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Encyclopedia > Perception
Psychology
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RESEARCH

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Transpersonal Psychological science redirects here. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

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Sport The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ...

LISTS

Publications
Topics
Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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Neuropsychology

Topics

Brain-computer interfacesBrain damage
Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain
NeuroanatomyNeurophysiology
PhrenologyPopular misconceptions
Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... A 19th century phrenology chart. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ...

Brain functions

arousalattention
consciousnessdecision making
executive functionslanguage
learningmemory
motor coordinationperception
planningproblem solving
thought
Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Executive functions are the conscious control of ones thoughts, emotions, and movements. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

People

Arthur L. BentonAntónio Damásio
Kenneth Heilman • Phineas Gage
Norman Geschwind • Elkhonon Goldberg
Donald HebbAlexander Luria
Muriel D. LezakBrenda Milner
Karl PribramOliver Sacks
Roger SperryRodolfo Llinás
H.M.
Arthur Lester Benton, Ph. ... António Rosa Damásio, GOSE (IPA: ) (b. ... Kenneth M. Heilman is an American behavioral neurologist. ... Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ... Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Elkhonon Goldberg (1946) is a neuropsychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field. ... Dr. Brenda Milner CC (born 15 July 1918, Manchester England) has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... Image:Roger W Sperry. ... Rodolfo Llinás (born in Bogotá, Cundinamarca in 1934) is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine. ... HM (also known as H.M. and Henry M., born 1926 in Connecticut) is an anonymous memory-impaired patient who has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the...

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Glasgow Coma Scale
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini-mental state examination
Stroop effect
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ... The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test or simply the Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Continuous Performance Task, or CPT, is a psychological test that consists of a series of stimuli. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which seems to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ... The Hayling and Brixton tests[1] are neuropsychological tests of executive function created by psychologists Paul W. Burgess and Tim Shallice. ... A lexical decision task is a type of experiment in psycholinguistics. ... The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...

Mind and Brain Portal
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In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. It is a task far more complex than was imagined in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was proclaimed that building perceiving machines would take about a decade, but, needless to say, that is still very far from reality. The word perception comes from the Latin perception-, percepio, , meaning "receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses." --OED.com. Methods of studying perception range from essentially biological or physiological approaches, through psychological approaches through the philosophy of mind and in empiricist epistemology, such as that of David Hume, John Locke, George Berkeley, or as in Merleau Ponty's affirmation of perception as the basis of all science and knowledge. Psychological science redirects here. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... A Phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Empiricism is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modern scientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empirical research and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... George Berkeley (IPA: , Bark-Lee) (12 March 1685 – 14 January 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of a theory he called immaterialism (later referred to as subjective idealism by others). ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 - May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl, and often somewhat mistakenly classified as an existentialist thinker because of his close association with Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, and his distinctly Heideggerian conception of Being. ...


There are two basic theories of perception: Passive Perception (PP) and Active Perception (PA). The passive perception (conceived by René Descartes) is addressed in this article and could be surmised as the following sequence of events: surrounding - > input (senses) - > processing (brain) - > output (re-action). Although still supported by mainstream philosophers, psychologists and neurologists, this theory is nowadays losing momentum. The theory of active perception has emerged from extensive research of sensory illusions with works of Professor Emeritus Richard L Gregory in a lead. This theory is increasingly gaining experimental support and could be surmised as dynamic relationship between “description” (in the brain) < - > senses < - > surrounding. Descartes redirects here. ...

Contents

History of the study of perception

Perception is one of the oldest fields within scientific psychology, and there are correspondingly many theories about its underlying processes. The oldest quantitative law in psychology is the Weber-Fechner law, which quantifies the relationship between the intensity of physical stimuli and their perceptual effects. It was the study of perception that gave rise to the Gestalt school of psychology, with its emphasis on holistic approach. . The Weber - Fechner law attempts to describe the relationship between the physical magnitudes of stimuli and human perception of the intensity of stimuli. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Whole redirects here. ...


Perception and reality

Ambiguous images

Many cognitive psychologists hold that, as we move about in the world, we create a model of how the world works. That is, we sense the objective world, but our sensations map to percepts, and these percepts are provisional, in the same sense that scientific hypotheses are provisional (cf. in the scientific method). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


As we acquire new information, our percepts shift, thus solidifying the idea that perception is a matter of belief. Abraham Pais' biography refers to the 'esemplastic' nature of imagination. In the case of visual perception, some people can actually see the percept shift in their mind's eye. Others who are not picture thinkers, may not necessarily perceive the 'shape-shifting' as their world changes. The 'esemplastic' nature has been shown by experiment: an ambiguous image has multiple interpretations on the perceptual level. The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ... Imagination is accepted as the innate ability and process to invent partial or complete personal realms within the mind from elements derived from sense perceptions of the shared world. ... The phrase minds eye refers to the human ability for visual perception, imagination, visualization, and memory, or, in other words, ones ability to see things with the mind. ... Picture Thinking, Visual Thinking or Visual/Spatial Learner is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing, where most people would think with linguistic or verbal processing. ... Certain images are interpreted by the Visual System in more than one way. ...


Just as one object can give rise to multiple percepts, so an object may fail to give rise to any percept at all: if the percept has no grounding in a person's experience, the person may literally not perceive it.


This confusing ambiguity of perception is exploited in human technologies such as camouflage, and also in biological mimicry, for example by Peacock butterflies, whose wings bear eye markings that birds respond to as though they were the eyes of a dangerous predator. Perceptual ambiguity is not restricted to vision. For example, recent touch perception research (Robles-De-La-Torre & Hayward 2001) found that kinesthesia-based haptic perception strongly relies on the forces experienced during touch. This makes it possible to produce illusory touch percepts (see also the MIT Technology Review article The Cutting Edge of Haptics). Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... “Mimic” redirects here. ... Binomial name Inachis io (Linnaeus, 1758) The Peacock (Inachis io) is a well-known colourful butterfly, found in temperate Europe and Asia. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ... Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ... This article is about haptic technology. ...


Cognitive theories of perception assume there is a poverty of stimulus. This (with reference to perception) is the claim that sensations are, by themselves, unable to provide a unique description of the world. Sensations require 'enriching', which is the role of the mental model. A different type of theory is the perceptual ecology approach of James J. Gibson. Gibson rejected the assumption of a poverty of stimulus by rejecting the notion that perception is based in sensations. Instead, he investigated what information is actually presented to the perceptual systems. He (and the psychologists who work within this paradigm) detailed how the world could be specified to a mobile, exploring organism via the lawful projection of information about the world into energy arrays. Specification is a 1:1 mapping of some aspect of the world into a perceptual array; given such a mapping, no enrichment is required and perception is direct. Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... A mental model is an explanation in someones thought process for how something works in the real world. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The manner in which a child acquires language is a matter long debated by linguists and child psychologists alike. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Perception-in-Action

The ecological understanding of perception advanced from Gibson's early work is perception-in-action, the notion that perception is a requisite property of animate action, without perception action would not be guided and without action perception would be pointless. Animate actions require perceiving and moving together. In a sense, "perception and movement are two sides of the same coin, the coin is action." (D.N. Lee) A mathematical theory of perception-in-action has been devised and investigated in many forms of controlled movement by many different species of organism, General Tau Theory. According to this theory, tau information, or time-to-goal information is the fundamental 'percept' in perception.- A theory of perceptuomotor control based on the ecological invariant, tau. ...


Perception and action

We gather information about the world and interact with it through our actions. Perceptual information is critical for action. Perceptual deficits may lead to profound deficits in action (for touch-perception-related deficits, see Robles-De-La-Torre 2006).


Types of perception

Amodal perception is the term used to describe the full perception of a physical structure when it is only partially perceived, for example a table will be perceived as a continuous surface even if it is partially obscured by a book placed upon it. ... Color vision is a psychophysical phenomenon that exists only in our minds. ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ... Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. ...

References and Further Reading

External links

David John Chalmers (born April 20, 1966) is a philosopher in the area of philosophy of mind. ...

See also

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Perception - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (491 words)
It was the study of perception that gave rise to the Gestalt school of psychology, with its emphasis on holistic approaches.
This confusing ambiguity of perception is exploited in human technologies such as camouflage, and also in biological mimicry, for example by Peacock butterflies, whose wings bear eye markings that birds respond to as though they were the eyes of a dangerous predator.
Gibson rejected the assumption of a poverty of stimulus by rejecting the notion that perception is based in sensations.
Philosophy of perception - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1932 words)
The succession of data transfers that are involved in perception suggests that somewhere in the brain there is a final set of activity, called sense data, that is the substrate of the percept.
The philosophy of perception is very closely related to a branch of philosophy known as epistemology, the theory of knowledge, and many of the ideas presented above are also discussed under this heading.
Perception is sometimes referred to as a cognitive process in which information processing is used to transfer information from the world into the brain and mind where it is further processed and related to other information.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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