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Encyclopedia > Pequot War
Lion Gardiner in the Pequot War from a Charles Stanley Reinhart drawing circa 1890
Lion Gardiner in the Pequot War from a Charles Stanley Reinhart drawing circa 1890

The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1636-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with Native American allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan tribe), against the Pequot tribe. This war saw the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity in what is present-day southern New England. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 478 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,974 × 1,179 pixels, file size: 828 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lion Gardiner in Pequot War by Charles Stanley Reinhart(from watercolor previously at the Manor House in Gardiner Island from a July 2007... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 478 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,974 × 1,179 pixels, file size: 828 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lion Gardiner in Pequot War by Charles Stanley Reinhart(from watercolor previously at the Manor House in Gardiner Island from a July 2007... Lion Gardiner (1599-1663) founded the first English settlement in the state of New York and his legacy includes Gardiners Island which remains in the family and is the largest privately owned island in the United States. ... Lion Gardiner in the Pequot War from a Reinhart watercolor circa 1890 Charles Stanley Reinhart (May 16, 1844 - August 30, 1896) was an American painter and illustrator in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Native Americans redirects here. ... Tribal flag The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... See Main articles: Mashantucket Pequot Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


Many Pequot people were killed by the colonists and their allies; more were captured and sold into slavery in Bermuda.[1] Those who managed to evade death or capture and enslavement dispersed. It would take the Pequot more than three and a half centuries to regain their former political and economic power in their traditional homeland region along the Pequot (present-day Thames) and Mystic Rivers in what is now southeastern Connecticut.[2] The Thames River, seen from the waterfront in New London, Connecticut The Thames River is a short river and tidal estuary in the U.S. state of Connecticut. ... The Mystic River is a river which flows through the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Connecticut. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Pequot is an Algonquian term, the meaning of which is in dispute among Algonquian specialists. Most recent sources claim that "Pequot" comes from "Paquatauoq," "the destroyers," thereby relying on the speculations of an early twentieth century authority on Algonquian languages. However, Frank Speck, a leading specialist of Pequot-Mohegan, had doubts, believing that another term the translation of which referred to the shallowness of a body of water seems much more plausible.[3] The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ...


Origins

The Pequot and their traditional enemies, the Mohegan, were at one time a single socio-political entity. Anthropologists and historians contend that sometime before contact with the Puritan English, the Pequot were split into the two warring groups.[4] The earliest historians of the Pequot War have also speculated that the Pequot migrated from the upper Hudson River Valley toward central and eastern Connecticut sometime around 1500, but these claims are disputed by modern anthropology.[5] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and...


In the 1630s, the Connecticut River Valley was in turmoil. The Pequot aggressively worked to extend their area of control, at the expense of the Wampanoag to the north, the Narragansett to the east, the Connecticut River Valley Algonquians and Mohegan to the west, and the Algonquian peoples of present-day Long Island to the south. All of these contended with one another for dominance and control of the European trade. A series of smallpox epidemics over the course of the previous three decades had severely reduced the Indian populations[6], leaving a power vacuum. The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ...


The Dutch and the English were also striving to extend the reach of their trade into the interior in order to achieve dominance in the lush, fertile region. By 1636, the Dutch had fortified their trading post, and the English had built a trading fort at Saybrook. English Puritans from Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies had settled at the newly established river towns of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield. Old Saybrook is a town in Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States. ... Motto: First in Connecticut, First for its Citizens Location in Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford Region Capitol Region Settled 1633 Named 1637 Government  - Type Council-manager[1]  - Town manager Peter Souza  - Town council Donald S. Trinks, Mayor; Timothy Curtis, Deputy Mayor; Robert B. Gegetskas II... Hartford redirects here. ... Wethersfield is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. ...


Participants

As with all histories, any single narrative will fail to reveal the whole of a given historical event. The combatants in the Pequot War were represented by different polities, different leaders, with different interests. From a distance of several hundred years, many of the polities involved may be unrecognizable to those of us today. In the embryonic colonial world of the early seventeenth century, there were several semi-independent colonies ensconced in what is today called southern New England, and each colony was administered by its own leadership. Of course, in the same way that American Indian peoples belonged to independent village-states that often allied with one another to form confederacies long before the arrival of the English, there were numerous Algonquian peoples, defined by the polities to which they belonged, who oversaw the administration of their traditional territories. These disparate polities and their leadership included:

SASSACUS, Pequot chief, born near Oroton, Connecticut, about 1560 died in the Mohawk settlement in June, 1637. ... The Niantic were a tribe of New England indians, who were living in Connecticut and Rhode Island during the early colonial period. ... Uncas (c. ... Miantonomoh (1565?-1643), chief of the Narraganset tribe of North American Indians, nephew of their grand sachem, Canonicus (d. ... The Montaukett is an Algonquian speaking tribe native to eastern of Long Island, New York. ... Sir Henry Vane (1613 - June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. ... John Winthrop (12 January 1587/8–26 March 1649) led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. ... John Underhill (1609-1672) was an early English colonist in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a soldier in that and other colonies. ... John Endecott (c. ... Edward Winslow, 1651, by an anonymous artist Edward Winslow (1595–1655) was an American Pilgrim leader on the Mayflower. ... William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died. ... Captain Myles Standish Kt. ... Hookers Company reach the Connecticut, publishers: Estes & Lauriat, 1879 Thomas Hooker (July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent Puritan religious and colonial leader remembered as one of the founders of the Colony of Connecticut. ... John Mason was the name of two prominent figures in colonial New England prior to 1640. ... Robert Seeley, also Seely, Seelye, or Ciely, (1602-1668) was an early Puritan settler in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who helped establish Watertown, Wethersfield, and New Haven. ... Lion Gardiner (1599-1663) founded the first English settlement in the state of New York and his legacy includes Gardiners Island which remains in the family and is the largest privately owned island in the United States. ...

Causes for War

Before the war's inception, efforts to control fur trade access resulted in a series of escalating incidents and attacks that increased tensions on both sides. Political divisions between the Pequot and Mohegan widened as they aligned with different trade sources-- the Mohegan with the Puritan English, and the Pequot with the Dutch. The Pequot attacked a group of Mattabesic Indians who had attempted to trade at Hartford. Tension also increased as Massachusetts Bay Colony began to manufacture wampum, the supply of which the Pequot had controlled up until 1633. Wampum is a string of white shell beads fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk (Busycotypus canaliculatus) shell, and is traditionally used by Indigenous Americans, First Nations peoples, Native Americans, hobbyists, business people, and traders, who regarded it as a sacred or trade representative of the value of the artist...


In 1634, John Stone, a smuggler, privateer, and slaver, and seven of his crewmen were killed by the Western Niantic, tributary clients of the Pequot, in retaliation for atrocities committed by the Dutch, and more recently, by Stone.[7] A principal Pequot Sachem, Tatobem, had boarded a Dutch vessel to trade. Instead of conducting trade, the Dutch seized the Sachem and demanded a substantial ransom for his safe return. The Pequot quickly sent a bushel of wampum, and received Tatobem's corpse in return. These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Slave redirects here. ...


Stone, the privateer, was actually from the West Indies and had been banished from Boston for malfeasance. Setting sail from Boston, Stone had met his end near the mouth of the Connecticut River while kidnapping Western Niantic women and children to sell as slaves in Virginia Colony.[8] Colonial officials in Boston protested the killing. The Pequot Sachem, Sassacus, refused the colonials' demands that the Western Niantic responsible for Stone's death be turned over to them. Boston redirects here. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... The Niantic were a tribe of New England indians, who were living in Connecticut and Rhode Island during the early colonial period. ...


Then on July 20, 1636, a respected trader named John Oldham was attacked on a trading voyage to Block Island. He and several of his crew were killed and his ship looted. To this day, it is unclear who was responsible for John Oldham's death. In the aftermath of the Pequot War, the Pequot were implicated in the trader's death. However, in the weeks following, in the eyes of colonial officials from Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, the Narragansett were the likely culprits. Knowing that the Indians of Block Island were allies of the Eastern Niantic, who in turn were allied with the Narragansett, Puritan officials became equally suspicious of the Narragansett.[9] Even so, the colonial English response to Oldham's death, the last in a series of escalating incidents, has traditionally been viewed as the beginning of the Pequot War. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Oldham (1592-1636) was an early Puritan settler in Massachusetts. ... Southeast Light, a famous Block Island landmark Block Island, shown in red, off the coast of the State of Rhode Island. ... rhode island is a bad place to live. ...


Battles

News of Oldham's death became the subject of sermons in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In August, Governor Vane sent John Endecott to exact revenge on the Indians of Block Island. Endecott's party of roughly 90 men sailed to Block Island and attacked a Niantic village there. Most of the Niantic escaped, but 14 were killed, while two of Endecott's men were injured. The Puritan militia burned their village to the ground. Whatever crops the Niantic had managed to store for the winter which the English could not carry away with them were burned as well. Endecott then went on to Fort Saybrook. Atlantic Ocean, a fragment of glacial terminal moraine approximately ten miles off the coast of Rhode Island, of which it is part, and from which it is separated by Block Island Sound. ...


The Puritans at Saybrook were not happy about the raid, but agreed that some of them would accompany Endecott as guides. Endecott sailed along the coast to a Pequot village, where he repeated the previous year's demand of payment for the death of Stone and more for Oldham. After some discussion, Endecott concluded that the Pequot were stalling and attacked. The Pequot ruse had worked however, and the Pequot were able to escape into the woods. The former Puritan Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony once again had to content himself with burning an Indian village and crops before sailing home.


Pequot Raids

John Endecott's Massachusetts Bay Colony forces had gone home, but Connecticut Colony Puritans were left to deal with the anger of the Pequot. The Pequot attempted to enjoin their allies, some 36 tributary villages, to their cause but were only partly effective. The Western Niantic joined them but the Eastern Niantic remained neutral. The traditional enemies of the Pequot, the Mohegan and the Narragansett, openly sided with the Puritan English. The Narragansett had warred with and lost territory to the Pequot in 1622. Now their friend Roger Williams urged them to side with the English. For other persons named Roger Williams, see Roger Williams (disambiguation). ...


Through the fall and winter, Fort Saybrook was effectively besieged. Any who ventured outside were killed. As spring arrived in 1637, the Pequot stepped up their raids on Connecticut Colony towns. On April 12, during a raid on Wethersfield, the Pequot killed nine men and women, a number of cattle and horses, and took two girls hostage. In all, the towns lost about 30 settlers. is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May, leaders of Connecticut Colony's river towns met in Hartford, raised a militia, and placed John Mason in command. Mason set out with 90 militia and 70 Mohegan warriors under Uncas to repay the Pequot. At Fort Saybrook, Mason was joined by John Underhill and another 20 men. Underhill and Mason proceeded to the principal Pequot village, near present-day Groton, but the Pequot chose to defend their fortified village. Ill-equipped to take it, Mason sailed east, and stopped at the village of Misistuck (Mystic). Waterfront of Groton, Connecticut looking upriver Groton is a town located on the Thames River in New London County, Connecticut. ... A coffeeshop along Main Street in Mystic Mystic is a census-designated place located in New London County, Connecticut. ...


The Mystic Massacre

Believing that the English had returned to Boston, Massachusetts, the Pequot sachem Sassacus took several hundred of his warriors to make another raid on Hartford. But John Mason had only gone to visit the Narragansett, who joined him with several hundred warriors. Several allied Niantic warriors also joined Mason's group. On May 26, 1637, with a force up to about 400 fighting men, Mason attacked Misistuck by surprise. He estimated that "six or seven Hundred" Pequot were there when his forces assaulted the palisade. Some 150 warriors had accompanied Sassacus, so that Mystic's inhabitants were largely comprised of Pequot women and children. Surrounding the palisade, Mason ordered that the enclosure be set on fire. Justifying his conduct later, Mason declared that the holocaust against the Pequot was also the act of a God who "laughed his Enemies and the Enemies of his People to scorn making [the Pequot] as a fiery Oven . . . Thus did the Lord judge among the Heathen, filling [Mystic] with dead Bodies." [10] Mason also insisted that should any Pequot attempt to escape the flames, that they too should be killed. Of the 600 to 700 Pequot at Mystic that day, only seven were taken prisoner while another seven made it into the woods to escape. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ...


The Narragansett and Mohegan warriors who had fought alongside John Mason and John Underhill's colonial militia were horrified by the actions and "manner of the Englishmen's fight . . . because it is too furious, and slays too many men."[11] Repulsed by the "total war" tactics of the Puritan English, and the horrors that they had witnessed, the Narragansett returned home. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


Believing the mission accomplished, John Mason also set out for home. The militia became temporarily lost, but in doing so Mason narrowly missed returning Pequot Indians who, seeing what had occurred, gave chase to the Puritan forces to little avail.


Puritan Hunting Pequot

The slaughter at Mystic broke the Pequot, and deprived them of their allies. Forced to abandon their villages, the Pequot fled -- mostly in small bands-- to seek refuge with other southern Algonquian peoples. Many were hunted down by the Mohegan and Narragansett warriors. The largest group, led by Sassacus, was denied aid by the Metoac (Montauk, or Montaukett) from present-day Long Island. Sassacus led roughly 400 warriors west along the coast towards the Dutch at New Amsterdam and their Native allies. When they crossed the Connecticut River, the Pequot killed three men that they had encountered near Fort Saybrook. This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ...


In mid-June, John Mason set out from Saybrook with 160 men and 40 Mohegan scouts under Uncas. They caught up with the refugees at Sasqua, a Mattabesic village near present-day Fairfield, Connecticut. Surrounded in a nearby swamp, the Pequot refused to surrender. Several hundred, mostly women and children, were allowed to leave with the Mattabesic. In the ensuing battle, Sassacus was able to break free with perhaps 80 warriors, but 180 of the Pequot were killed or captured. Fairfield is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sassacus and his followers had hoped to gain refuge among the Mohawk in present-day New York. However, the Mohawk had seen the display of English power and chose instead to kill Sassacus and his warriors, sending Sassacus' scalp to Hartford, as a symbolic offering of Mohawk friendship with Connecticut Colony. Puritan colonial officials continued to call for the merciless hunting down of what remained of the Pequot months after war's end.


Notes

  1. ^ Lion Gardiner, "Relation of the Pequot Warres" in History of the Pequot War: The Contemporary Accounts of Mason, Underhill, Vincent, and Gardiner (Cleveland, 1897), p. 138; Ethel Boissevain, "Whatever Became of the New England Indians Shipped to Bermuda to be Sold as Slaves," Man in the Northwest 11 (Spring 1981), pp. 103-114; Karen O. Kupperman, Providence Island, 1630-1641: The Other Puritan Colony (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), p. 172.
  2. ^ Refer to, Laurence M. Hauptman and James D. Wherry, eds.The Pequots in Southern New England: The Fall and Rise of an Indian Nation (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990).
  3. ^ See Frank Speck, "Native (sic.) Tribes and Dialects of Connecticut: A Mohegan-Pequot Diary," Annual Reports of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology 43 (1928): 218.
  4. ^ See Carrol Alton Means, "Mohegan-Pequot Relationships, as Indicated by the Events Leading to the Pequot Massacre of 1637 and Subsequent Claims in the Mohegan Land Controversy," Archaeological Society of Connecticut Bulletin 21 (2947): 26-33.
  5. ^ For archaeological investigations disproving Hubbard's theory of origins, see Irving Rouse, "Ceramic Traditions and Sequences in Connecticut," Archaeological Society of Connecticut Bulletin 21 (1947): 25; Kevin McBride, "Prehistory of the Lower Connecticut Valley" (Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1984), pp. 126-28, 199-269; and the overall evidence on the question of Pequot origins in Means, "Mohegan-Pequot Relationships," 26-33. For historical research, refer to Alfred A. Cave, "The Pequot Invasion of Southern New England: A Reassessment of the Evidence," New England Quarterly 62 (1989): 27-44; and for linguistic research, see Truman D. Michelson, "Notes on Algonquian Language," International Journal of Smerican Linguistics 1 (1917): 56-57.
  6. ^ See Alfred W. Crosby, "Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., vol. 33, no. 2 (Apr., 1976) , pp. 289-299; Arthur E. Spiero and Bruce E. Speiss, "New England Pandemic of 1616-1622: Cause and Archaeological Implication," Man in the Northeast 35 (1987): 71-83; and Dean R. Snow and Kim M. Lamphear, "European Contact and Indian Depopulation in the Northeast: The Timing of the First Epidemics," Ethnohistory 35 (1988): 16-38.
  7. ^ Alfred Cave, The Pequot War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996), pp. 58-59.
  8. ^ Cave, The Pequot War, pp. 59-60.
  9. ^ Cave, The Pequot War, pp. 104-105.
  10. ^ Note that the term, "holocaust" means, "complete consumption by fire, or that which is so consumed; complete destruction, especially of a large number of persons; a great slaughter or massacre." See as well, John Mason's justification for incinirating Mystic in, A Brief History of the Pequot War: Especially of the Memorable taking of their Fort at Mistick in Connecticut in 1637 (Boston: S. Kneeland & T. Green, 1736), p. 30.
  11. ^ William Bradford, Of Plimoth Plantation, 1620-1647, ed. Samuel Eliot Morison (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), p. 29; and John Underhill, Nevves from America; or, A New and Experimentall Discoverie of New England: Containing, a True Relation of their War-like Proceedings these two yeares last past, with a figure of the Indian fort, or Palizado (London: I. D[awson] for Peter Cole, 1638), p. 84.

Bibliography

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  • Kupperman, Karen O. Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640 (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980).
  • Means, Carrol Alton. "Mohegan-Pequot Relationships, as Indicated by the Events Leading to the Pequot Massacre of 1637 and Subsequent Claims in the Mohegan Land Controversy," Archaeological Society of Connecticut Bulletin 21 (2947): 26-33.
  • Macleod, William C. The American Indian Frontier (New York: A.A. Knopf, 1928).
  • McBride, Kevin. "Prehistory of the Lower Connecticut Valley" (Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1984).
  • Michelson, Truman D. "Notes on Algonquian Language," International Journal of American Linguistics 1 (1917): 56-57.
  • Oberg, Micheal. Uncas: First of the Mohegans (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003).
  • Parkman, Francis. France and England in North America, ed. David Levin (New York, NY: Viking Press, 1983): I:1084.
  • Salisbury, Neal. Manitou and Providence: Indians, Europeans, and the Making of New England, 1500-1643 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).
  • Segal, Charles M. and David C. Stineback, eds. Puritans, Indians, and Manifest Destiny (New York: Putnam, 1977).
  • Snow, Dean R., and Kim M. Lamphear, "European Contact and Indian Depopulation in the Northeast: The Timing of the First Epidemics," Ethnohistory 35 (1988): 16-38.
  • Speck, Frank. "Native Tribes and Dialects of Connecticut: A Mohegan-Pequot Diary," Annual Reports of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology 43 (1928).
  • Spiero, Arthur E., and Bruce E. Speiss, "New England Pandemic of 1616-1622: Cause and Archaeological Implication," Man in the Northeast 35 (1987): 71-83
  • Sylvester, Herbert M. Indian Wars of New England, 3 vols. (Boston: W.B. Clarke Co., 1910), 1:183-339.
  • Trumbull, Benjamin. A Complete History of Connecticut: Civil and Ecclesiastical, From the Emigration of its First Planters, from England, in the Year 1630, to the Year 1764; and to the close of the Indian Wars (New Haven: Maltby, Goldsmith and Co. and Samuel Wadsworth, 1818).
  • Vaughan, Alden T. "Pequots and Puritans: The Causes of the War of 1637," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd Ser., Vol. 21, No. 2 (Apr., 1964), pp. 256-269; also republished in Roots of American Racism: Essays on the Colonial Experience (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • ______. New England Frontier: Puritans and Indians 1620-1675 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995, Reprint).
  • Willison, George F. Saints and Strangers, Being the Lives of the Pilgrim Fathers & their Families, with their Friends & Foes; & An Account of their Posthumous Wanderings in limbo, their Final Resurrection & Rise to Glory, & the Strange Pilgrimages of Plymouth Rock (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1945)
  • Wilson, Woodrow. A History of the American People, 5 vols. (New York and London : Harper & Brothers, 1906).

See also

  • History of Connecticut
  • Philip Vincent

The History of Connecticut begins as a number of unrelated colonial villages. ... Relatively little is known of the P. Vincent who published two works in London in 1637-38. ...

External links

  • For a completely different understanding of The Pequot War---based on actually walking the CT landscape, and on the fact that the Puritans had no idea where they were going, how to identify the "enemy" and more---see http://ancientgreece-earlyamerica.com, "MYSTIC FIASCO: How the Indians Won The Pequot War," by Jack Dempsey and David R. Wagner

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pequot: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2912 words)
The Pequot War saw the elimination of the Pequot as a viable socio-political entity in present-day southern New England.
By the 1910 census, the Pequot population was enumerated at a low of 66.
Pequot numbers grew appreciably-- the Mashantucket Pequot especially-- during the 1970s and 1980s when Mashantucket Pequot Chairman, Skip Hayward was able to enjoin Pequots to return to their tribal homeland by implementing the push to Federal recognition and sound economic development.
Pequot War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4328 words)
The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1637 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with American Indian allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians), against the Pequot Indians.
The earliest historians of the Pequot War have also speculated that the Pequot migrated from the upper Hudson River Valley toward central and eastern Connecticut sometime around 1500, but these claims are largely disputed by modern anthropology.
In the aftermath of the Pequot War, the Pequot were implicated in the trader's death.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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