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Encyclopedia > Pepper spray
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This article forms part of the series
Chemical warfare
(A subset of Weapons of mass destruction)
Lethal agents
Blood agents
Cyanogen chloride (CK)
Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
Blister agents
Lewisite (L)
Sulfur mustard gas (HD, H, HT, HL, HQ)
Nitrogen mustard gas (HN1, HN2, HN3)
Nerve agents
G-Agents
Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB)
Soman (GD), Cyclosarin (GF)
GV
V-Agents
VE, VG, VM, VX
Novichok agents
Pulmonary agents
Chlorine
Chloropicrin (PS)
Phosgene (CG)
Diphosgene (DP)
"Non-lethal" agents
Incapacitating agents
Agent 15 (BZ)
Kolokol-1
Riot control agents
Pepper spray (OC)
CS gas
CN gas (mace)
CR gas
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Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from "Oleoresin Capsicum"), OC gas, capsicum spray, or oleoresin capsicum) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears. It is a non-lethal agent that can be deadly in rare cases. The American Civil Liberties Union claims to have documented fourteen fatalities from the use of pepper spray.[1] The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is a chemical derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, including chiles. Long-term effects of pepper spray have not been effectively researched. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links WMD-chemical. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... A blood agent (also called a cyanogen agent) is a compound that prevents the normal transfer of oxygen from the blood to the body tissues, resulting in chemical asphyxiation. ... Cyanogen chloride, also known as CK, is a highly toxic blood agent first proposed for use in warfare by the French. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. ... Blister agents are named for their ability to cause large, painful water blisters on the bodies of those affected. ... Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas is a member, are a class of related cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin. ... The nitrogen mustards are cytotoxic chemotherapy agents similar to mustard gas. ... Nerve agents (also known as nerve gases, though these chemicals are liquid at room temperature) are a class of phosphorus-containing organic chemicals (organophosphates) that disrupt the mechanism by which nerves transfer messages to organs. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Boiling point 198 °C (388 °F) Freezing/melting point −42 °C (−44 °F) Vapor pressure 0. ... Cyclosarin or GF (Cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous weapons of war. ... Skeletal formula of GV Ball-and-stick model of GV GV (P-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N,N-dimethylphosphonamidic fluoride) is an organophosphate nerve agent. ... VE (S-(Diethylamino)ethyl O-ethyl ethylphosphonothioate) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve gas. ... VG (also called Amiton or Tetram) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent. ... VM (Phosphonothioic acid, methyl-, S-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl) O-ethyl ester) is a V-series nerve agent closely related to the better-known VX nerve agent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Novichok (Russian новичок: Newcomer) is a series of nerve agents that were developed by the Soviet Union in the 1980s and 1990s and allegedly the most deadly nerve agents ever made. ... Categories: Chemical weapons | Stub ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Chloropicrin is a slightly oily, colorless or faintly yellow liquid of the formula CCl3NO2. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Diphosgene (ClCO2CCl3) Diphosgene (Trichloromethyl chloroformate, ClCO2CCl3) is a chemical originally developed for chemical warfare, a few months after the first use of phosgene. ... The term incapacitating agent is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as An agent that produces temporary physiological or mental effects, or both, which will render individuals incapable of concerted effort in the performance of their assigned duties. ... Diagram of a BZ molecule 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), empirical formula C21H23NO3, full chemical name 1-azabicyclo[2. ... KOLOKOL-1 is an opiate-derived incapacitating agent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... CS or 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile)(chemical formula: C10H5ClN2) is a substance that is used as a riot control agent and is claimed to be non-lethal. ... Not to be confused with hydrogen cyanide, HCN. CN, or chloroacetophenone, is a gas used as a riot control agent. ... CR gas or dibenzoxazepine, chemically dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine, is an incapacitating agent and a lachrymatory agent. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Naga Jolokia (naga morich, bhut jolokia), the Indian chili tested hottest in the world at 1,040,000 SHU. The Red Savinaâ„¢ pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at 580,000 SHU. Only Naga Jolokia and Dorset Naga are hotter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Categories: Stub | Chemical weapons ... French mobile gendarmes doing riot control. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States.[1] It works through litigation, legislation, and community... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Species C. annuum (incl. ...


The HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method is used to measure the amount of capsaicin within pepper sprays. Scoville Heat Units (SHU) are used to measure the hotness of pepper spray. The Scoville scale is a measure of the hotness of a chile pepper. ...


A synthetic analogue of capsaicin, pelargonic acid vanillylamide (desmethyldihydrocapsaicin), is used in another version of pepper spray known as PAVA spray which is used in England. Another synthetic counterpart of pepper spray, pelargonic acid morpholide, was developed and is widely used in Russia. Its effectiveness compared to natural pepper spray is unclear and it has caused some injuries. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... 4-Nonanoylmorpholine 4-Nonanoylmorpholine (pelargonic acid morpholide, N-nonanoylmorpholine) is an amide of pelargonic acid and morpholine. ...


Pepper spray typically comes in canisters, which are often small enough to be carried or concealed in a pocket or purse. Pepper spray can also be bought concealed in items such as rings. There are also Pepper-spray projectile available, which can be fired from a paintball gun. Having been used for years against demonstrators [2], it is increasingly being used by police in routine interventions.[3] Can may mean one of several things: Look up Can in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A can or canister (also spelled cannister) is usually a products, such as the aluminum beverage can and tin can, the latter of which is usually accessed with a can opener. ... A concealed carry is the right to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner. ... An example of a pocket as seen from the inside with some of its contents. ... Purses, such as this one by Burberry, are fashion accessories with a function. ... A finger ring is a metal band worn as an ornament around a finger; it is the most common current meaning of the word ring. ... A pepper-spray projectile, also called a pepper-spray ball or pepper-spray pellet, is a projectile weapon made up of a powdered chemical that irritates eyes and nose. ... The Angel A4, a paintball marker. ...

Contents

Effects

Pepper spray is an inflammatory agent as opposed to an irritant like Mace. It causes immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, runny nose, and coughing. The duration of its effects depend on the strength of the spray but the average full effect lasts around thirty to forty-five minutes, with diminished effects lasting for hours. Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... The word irritant may refer to: Something that causes irritation, often a chemical substance. ... Mace is a tear gas in the form of an aerosol spray which propels the lachrymator mixed with a volatile solvent. ...


The Journal of Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science published a study that concluded that single exposure of the eye to OC is harmless, but repeated exposure can result in long-lasting changes in corneal sensitivity. They found no lasting decrease in visual acuity.[4] The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ...


The European Parliament Scientific and Technological Options Assessment (STOA) published in 1998 “An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control”[5] with extensive information on pepper spray and tear gas. They write:

"The effects of pepper spray are far more severe, including temporary blindness which last from 15-30 minutes, a burning sensation of the skin which last from 45 to 60 minutes, upper body spasms which force a person to bend forward and uncontrollable coughing making it difficult to breathe or speak for between 3 to 15 minutes."

For those with asthma, taking other drugs, or subject to restraining techniques which restrict the breathing passages, there is a risk of death. The Los Angeles Times has reported at least 61 deaths associated with police use of pepper spray since 1990 in the USA,[6] and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) documented 27 deaths in custody of people sprayed with pepper spray in California alone, since 1993.[7][8]


The US Army concluded in a 1993 Aberdeen Proving Ground study that pepper spray could cause "Mutagenic effects, carcinogenic effects, sensitization, cardiovascular and pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, as well as possible human fatalities. There is a risk in using this product on a large and varied population".[9] However, the pepper spray was widely approved in the US despite the reservations of the US military scientists after it passed FBI tests in 1991. As of 1999, it was in use by more than 2000 public safety agencies.[10]


The head of the FBI's Less-Than lethal Weapons Program at the time of the 1991 study, Special Agent Thomas W. W. Ward, was fired by the FBI and was sentenced to 2 months in prison for receiving payments from a peppergas manufacturer while conducting and authoring the FBI study that eventually approved pepper spray for FBI use."[8][11][12]Prosecutors said that from December 1989 through 1990, Ward received about $5,000 a month for a total of $57,500, from Luckey Police Products, a Fort Lauderdale, Fla.-based company that was a major producer and supplier of pepper spray. The payments were paid through a Florida company owned by Ward's wife.[13]


Like tasers, pepper spray has been associated with positional asphyxiation of individuals in police custody. There is much debate over the actual "cause" of death in these cases. There have been few controlled clinical studies of the human health effects of pepper spray marketed for police use, and those studies are contradictory. Some studies have found no harmful effects beyond the effects described above. [14] An electro-shock gun, also referred to as a stun-gun or in the case of the projectile enabled Taser, are used for subduing a body by administering electric shock to disrupt superficial muscle functions. ...


Subjective Experience

In an Army training event, individuals were sprayed with 18% OC. The spray pattern was a single pass horizontally along the eyebrow with eyes closed. The initial contact causes no discomfort, but when the eyes are opened, a burning sensation is felt immediately. The spray makes it nearly impossible to open the eyes and have useful vision. This is the primary effect when first sprayed. There is no incapacitation, and the performance of physical tasks is still possible, but after approximately 15 seconds to one minute a severe burning occurs wherever the spray has come in contact with the face. The sensation is reminiscent of the after-effects of a burn from scalding water. Comparable eye pain would be putting contact lens cleaning solution into one's eye, but much more lingering and distracting. The pain persists for quite some time, about 45 minutes of intense burning. The only relief was to press the face against air conditioning vents. Washing was not possible as oil-based OC is not water soluble.


Deactivation and first aid

A demonstration of how pepper spray is used
A demonstration of how pepper spray is used

Though there is no way of completely neutralizing pepper spray, its effect can be minimized or stopped. As veteran chili eaters know, capsaicin is not soluble in water, and even large volumes of water will have little to no effect. It is, however, soluble in fats and oils, so milk or detergents can be used to blunt its effects and wash it off. North American street medics use a non-toxic eyedrop solution of 1:1 water and aluminum hydroxide (Maalox) which helps neutralize pepper spray and relieve symptoms. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 1199 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1500, 1199 KB) Source: http://www. ... A bowl of chili con carne with beans and tortilla chips. ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... A glass of cows milk. ... A detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Maalox is a brand name antacid containing Aluminium hydroxide and Magnesium hydroxide to neutralize or reduce stomach acid. ...


Victims should be encouraged to blink vigorously in order to encourage tears, which will help flush the irritant from the eyes. Some of the oil can be washed off the face using a degreasing, non-oily soap such as a mild dish detergent or baby shampoo, and a fan will provide some relief. To avoid rubbing the spray into the skin (thereby prolonging the burning sensation), victims should try to avoid touching affected areas. This article is about the computer protocol. ...


Some "triple-action" pepper sprays also contain "tear gas" (CS gas), which can be neutralized with sodium metabisulfite (Campden tablets, used in homebrewing), though it, too, is fat-soluble and could be washed off to a degree with milk, and some contain a UV "blanketing" dye (little can be done against this, but its effects are not nearly as dramatic). CS or 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile)(chemical formula: C10H5ClN2) is a substance that is used as a riot control agent and is claimed to be non-lethal. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Structural formula of sodium metabisulfite Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite (American spelling; English spelling is Sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite) is an inorganic compound... Campden Tablets (Potassium or Sodium Metabisulfite) are a Sulphur based product that is used primarily in winemaking and beer-making to kill certain bacteria and to inhibit the growth of most wild yeast: this product is also used to eliminate both free chlorine, and the more stable form, chloramine, from... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Homebrewing beer. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Legality

Internationally pepper spray is banned for use in war by the 1972 Biological Weapons convention but not for internal security use.


In Western Australia, it is legal for a person to carry pepper spray for lawful defense, if that person has, on reasonable grounds, a suspicion or belief that he or she will require the pepper spray to defend himself or herself. However, the person found carrying the pepper spray carries the burden of proving a "reasonable belief or suspicion" rather than the prosecution. [1]. In all other states and territories in Australia, pepper spray is considered illegal. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person...


In Canada all products with a labels containing the words pepper spray, mace, etc, or otherwise originally produced for use on humans are classified as a prohibited weapon[2], only Peace Officers, and individuals/corporations who have special government permits may legally carry or possess pepper spray. Any similar canister with the labels reading "dog spray" and/or "bear spray" may be legally carried by anyone, and if necessary one can defend himself against a human if it is a reasonable defense against a human attacker.


In Denmark possession of pepper spray is illegal for private citizens, but a trial period is currently in effect, where police officers in most metropolitan areas carry pepper spray as part of their standard equipment. This trial period has been initiated following the shooting (and often killing) of a number of mentally ill citizens who have behaved violently or in a threatening manner, leaving the police force in want of a defensive, non-lethal weapon.


In the Dominican Republic, it is legal to own and purchase pepper spray at any age over the counter, CS spray is regulated and may be used only by military personnel on duty. Owning civilian grade pepper spray is endorsed by authorities as means of defense against stray dogs, also as a means of defense against human assailants as opposed to the use of a firearm.


In Finland it is classified as a device governed by the firearm act and possession of pepper spray requires a license. Licenses are issued for defensive purposes and to individuals working job where such a device is needed such as the private security sector. Government organizations such as defense forces and police are exempt. Concentrations are also limited to 5% active ingredient in OC sprays and 2%/2% in combinations sprays such as CN/OC.


In Germany privately owned pepper spray may fall into two different categories. Sprays that bear the test mark of the Materialprüfungsanstalt[15] may be owned and carried solely for the purpose of defense against animals. Such sprays are not legally considered as weapons. Sprays that do not bear this test mark are classified as prohibited weapons. It is nevertheless strictly prohibited to carry pepper spray at (or on the way to and from) demonstrations - whether it bears a test mark or not. For other uses, see Demonstration. ...


In Hong Kong. pepper spray is classified as "arms" under HK Laws. Chap 238 FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION ORDINANCE. Without a valid license from the Hong Kong Police Force, it is a crime and can result a fine of $100,000 and to imprisonment for 14 years. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Israel, OC and CS spray cans may be purchased by any member of the public without restriction and carried in public. In the 1980s a firearms license was required for doing so, but since then these sprays have been deregulated.


In Italy OC it is considered a self-defence weapon and it is legal to own it when the active principle is less than 10%. Spray made with CS is illegal.


In Latvia pepper spray is classified as a self-defense weapon, and it is available to anyone over 16. Anyone over 18 can buy gas pistol loaded with pepper or tear gas cartridges for self defense. Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ...


In both Belgium and Netherlands it is classified as a prohibited weapon, and it is illegal for anyone other than police officers to carry a capsicum spray.


In Norway real pepper spray is only used by the police. The publicly available defense spray often called pepper spray is actually based on isopropyl alcohol. Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ...


In Poland pepper spray is not classified as a weapon, so it is available to anyone over 18.


In Russia pepper spray is a fully legal self-defense weapon and can be bought without license by any person over the age of 18 (passport being required for purchase). Its effect on animals is advertised as additional feature, compared with tear gas sprays. Carrying it at demonstrations is prohibited by law.


In South Africa it is not a licenced product and is freely available as an over the counter security product. Generally carried and used by private security officers and armed reaction officers as well as police and members of the public. A pepper spray projectile is also available also without licence. Anyone using pepper spray as anything but a defensive weapon can still be charged with a firearms offence.[16]


In Sweden it is classified as an offensive weapon and possession of pepper spray requires a license. However, as of 2006, no such license has been issued. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Spain approved pepper spray made with 5% CS is available to anyone over 18. CS or 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile)(chemical formula: C10H5ClN2) is a substance that is used as a riot control agent and is claimed to be non-lethal. ...


In the United Kingdom, "Any weapon of whatever description designed or adapted for the discharge of any noxious liquid, gas or other thing" is classed as a section 5 firearm (Firearms Act 1968). The same act covers other prohibited weapons such as automatic firearms and rocket launchers, all of which can only be possessed by permission of the Home Secretary. Although legal for police officers, recent debates have arisen whether such a weapon should be legal for civilians as means of defensive purposes only. At present a number of legal alternative dye sprays are sold in the UK which have the effect of temporarily blinding the attacker but do not constitute noxious substances and so do not contravene this act.


Laws on Pepper Spray in the United States of America differ between states.

  • Washington, D.C., possession of pepper spray must be registered with the DC Metropolitan Police.
  • Massachusetts, pepper spray can only be sold to holders of firearm identification cards.
  • Wisconsin, pepper spray is limited to containers of 15-60 grams of 10% active ingredient without dyes or CN/CS.
  • Michigan, pepper spray is legal if it has less than 2% of the active ingredient, this decreases the length of the effects but not the SHU. Sprays containing a mixture of CN/CS are also banned. Otherwise pepper spray is an over the counter purchase.
  • In many (but not all) other states, pepper spray can be purchased at various stores and carried legally by anyone over 18.

For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ...

See also

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... A pepper-spray projectile, also called a pepper-spray ball or pepper-spray pellet, is a projectile weapon made up of a powdered chemical that irritates eyes and nose. ... A pepper-spray flashlight is a device which combines a strong flashlight with a pepper-spray device, sometimes including a laser for aiming for the purpose of allowing the user to (1) provide a psychological deterrent since the potential attacker may believe the device is a gun with laser sight...

References

  1. ^ http://www.aclu-sc.org/attach/p/Pepper_Spray_New_Questions.pdf Pepper_Spray_New_Questions (see page 9).
  2. ^ http://www.babybloc.org/writings.html Use on infants
  3. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GsIBkRJGQEw Use on infants
  4. ^ http://www.iovs.org/cgi/content/full/41/8/2138
  5. ^ http://cryptome.org/stoa-atpc.htm pgs 35,36
  6. ^ Los Angeles Times June 18, 1995
  7. ^ ACLU, Oleoresin Capsicum, - Pepper Spray Update, More Fatalities, More Questions, June, 1995, p. 2.
  8. ^ a b "Pepper spray's lethal legacy" in The Ottawa Citizen. October 22, 1998, p. A1
  9. ^ Salem, 1993
  10. ^ "Health Hazards of Pepper Spray" in The North Carolina Medical Journal 1999;60:268-74, archived at http://web.archive.org/web/20000817004624/http://www.ncmedicaljournal.com/Smith-OK.htm
  11. ^ "Former F.B.I. Agent Is Sentenced to Prison" in The New York Times. May 20, 1996, p. B8.
  12. ^ "Ex-FBI Agent Pleads Guilty in Conflict-of-Interest Case" in The Washington Post. February 13, 1996, p. A12.
  13. ^ "Pepper spray study is tainted" in The San Francisco Chronicle. May 20, 1996, p. B8.
  14. ^ Reay DT. Forensic pathology, part 1: death in custody. Clinics in Lab Med 1998;18:19-20; Watson WA, Stremel KR, and Westdorp EJ. Oleoresin capsicum (cap-stun) toxicity from aerosol exposures. Ann Pharmacotherapy 1996;30:733-5.
  15. ^ Materialprüfungsanstalt
  16. ^ See http://www.law.gov.za
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pepper spray

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pepper spray - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (959 words)
The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is a chemical derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, including chiles.
Pepper spray typically comes in canisters, which are often small enough to be carried or concealed in a pocket or purse.
Sprays that bear the test mark of the Materialprüfungsanstalt may be owned and carried solely for the purpose of defense against animals.
Pepper spray (OC) in the Dutch police (1578 words)
However, pepper spray should not be considered as a fill of the so-called gap between the baton and the fire-arm.
Further points of attention were the questionable improvised use of pepper spray (by rubbing it in the face of a suspect), the use of pepper pray against suspects that were already in handcoughs and against suspects already in custody.
In light of the painful effects of pepper spray and the discussion that took place during the street trials about the right place of pepper spray in the use-of-force continuum, it is important to ensure that pepper spray is not deployed all too easily.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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