of partially chlorinated light hydrocarbons that would other be hazardous waste products of several chemical processes. When these compounds are heated in the presence of excess chlorine, they are converted to a mixture of tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, and hydrogen chloride.


Uses

Most applications of tetrachloroethylene use it for its solvent properties. Most organic materials dissolve in tetrachloroethylene. It is the most widely used solvent in dry cleaning. It is also used to degrease metal parts in the automotive and other metalworking industries. It appears in a few consumer products including paint strippers and spot removers.


Until the early 1990s, tetrachloroethylene was also heavily used in the manufacture of freon refrigerants, especially the freons R-113, R-114, and R-115. Since 1996, these chemicals have been banned in most of the world under the terms of the Montreal Protocol, and so tetrachloroethylene is no longer used for this purpose.


Health effects

Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons, tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant, and inhaling its vapors (particularly in closed, poorly ventilated areas) can cause dizziness, headache, sleepiness, confusion, nausea, difficulty in speaking and walking, unconsciousness, and death.


After repeated or extended skin contact, tetrachloroethylene may dissolve fats from the skin, resulting in severe skin irritation. These symptoms occur almost entirely in work (or hobby) environments where people have been accidentally exposed to high concentrations or have intentionally used tetrachloroethylene to get a "high."


In industry, most workers are exposed to levels lower than those causing obvious nervous system effects. The health effects of breathing in air or drinking water with low levels of tetrachloroethylene are not known.


Results from some studies suggest that women who work in dry cleaning industries where exposures to tetrachloroethylene can be quite high may have more menstrual problems and spontaneous abortions than women who are not exposed. However, it is not known if tetrachloroethylene was responsible for these problems because other possible causes were not considered.


Results of animal studies, conducted with amounts much higher than those that most people are exposed to, show that tetrachloroethylene can cause liver and kidney damage. Exposure to very high levels of tetrachloroethylene can be toxic to the unborn pups of pregnant rats and mice. Changes in behavior were observed in the offspring of rats that breathed high levels of the chemical while they were pregnant.


Testing for TCE

One way of testing for tetrachloroethylene exposure is to measure the amount of the chemical in the breath, much the same way breath-alcohol measurements are used to determine the amount of alcohol in the blood.


Because it is stored in the body's fat and slowly released into the bloodstream, tetrachloroethylene can be detected in the breath for weeks following a heavy exposure.


Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a breakdown product of tetrachloroethylene, can be detected in the blood. These tests are relatively simple to perform. These tests aren't available at most doctors' offices, but can be performed at special laboratories that have the right equipment.


Because exposure to other chemicals can produce the same breakdown products in the urine and blood, the tests for breakdown products cannot determine if you have been exposed to tetrachloroethylene or the other chemicals.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Coproduction of perchloroethylene, phosgene, and silicon tetrachloride - Patent 4504452 (3655 words)
Perchloroethylene, phosgene, and silicon tetrachloride are coproduced by passing vaporous carbon tetrachloride into contact with porous silica at a temperature of 800.degree.
Perchloroethylene is usually made by the pyrolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CCl.sub.4 ; tetrachloromethane) at a temperature of 600.degree.
Perchloroethylene and phosgene have been coproduced from carbon tetrachloride, but carbon monoxide is an essential reactant, the temperature is 150.degree.
Perchloroethylene dielectric fluid containing aliphatic hydrocarbons - Patent 4697043 (1717 words)
While perchloroethylene in a pure form is quite stable, certain impurities such as chlorinated ethanes may decompose when exposed to the conditions encountered in electrical devices, forming chlorine radicals which are corrosive and which impair the insulating characteristics of the fluid.
Perchloroethylene (PCE) was blended with a mixture of octene (Shell Chemical) and nonene (Aldrich Chemicals) in various ratios of octene/nonene, and at different total aliphatic hydrocarbon contents.
A perchloroethylene composition containing 6% by weight of octene and 0.5% by weight of nonene was tested according to ASTM Method D-924 to determine dielectric constant and ASTM Method D-877 to determine dielectric strength, as were the known fluids.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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