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Encyclopedia > Pepsi Cola
The current Pepsi logo

Pepsi-Cola (often shortened to Pepsi), is a carbonated cola soft drink manufactured by PepsiCo, and the principal rival of Coca-Cola. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 160 KB) This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 160 KB) This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Carbonated bubbles in a soda float to the surface. ... Several differnt brands of cola. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... PepsiCo, Inc. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ...

Contents

History

Pepsi-Cola was first made in New Bern, North Carolina, in the early 1890s, by pharmacist Caleb Bradham and was originally called "Brad's drink". It was made of carbonated water, sugar, vanilla, rare oils, pepsin and kola nuts. As Pepsi was initially intended to cure stomach pains, Bradham coined the name Pepsi from the condition dyspepsia. The name was trademarked on June 16, 1903. New Bern is a city located in Craven County, North Carolina where the Trent River and the Neuse River converge. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the profession of compounding and dispensing medication. ... This biographical article needs to be wikified. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter) is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known also as the most universal solvent. ... A sugar is a form of carbohydrate used in the food and drinks industries, and important in biochemistry. ... Vanilla is a flavouring, in its pure form known as vanillin, derived from orchids in the genus Vanilla. ... Pepsin is a protease, a digestive enzyme that degrades food proteins in the stomach. ... Species Cola nitida Cola vera Cola acuminata - Abata Cola The kola nut is obtained from several West African or Indonesian trees, such as Cola nitida or Cola vera, and the Abata Cola (Cola acuminata), of the Malvaceae (formerly Sterculiaceae) family. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ...


Caleb Bradham, like many pharmacists at the turn of the century, had a soda fountain in his drugstore, where he served his customers refreshing drinks that he created himself. This is where Pepsi was first served. Today, a soda fountain refers to the carbonated drink dispensers found in fast food restaurants. ...


After seventeen years of success, Caleb Bradham lost Pepsi Cola. Believing that sugar prices would rise, he gambled on the commodities market. Sugar prices fell and Pepsi Cola went bankrupt in 1923. 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1931, Pepsi Cola was bought by the Loft Candy Company. Its president, Charles G. Guth, later reformulated the popular soft drink. 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Pepsi first achieved success by selling its drink in recycled beer bottles, which allowed it to sell larger bottles for lower cost than Coke. Pepsi thus became viewed as the soft drink of the lower classes. In the United States, Pepsi was viewed as the drink of blacks and in Canada it was viewed as the drink for the Francophone Québécois. A typical mug of lager beer, showing the golden colour of the beer and the foamy head floating on top. ... The term Blacks is often used in the West to denote race for persons whose progenitors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


In 1940, history was made when the first advertising jingle was broadcast nationally. The jingle was "Nickel Nickel," an advertisement for Pepsi Cola, referring to its price. "Nickel Nickel" became a hit record and was recorded in 55 languages. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... A jingle is a memorable advertising slogan usually set to an engaging melody, mainly broadcast on radio and television commercials. ... Lyrics: Pepsi-Cola hits the spot Twelve full ounces thats a lot Twice as much for a nickel, too Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you Nickel, Nickel ...


In the 1950s Pepsi poured great resources into trying to improve its image. It bought many television ads and began its long tradition of employing celebrities to sell its product. It grew and became a serious rival of the Coca-Cola corporation, but was still firmly in second place. Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ...


In the 1960s, Pepsi originated the marketing strategy known as "The Pepsi Generation". This strategy involved constant, repetitious advertising of Pepsi, aimed at young people. It worked under the assumption that there are new consumers coming of age every day, and if one stops marketing to the newest consumers, one will have a shrinking base of established consumers of one's product. With the aging of the baby boomer generation, the advertising of Pepsi changed toward an idea, never directly stated but constantly implied, of the drink that keeps one's youth. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... A baby boomer is someone born in a period of increased birth rates, such as those during the economic prosperity following World War II. In the United States, demographers have put the generations birth years at 1946 to 1964, despite the fact that the U.S. birth rate (per...


In 1964, sugar-free Diet Pepsi was introduced. 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Diet Pepsi (in some countries Pepsi Light) was introduced in 1964 and is a variant of Pepsi Cola with no sugar and zero calories; it is flavoured with aspartame. ...


In 1982, caffeine-free Pepsi Free and Diet Pepsi Free were introduced. 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 Pepsi Free can 1999 Caffeine-Free Pepsi can Pepsi Free was introduced in 1982 by PepsiCo, Inc. ...


In the early 1980s, Pepsi began a series of advertisements called the "Pepsi Challenge", in which it directly compared its product to that of Coca-Cola, showing that people preferred their product over the competitor's (and Coca-Cola's own research showed similar results). Coca-Cola, at that time, was suffering reduced sales, and made a mistake of its own in changing the formula for its product — the new formula to be called New Coke — possibly in response to the Pepsi Challenge. This period of fierce competition between the two companies became known as the cola wars. Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... The Best Just Got Better. ... During the 1980s, Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola began an escalating campaign of mutually-targeted television advertisements which became known as the Cola Wars. ...


In 1984, then pop phenom Michael Jackson signed a multi million-dollar endorsement deal which was also a cross-promotion of his and his brothers' "Victory" tour, which Pepsi sponsored. Two commercial spots were aired featuring the Jacksons dancing with a group of neighborhood kids, including a young Alfonso Ribeiro, in a concert setting. An interesting anecdote, Michael Jackson's hair caught fire while filming one of the commercials, due to a pyrotechnic mishap. 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Jackson on the cover of the album Bad in 1987. ... He was born in New York City on September 21, 1971. ...


The year 1989 saw the rise of the "Madonna Controversy." Pepsi reportedly paid Madonna $5 million for a world-wide promotional campaign tied to her song Like A Prayer. Pepsi, however did not see her video for the song until after the campaign began. When executives viewed her video, they promptly pulled the Madonna Pepsi commercials due to her use of burning crosses and other controversial images in her video. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Madonna Ciccone Madonna Louise Ciccone (born in Bay City, Michigan, August 16, 1958), simply known by the stage name Madonna, also occasionally referred to as Madonna Ciccone Ritchie, is an American singer frequently referred to as the Queen of Pop music. ... Like a Prayer is the fifth album by singer Madonna, released in 1989 (see 1989 in music). ...


Summer 1990 brought Pepsi “Cool Cans” in four special-edition designs, which drew even more attention than expected after the discovery that the “neon” variant could be stacked to spell out S-E-X (story at Snopes.com (http://www.snopes.com/business/hidden/pepsisex.asp)). 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1996 The "Buy Pepsi, Get Stuff" campaign offered a Harrier Jump Jet for 7 million "Pepsi Points" as a joke in one of their commercials. Pepsi Points could be purchased for $0.10 each, making the price of the jet $700,000, a small fraction of the actual value of $33.8 million. A court ruled that the offer was obviously a joke and Pepsi did not have to provide the jet to man who had purchased the necessary points. This was also the year when Pepsi ridiculed Coke in India. Coke had got one up over Pepsi by becoming the official drink of the World Cup 1996. However, Pepsi got the top cricketers in India at that time in one ad with the slogan 'Nothing official about it'.[1] (http://www.snopes.com/business/deals/pepsijet.asp) 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... There are several variations of the Harrier Jump Jet: Hawker Siddeley Harrier - 1st generation Harrier, also known as the AV-8A Harrier in USMC usage, now out of service Boeing/BAE Systems AV-8B Harrier II - 2nd generation Harrier, also known as Matador AV-8B in Spanish usage. ...


1998 became a year of introduction for the GeneratioNEXT campaign which pitched a futuristic view of the company to youth. The Spice Girls were used in this campaign (and the song used, "Move Over", ended up on their second album, Spiceworld). NASCAR racer Jeff Gordon was also used as a symbol for fast, young, and powerful. Pepsi is often the most common drink at sports events, such as Major League Baseball, as well as arena-sized concerts. During the fall of 1998, Pepsi introduced Pepsi ONE, followed by an ambitious advertising campaign with the main slogan of "just one calorie." The cola introduced the use of Acesulfame potassium and aspartame to attain one calorie (Pepsi reformulated Pepsi ONE in 2005, and Pepsi ONE is now Splenda based). 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Victoria, Emma, Mel B, Geri, Mel C; The Spice Girls at the MTV Europe Video Awards 1997 The Spice Girls were a British vocal girl band. ... Spiceworld is the second album by British pop group the Spice Girls, released in 1997 (see 1997 in music). ... NASCAR logo The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... Jeff Gordon Jeff Gordon (top) and Dale Earnhardt Jr. ... MLB logo Major League Baseball (MLB) is the highest level of play in professional baseball in the world. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Categories: Stub | Soft drinks | PepsiCo brands ... Chemical structure of Acesulfame potassium Acesulfame potassium is a calorie-free artificial sweetener, also known as Acesulfame K or Ace K, and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. ... Aspartame is the name for the artificial, non-carbohydrate sweetener, Aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... A calorie refers to a non SI unit of energy. ... Diagram illustrating structure of the sucralose molecule Sucralose is a potent non-caloric sweetener, also known by the trade name Splenda. ...


The company teamed up with George Lucas's reintroduction of Star Wars to the big screen during the summer of 1999. Twenty-four characters from the Star Wars series were introduced as artwork on the cans over the summer, creating an emphasis for a collectible set. This created a huge market saturation for awareness of the movie as momentum increased. George Lucas George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... For the missile defense program, see Strategic Defense Initiative. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Pepsi's 2004 slogan was "Ask for more." Pepsi also changed the labels on all Pepsis sold in Texas (where it is the third most popular soft drink, behind Dr Pepper), renaming the drink "Pepsi Sí" in a move hoping to attract a larger Latino demographic (which largely drinks Coca-Cola), in aims that they might say yes to Pepsi 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None. ... A can of Dr Pepper Dr Pepper is a popular caramel-colored, carbonated soft drink marketed in the United States by Dr Pepper/Seven Up, Inc. ... In the United States, Latino refers to non-Anglo-American citizens who are living in the United States of America and are of Latin American background, also referred to as Hispanic. ... A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ...


Spokespersons

Main article: Pepsi spokespersons Pepsi, the carbonated beverage, has had many advertising spokespersons over the years. ...

As with many soft drinks, Pepsi (and its associated beverages) has had various celebrity spokespersons throughout its existence. Hundreds of various celebrities have advertised for the many beverages that fall under the Pepsi banner. A celebrity is a person who is widely recognized in a society. ...


Criticisms of the Pepsi-Cola product

Suspected adverse long-term health effects of phosphoric acid

Some nutritionists assert that the phosphoric acid component of Pepsi-Cola and other similar soft drinks may be deleterious to bone health in both men and women, with some studies finding the effects to be more notably pronounced in female subjects. See phosphoric acid in food. Health effects, health impacts or health risks are an important consideration in many areas, such as hygiene, pollution studies, workplace safety, nutrition and health sciences in general. ... Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak mineral acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. ... Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid, is a weak mineral acid with the chemical formula H3PO4. ...


Sugar

An excess intake of sugar has been suspected as a contributory factor in certain kinds of diabetes, often co-associated with obesity, to which excess caloric intake (relative to caloric expenditure from exercise) is suspected as a primary factor. Sugar of course is also a leading contributor to tooth decay. A sugar is a form of carbohydrate used in the food and drinks industries, and important in biochemistry. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... A calorie refers to a non SI unit of energy. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ...


Accusations made against Pepsi

Coca-Cola was banned from import in India in 1970 for having refused to release the list of its ingredients. In 1993, the ban was lifted, with Pepsi arriving on the market shortly afterwards. One study led by the Center for Science and the Environment (CSE), an independent laboratory in New Delhi, found that the soft drinks contained residues of dangerous pesticides, with one dose 36 times greater than the European standard for Pepsi, and 30 times greater for Coca-Cola. The presence of these products could provoke cancers, negatively affect the nervous and immune systems, and cause birth defects. No law bans the presence of pesticides in drinks in India. 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... New Delhi ( नई दिल्ली ) is the capital of India, and is part of the National capital territory of Delhi. ... The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. ... The immune system is the organ system that protects an organism from outside biological influences. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... An airplane spreading pesticide. ...


In response to the news, numerous Indians burned bottles of these two brands of soft drinks in the streets. The Indian government asked for a comparable study of soft drink bottles destined for markets in the United States.


On December 7, 2004, India's Supreme Court ruled that both Pepsi and competitor Coca-Cola must label all cans and bottles of the respective soft drinks with a consumer warning after tests showed unacceptable levels of residual pesticides. Both companies continue to maintain that their products meet all international safety standards without yet implementing the Supreme Court ruling. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ...


A 1996 lawsuit also accused Pepsi of fraud, stating that "PEPSI, by and through its nationally advertised television commercial featuring a new Harrier Jet, made knowingly false statements and representations . . . concerning its offer of the new Harrier Jet as one of the prizes which could be obtained in the Pepsi Stuff promotional campaign"[2] (http://www.courttv.com/archive/legaldocs/business/pepsi.html). 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The word Harrier when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Pepsi Stuff refers to a marketing campaign by Pepsi in the 1990s featuring merchandise that could be purchased with Pepsi points. ...


Other Pepsi Products

(listed alphabetically)


For a list of non-Pepsi products made by PepsiCo, see PepsiCo. Crystal Pepsi Crystal Pepsi was a soft drink that was made by PepsiCo from 1992 to 1993 in the United States. ... Diet Pepsi (in some countries Pepsi Light) was introduced in 1964 and is a variant of Pepsi Cola with no sugar and zero calories; it is flavoured with aspartame. ... 1982 Pepsi Free can 1999 Caffeine-Free Pepsi can Pepsi Free was introduced in 1982 by PepsiCo, Inc. ... Categories: Stub | Soft drinks | PepsiCo brands ... 20 oz. ... Pepsi Edge is a new cola-flavored beverage distributed by Pepsi-Co mid-June 2004. ... 1982 Pepsi Free can 1999 Caffeine-Free Pepsi can Pepsi Free was introduced in 1982 by PepsiCo, Inc. ... Pepsi Holiday Spice is a limited edition of Pepsi-Cola which the company began selling November 1, 2004 in the U.S.A. for an eight-week period (to the end of the year). ... Pepsi Light was a sugar-free, low-calorie cola with lemon flavor introduced by PepsiCo, Inc. ... Binomial name Citrus x limon Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus x limon, a hybrid of cultivated origin. ... Binomial name Citrus x aurantifolia (Christm. ... Diet Pepsi (in some countries Pepsi Light) was introduced in 1964 and is a variant of Pepsi Cola with no sugar and zero calories; it is flavoured with aspartame. ... Categories: Stub | Soft drinks | PepsiCo brands ... can of Pepsi Twist Pepsi Twist was introduced to the market in the summer of 2001. ... Pepsi Vanilla is a drink produced in Purchase, New York by soft drink company PepsiCo. ... Pepsi Wild Cherry is a cherry-flavoured cola first introduced in 1988. ... PepsiCo, Inc. ...


Restaurant holdings

Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, and KFC are spun-off by PepsiCo in 1997, as the same company created by Tricon Global Restaurants (now known as Yum! Brands, Inc.). The same company has been merchandised into home originals and other available products and recipes in grocery stores and many other stores everywhere in North America. Pizza Hut is a restaurant chain and international food franchise specializing in pizza. ... Taco Bell is a fast-food restaurant chain which is a division of Yum! Brands, Inc. ... KFC, now once again using its old moniker Kentucky Fried Chicken in some of its restaurants, is a division of Yum! Brands, Inc. ... PepsiCo, Inc. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Companies traded on NYSE | Corporation stubs | Companies based in Kentucky | Food companies of the United States | Fortune 500 companies | Louisville businesses | Retail companies of the United States ... Yum! Brands, Inc. ... ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and fourth in population after Asia and Africa in area and population and Europe in population. ...


Rivalry with Coca-Cola

Coke still outsells Pepsi in almost all areas of the world. The Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Quebec are some of the few exceptions. Pepsi had long been the drink of Francophones and it continues to hold its dominance by relying on local Québécois celebrities (essentially Claude Meunier, of La Petite Vie fame) to sell its product. "Pepsi" eventually became an offensive nickname for Francophones viewed as a lower class by Anglophones in the middle of the 20th century. The term is now used as an historical reference to French-English linguistic animosity. Other regions where Pepsi outsells Coke are in central Appalachia, the state of North Dakota, and the city of Buffalo (by a 2-1 margin) all in the USA. More importantly, Pepsi outsells its rival in grocery and convenience stores in the United States (regarded as an indicator of consumer preference), with Coca-Cola's dominance in exclusive restaurant, movie theater, amusement park, college, and stadium deals giving Coke the overall sales advantage. In the United States, Pepsi's market share was about 31.7 in 2004, while Coke's was about 43.1. The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th)  - Land 5,660 km²  - Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004)  - Population 137,900 (10th... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the north-east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... ... A Francophone is a person who speaks French natively or by adoption (i. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: As an adjective, the word refers to Quebecs francophone culture or population. ... La Petite Vie was first a stage sketch of the comedy duo Ding et Dong, formed by Claude Meunier and Serge Thériault, and later a hit Quebec television sitcom from 1993 to 1999. ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ... A Francophone is a person who speaks French natively or by adoption (i. ... An anglophone is someone who speaks English natively or by adoption. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Appalachia is a partly rural, partly urbanized and industrialized region in and around the Appalachian Mountains in the Eastern U.S. The Eastern Townships of southeastern Quebec exhibit some similarities to Appalachia. ... State nickname: Peace Garden State, Roughrider State, Flickertail State Other U.S. States Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Governor John Hoeven Official languages English Area 183 272 km² (19th)  - Land 178 839 km²  - Water 4 432 km² (2. ...


External links

  • Pepsi World (http://www.pepsiworld.com/)
  • 'Coke, Pepsi losing the fizz' (http://money.cnn.com/2005/03/07/news/fortune500/cokepepsi_sales/) a CNN Money report on low sales for both Pepsi and its perennial rival, Coca-Cola (March 7, 2005)

 
 

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