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Encyclopedia > People's Republic of Poland
Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa
People's Republic of Poland
Sovereign State, under Communist Influence.

 

 

1944 – 1989
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Mazurek Dąbrowskiego
Capital Warsaw
Language(s) Polish
Government Socialist republic
Head of State
 - 1944-1952 (first) Bolesław Bierut
 - 1981-1989 (last) Wojciech Jaruzelski
Prime Minister
 - 1944-1947 (first) Edward Osóbka-Morawski
 - 1989 (last) Tadeusz Mazowiecki
History
 - Established July 21, 1944
 - Constitution July 22, 1952
 - Abolished July 19, 1989
Area 312,685 km² (120,728 sq mi)
Currency Polish złoty

The People's Republic of Poland or Polish People's Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL; (Russian) Польская Народная Республика, ПНР) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.svg‎ pl: Flaga Armi Krajowej en: Flag of the Armia Krajowa File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polish contribution to World War II Armia Krajowa History of Poland (1939–1945... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Herb_PRL.svg‎ Coat of arms of the former Peoples Republic of Poland (1945-1989) Obtained from Webchantier. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Banner of Poland. ... Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The Polish coat of arms is regulated by article 28(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 1997. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mazurek DÄ…browskiego (DÄ…browskis Mazurka) is the Polish national anthem written by Józef Wybicki in 1797. ... Location of the Peoples Republic of Poland File links The following pages link to this file: Peoples Republic of Poland Categories: GFDL images ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... This is a list of Polish presidents. ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: ) (born July 6, 1923) is a Polish statesman, former Communist political and military leader. ... The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... Edward Osóbka-Morawski (1909-1997) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of the Communist Lublin government, and then of Poland, from January 1945 to 1947. ... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... Tymczasowy RzÄ…d JednoÅ›ci Narodowej (Provisional Government of National Unity, TRJN) - was a government formed by the decree of Krajowa Rada Narodowa on 28 June 1945. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rzeczpospolita (pronounced: ) is a Polish word for republic or commonwealth, a calque translation of the Latin expression res publica (public affair). The word rzeczpospolita has been used in Poland since at least 16th century, originally a generic term to denote any democratic state. ...


Although the People's Republic of Poland was a sovereign state as defined by international law, its leaders were at the very least approved by Soviet leaders.[citation needed] They aligned their policies with those of Moscow, making the People's Republic of Poland a satellite state almost entirely subordinate to the Soviet Union. The Soviets had much influence over internal affairs and foreign affairs,[citation needed] and Red Army forces were stationed in Poland (1945 - 500,000; until 1955 - 120,000 to 150,000, until 1989 - 60,000 to 80,000).In 1945, Soviet generals and advisors formed 80% of the officer cadre of Wojsko Ludowe, and by 1948, 30 to 40%. The Polish Communist Party soon became the sole legal party, making the PRL an officially communist state. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... CCCP redirects here. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Internal Affairs can refer to: Internal Affairs, a 1990 movie[1] starring Richard Gere and Andy Garcia and which was set in the Internal Affairs department of the Los Angeles Police Department. ... This article is about a journal. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Poland (1945-1989)

At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin was able to present his western allies, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, with a fait accompli in Poland. His armed forces were in occupation of the country, and his agents, the communists, were in control of its administration. The USSR was in the process of incorporating the lands in eastern Poland which it had occupied between 1939 and 1941. In compensation, the USSR awarded Poland all the German territories in Pomerania, Silesia and Brandenburg east of the Oder-Neisse Line, plus the southern half of East Prussia. Stalin was determined that Poland's new government would become his tool towards making a Poland a Soviet puppet state controlled by the communists. He had severed relations with the Polish government-in-exile in London in 1943, but to appease Roosevelt and Churchill he agreed at Yalta that a coalition government would be formed. The communists held a majority of key posts in this new government, and with Soviet support they soon gained almost total control of the country, rigging all elections. Their opponents, led by Stanisław Mikołajczyk, managed only one victory, but it was a substantial one: Poland preserved its status as an independent state, contrary to the plans of some influential communists such as Wanda Wasilewska, who were in favour of Poland becoming another republic of the Soviet Union. This important victory would be their last, however, as the communists, tightening their grip on power, began political persecution of all opposition.[citation needed] Many of their opponents decided to leave the country, and others were put on staged trials and sentenced to many years of imprisonment or execution. The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Pommern redirects here. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile maintained a continuous existence in exile from the time of the German occupation of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the Communist rule in Poland in 1990. ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ... Wanda Wasilewska (1905– 1964) was a Polishtraitor, novelist of Communist propaganda and politician. ...

Polish Statehood The White Eagle, symbol of Polish statehood

In June 1946 the 3xTAK referendum was held on a number of issues--abolition of the Senate of Poland, land reform, and making the Oder-Neisse line Poland's western border. The communist-controlled Interior Ministry issued results showing that all three questions passed overwhelmingly. Years later, the Communists revealed that the first two questions had passed only by means of massive fraud on their part.[citation needed] Between then and the January 1947 general elections, the opposition was subjected to ruthless persecution, and many opposition candidates were prevented from campaigning. The Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (PSL) party in particular suffered harsh persecution; it had opposed the abolition of the Senate as a test of strength against the government. Although it supported the other two questions, the communist-controlled government branded the PSL "traitors". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (730x810, 414 KB) Coat of Arms of Piast dynasty The eagle was cropped from some {{Polishsymbol}} coat of arms made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w:User:Snargle... Coat of arms Central Europe, c. ... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Casimir III in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... This article covers the Secret State of Poland during World War II. For the earlier secret state in Poland see: January Uprising This article is part of the series: Polish Secret State Categories: Historical stubs | Polish history | World War II resistance movements | National liberation movements ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Peoples referenda (referendum ludowe) of 1946, also know as 3 times YES (3 razy TAK) was a referenda held in Poland on 30 June 1946 on the authority of State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa) (order of 27 April 1946). ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The Polish legislative election, 1947 was held on January 19, 1947 in the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ...


This massive repression was overseen by the leader of the Polish Workers' Party, Władysław Gomułka. He was assisted by the provisional president, Bolesław Bierut, nominally neutral but in fact an old-line Stalinist.[citation needed] However, Gomułka never supported Stalin's control over the Polish communists, and was soon replaced as party leader by the more pliable Bierut. The Polish Workers Party (Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR) was a communist party in Poland from 1942 to 1948. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Rotenschwanz, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. // Damaged monument to Bierut formerly standing in Lublin, 2007... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ...


Bierut then took advantage of a split in the Polish Socialist Party. One faction, which included Prime Minister Edward Osóbka-Morawski, wanted to join forces with the Peasant Party and form a united front against the PUWP. Another faction, led by Józef Cyrankiewicz, argued that the Socialists should support the communists in carrying through a socialist program, while opposing the imposition of one-party rule. Pre-war political hostilities continued to influence events, and Mikołajczyk would not agree to form a united front with the Socialists. The communists played on these divisions by dismissing Osóbka-Morawski and making Cyrankiewicz Prime Minister. The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... Edward Osóbka-Morawski (1909-1997) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of the Communist Lublin government, and then of Poland, from January 1945 to 1947. ... Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 - January 20, 1989) was a Polish communist political figure. ...


The elections produced a parliament with 394 seats for the communist-controlled Democratic Bloc and 28 for the PSL. Mikołajczyk immediately resigned from the government in protest of this blatantly fraudulent result. In 1989, the communists admitted that they, in fact, had engaged in massive fraud.[citation needed] In April, facing arrest, he left the country. From this point onward, Poland was a de facto Soviet satellite, though it was not officially transformed into the People's Republic of Poland until the adoption of the 1952 Constitution.


In 1948, the communists consolidated their power, merging with Cyrankiewicz' faction of the PPS to form the Polish United Workers' Party (known in Poland as 'the Party'), which would monopolise political power in Poland until 1989. Soviet Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky became Polish Minister of National Defence, with the additional title Marshal of Poland, and in 1952 he became Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Over the coming years, private industry was nationalised, the land seized from the pre-war landowners and redistributed to the peasants, and millions of Poles were transferred from the lost eastern territories to the lands acquired from Germany. Poland was now to be brought into line with the Soviet model of a "people's democracy" and a centrally-planned socialist economy. The government also embarked on the collectivisation of agriculture, although the pace was slower than in other satellites: Poland remained the only Soviet bloc country where individual peasants dominated agriculture. Despite the fact that Polish historians estimate that 200,000 to 400,000 people died during the postwar period,[citation needed] . The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskiy (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish: Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


In June 1956, workers in the industrial city of Poznań (Posen) went on strike. Voices began to be raised in the Party and among the intellectuals calling for wider reforms of the Stalinist system. Eventually, power shifted towards Gomułka, who replaced Bierut as party leader. Hardline Stalinists were removed from power and many Soviet officers serving in the Polish Army were dismissed. This marked the end of the 'Stalin Poland'. However, by the mid 1960s Poland was starting to experience economic as well as political difficulties. Gomułka's reformist veil soon fell off. Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ...


The next stage of Polish history began in December 1970. Gomułka's government had decided to prop up the failing economy by suddenly announcing massive increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. The resulting wide-spread protests led to another major change in the government, as Gomułka was replaced by Edward Gierek as the new First Secretary. Gierek's plan for recovery was centered on massive borrowing, mainly from the United States and West Germany, to re-equip and modernise Polish industry, and to import consumer goods to give the workers some incentive to work. While it boosted the Polish economy, and is still remembered as the "Golden Age" of communist Poland, the obvious repercussion in the form of massive debt is still felt in Poland even today. This Golden Age came to an end after the 1973 energy crisis. The failure of the Gierek government, both economically and politically, soon led to the creation of opposition in the form of trade unions, student groups, clandestine newspapers and publishers, imported books and newspapers, and even a "flying university." The anti-Communists protests that occurred in Poland in 1970 Prequisites Wladyslaw Gomulkas temporary political success could not mask the economic crisis into which the Peoples Republic of Poland was drifting. ... Edward Gierek Edward Gierek (January 6, 1913 - July 29, 2001) was a Polish Communist leader. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...

Queue waiting to buy toilet paper, a typical view in Poland in 1950s and 1960s.
Queue waiting to buy toilet paper, a typical view in Poland in 1950s and 1960s.

At this juncture, on 16 October 1978, Poland experienced what many Poles believed to be literally a miracle. The Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Karol Wojtyła, was elected Pope, taking the name John Paul II. The election of a Polish Pope had an electrifying effect on what was notably one of the most devoutly Catholic nations in Europe. When John Paul toured Poland in June 1979, half a million people heard him speak in Warsaw, and about a quarter of the entire population of the country attended at least one of his outdoor masses.[citation needed] Overnight, John Paul became the de facto leader of Poland,[citation needed] leaving the government not so much opposed as ignored. John Paul did not call for rebellion, instead he encouraged the creation of an "alternative Poland" of social institutions independent of the government, so that when the next crisis came, the nation would present a united front. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


A new wave of strikes undermined Gierek's government, and in September Gierek, who was in poor health, was finally removed from office and replaced as Party leader by Stanisław Kania. However Kania was unable to find an answer for the fast-eroding support of communism in Poland. Labour turmoil led to the formation of the independent trade union Solidarity (Polish Solidarność) in September 1980, originally led by Lech Wałęsa. In fact Solidarity became a broad anti-communist social movement ranging from people associated with the Roman Catholic Church, to members of the anti-communist left. By the end of 1981, Solidarity had nine million members, a quarter of Poland's population and three times as many as the PUWP had. StanisÅ‚aw Kania StanisÅ‚aw Kania (born March 8, 1927) was a Polish communist political leader. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... WaÅ‚Ä™sa redirects here. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...

On December 13, 1981, the government leader, Wojciech Jaruzelski, who had become the party's national secretary and prime minister that year, became supposedly fearful of Soviet intervention (real fearful was few months earlier) and started a crack-down on Solidarity. He declared martial law in Poland, suspended the union, and temporarily imprisoned most of its leaders. The government then banned Solidarity on October 8, 1982. Martial law was formally lifted in July 1983, though many heightened controls on civil liberties and political life, as well as food rationing, remained in place through the mid- to late-1980s. Image File history File links Wojciech Jaruzelski. ... Image File history File links Wojciech Jaruzelski. ... Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: ) (born July 6, 1923) is a Polish statesman, former Communist political and military leader. ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (pronounced: ) (born July 6, 1923) is a Polish statesman, former Communist political and military leader. ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


This did not prevent Solidarity from gaining more support and power. Eventually it eroded the dominance of the PUWP, which in 1981 lost ca. 85,000 of its 3 million members. Throughout the mid-1980s, Solidarity persisted solely as an underground organization, but by the late 1980s was sufficiently strong to frustrate Jaruzelski's attempts at reform, and nationwide strikes in 1988 were one of the factors that forced the government to open a dialogue with Solidarity.

Round-table talks.
Round-table talks.

From February 6 to April 15, talks of 13 working groups in 94 sessions, which became known as the "Roundtable Talks" (Polish: Rozmowy Okrągłego Stołu) radically altered the shape of the Polish government and society. The semi-free June elections brought a victory for the Solidarity movement that took all contested (35%) seats in the Sejm, the Parliament's lower house, and 99% seats in the fully-free elected Senat. In August a Solidarity-led coalition government took power with Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister. On December 29 the Parliament changed the Constitution restoring democracy and political freedoms. This began the Third Polish Republic and effectively ended the Communist Party's hold on the government. round-table negotiations File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... round-table negotiations File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Round-table negotiations. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in PÅ‚ock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki as Prime Minister of Poland... The Republic of Poland, a country in Central Europe, lies between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north. ...


Government and politics

PZPR logo.
PZPR logo.

The government and politics of the People's Republic of Poland were dominated by the Polish United Workers' Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR). In effect, Poland was a single-party state following a communist ideology, dependent on the USSR to the extent of being its satellite state. Since 1952 the PRP highest law was the Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland. Polish Council of State replaced the president of Poland. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Polish United Workers Party (PUWP, in Polish Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza - PZPR) was a socialist party governing in the Peoples Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of Poland (also known as July Constitution or Constitution of 1952) was passed on 22 July 1952. ... The Council of State of the Republic of Poland was introduced by the 1947s Small Constitution. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Poland

Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s with mixed results. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Early years

Poland suffered tremendous economic losses during World War II. In 1939, Poland had 35.1 million inhabitants, but the census of 14 February 1946 showed only 23.9 million inhabitants.(The difference was partially the result of the border revision.) The losses in national resources and infrastructure amounted to 38%. Compared to Western European nations, including Germany, Poland was still mostly an agricultural country. The implementation of the immense tasks involved with the reconstruction of the country was intertwined with the struggle of the new government for the stabilisation of power, made even more difficult by the fact that a considerable part of society was mistrustful of the communist government. The liberation of Poland by the Red Army and the support the Soviet Union had shown for the Polish communists was decisive in the left gaining the upper hand in the new Polish government. Poland was under direct (Red Army, NKVD, Soviet concentration camps in Poland, deportations to the SU) and indirect (NKVD created the Polish political police UB) Soviet control. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Emblem of the NKVD The NKVD (Russian: ,  ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repression during the Stalinist era. ...


As control of the Polish territories passed from occupying forces of Nazi Germany to the Red Army, and from the Red Army to Polish communists, Poland's new economic system began evolving towards a communist centrally- planned economy. One of the first major steps in that direction involved the agricultural reform issued by the PKWN government on 6 September 1944. All estates over 0.5 km² in pre-war Polish terrotories and all over 1 km² in Regained territories were nationalised without compensation. In total, 31,000 km² of land were nationalised in Poland and 5 million in the Regained Territories, out of which 12,000 km² were redistributed to peasants and the rest remained in the hands of the government. (Most of this was eventually used in the collectivization and creation of sovkhoz-like Państwowe Gospodarstwo Rolne (PGR).) However, the collectivization of Polish farming never reached the same extent as it did in the Soviet Union or other countries of the Eastern Bloc. [1] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... An economic system is a particular set of social institutions which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ... The PKWN Manifesto, issued on July 22, 1944 The Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polish Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN) was a provisional Polish communist government that was created by the Soviet Union. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... A sovkhoz (Russian language: Совхоз, Советское хозяйство, sovetskoe khoziaistvo), typically translated as state farm, is a Soviet state-owned farm, in contrast with kolkhoz, which is a collective-owned farm. ... Former PGR in Szczyrzyc PaÅ„stwowe Gospodarstwo Rolne (State Farm, PGR) was a form of collective farming in Peoples Republic of Poland, similar to Soviet sovkhoz. ...


Nationalization also began in 1944, with the government taking control of German industries in Regained Territories. As nationalization was unpopular, the communists delayed the nationalization reform until 1946, when after the 3xTAK referendums they were fairly certain they had total control of the government and could deal with eventual public protests. However some semi-official nationalisation of various private non-German industries had begun back in 1944. Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Peoples referenda (referendum ludowe) of 1946, also know as 3 times YES (3 razy TAK) was a referenda held in Poland on 30 June 1946 on the authority of State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa) (order of 27 April 1946). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In 1946, all enterprises with over 50 employees were nationalised, with no compensation to Polish owners. [2]


The punishment of Germany for the war was intended to include large-scale reparations to Poland. However, those were truncated into insignificance by the break-up of Germany into east and west. Poland was then to receive her share from the GDR. Even this was attenuated, however, as the Soviets pressured the Polish Government to cease receiving the reparations far ahead of schedule, as a sign of 'friendship' between the two new communist neighbors and, therefore, now friends.[3] [4] Thus, without the full deserved reparations and without the massive Marshall Plan, Poland's postwar recovery was much harder than it could have been. Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


Late years

During the Gierek era, Poland was already becoming increasingly capitalistic due to its Western money borrowing. The fact that the West would no longer give Poland credit meant that living standards began to sharply fall again as the supply of imported goods dried up, and as Poland was forced to export everything it could, particularly food and coal, to service its massive debt, which would reach US$23 billion by 1980. By 1978, it was therefore obvious that eventually the regime would again have to raise prices and risk another outbreak of labor unrest. For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...


During the chaotic Solidarity years and the imposition of martial law, Poland entered a decade of economic crisis, officially acknowledged as such even by the regime. Rationing and queuing became a way of life, with ration cards (Kartki) necessary to buy even such basic consumer staples as milk and sugar. Access to Western luxury goods became even more restricted, as Western governments applied economic sanctions to express their dissatisfaction with the government repression of the opposition, while at the same time the government had to use most of the foreign currency it could obtain to pay the crushing rates on its foreign debt.[1] Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... A ration card is a card issued by a government allowing the holder to obtain certain rations. ... A luxury sedan is an example of a luxury good. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ...


In response to this situation, the government, which controlled all official foreign trade, continued to maintain a highly artificial exchange rate with Western currencies. The exchange rate worsened distortions in the economy at all levels, resulting in a growing black market and the development of a shortage economy.[2] The only way for an individual to buy most Western goods was to use Western currencies, notably the U.S. dollar, which in effect became a parallel currency. However, it could not simply be exchanged at the official banks for Polish złotys, since the government exchange rate undervalued the dollar and placed heavy restrictions on the amount that could be exchanged, and so the only practical way to obtain it was from remittances or work outside the country. An entire illegal industry of street-corner money changers emerged, similar to pimping. The (Cinkciarze) gave clients far better than official exchange rates and became wealthy from their opportunism, albeit at great risk of punishment--which, however, was greatly diminished by widescale bribery of police. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ... Polish meat shop in the 1980s. ... USD redirects here. ... ZÅ‚oty (literally meaning golden, plural: zÅ‚ote or zÅ‚otych, depending on the number) is the Polish currency unit. ... Remittance advertising in Oxford Street, London with Russian slogans. ...

A Pewex shop.
A Pewex shop.

As money came into the country by these channels, the government in turn attempted to gather it up by various means, most visibly by establishing a chain of state-run Pewex stores in all Polish cities where goods could only be bought with hard currency. It even introduced its own ersatz U.S. currency (bony in Polish). This paralleled the financial practices in the GDR at the time. These trends led to an unhealthy state of affairs where the chief determinant of economic status was access to hard currency. This situation was incompatible with any remaining ideals of socialism, which were soon completely abandoned. Image File history File links w:Pewex File links The following pages link to this file: History of Poland (1945-1989) ... Image File history File links w:Pewex File links The following pages link to this file: History of Poland (1945-1989) ... Logo Pewex (short for Przedsiębiorstwo Eksportu Wewnętrznego - Internal Export Company) was a net of hard currency shops in Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Logo Pewex (short for Przedsiębiorstwo Eksportu Wewnętrznego - Internal Export Company) was a net of hard currency shops in Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Ersatz is a German word literally meaning substitute or replacement. ...


In this desperate situation, all development and growth in the Polish economy slowed to a crawl. Most visibly, work on most of the major investment projects that had begun in the 1970s was stopped. As a result, most Polish cities acquired at least one infamous example of a large unfinished building languishing in a state of limbo. While some of these were eventually finished decades later, most, such as the Szkieletor skyscraper in Kraków, were never finished at all, wasting the considerable resources devoted to their construction. Polish investment in economic infrastructure and technological development fell rapidly, ensuring that the country lost whatever ground it had gained relative to Western European economies in the 1970s. To escape the constant economic and political pressures during these years, and the general sense of hopelessness, many family income providers travelled for work in Western Europe, particularly West Germany (Wyjazd na saksy). During the era, hundreds of thousands of Poles left the country permanently and settled in the West, few of them returning to Poland even after the end of communism in Poland. Tens of thousands of others went to work in countries that could offer them salaries in hard currency, notably Libya and Iraq. Szkieletor, early June 2005 Szkieletor is the unofficial name of a 91 metre high highrise building in Kraków, Poland, originally intended to become headquarters of Naczelna Ogranizacja Techniczna. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ...


After several years of the situation continuing to worsen, during which time the communist government unsuccessfully tried various expedients to improve the performance of the economy—at one point resorting to placing military commissars to direct work in the factories — it grudgingly accepted pressures to liberalize the economy. The government introduced a series of small-scale reforms, such as allowing more small-scale private enterprises to function. However, the government also realized that it lacked the legitimacy to carry out any large-scale reforms, which would inevitably cause large-scale social dislocation and economic difficulties for most of the population, accustomed to the limited social safety net that the communist system had provided. For example, when the government proposed to close the Gdańsk Shipyard, a decision in some ways justifiable from an economic point of view but also largely political, there was a wave of public outrage and the government was forced to back down. Russian political officer during winter war Commissar is the English transliteration of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ... GdaÅ„sk Shipyard, the birthplace of Solidarity. ...


The only way to carry out such changes without social upheaval would be to acquire at least some support from the opposition side. The government accepted the idea that some kind of a deal with the opposition would be necessary, and repeatedly attempted to find common ground throughout the 1980s. However, at this point the communists generally still believed that they should retain the reins of power for the near future, and only allowed the opposition limited, advisory participation in the running of the country. They believed that this would be essential to pacifying the Soviet Union, which they felt was not yet ready to accept a non-communist Poland.


Culture

Main article: Culture of Poland
Cult tv series:
Cult movies:

The Culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1000 year history. ... Education in the Peoples Republic of Poland was a priority of the government, which provided primary schools, secondary schools, vocational education and universities. ... This page has been deleted, and should not be re-created without a good reason. ... Stawka Większa niż Życie is a 1968 polish film. ... Captain Kloss (Kapitan Kloss) is a fictional WW2 secret agent appearing in the 18-episode 1967-1968 Polish television series Stawka większa niż życie (More Than Life at Stake), following earlier live television theater plays. ... The Cruise is the English title for Rejs, a film released in 1970, directed by Marek Piwowski. ... Seksmisja (Sexmission) is a cult Polish comedy science fiction film. ... Teddy Bear is the English title of Miś, a 1980 Polish film directed by Stanisław Bareja. ...

Demographics

  • Minorities in Poland after the War
  • Changes in Polish society between 1945 and 1989
  • Historical demographics of Poland - after the Second World War

The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... Before World War II the now Polish lands were noted for the richness and variety of their ethnic communities. ...

Geography

Poland's old and new borders, 1945.
Poland's old and new borders, 1945.

After World War II, Poland lost 77,000 km² of territory in its eastern regions (Kresy), gaining instead the smaller but much more industrialized so-called "Regained Territories" east of the Oder-Neisse line. It has been suggested that Polish Voivodeships and Counties 1919-1939 - trivia be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Map of Poland in 1945, drawn by User: Adam Carr. ... Image File history File links Map of Poland in 1945, drawn by User: Adam Carr. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... Note: although the term recovered territories has a clear meaning in Poland and Polish historiography, it is not a widely accepted term or concept in English speaking nations. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ...


The People's Republic of Poland was divided into several voivodeships (the Polish unit of administrative division). After World War II, the new administrative divisions were based on the pre-war ones. The areas in the East that were not annexed by the Soviet Union had their borders left almost unchanged. Newly acquired territories in the west and north were organised into the voivodeships of Szczecin, Wrocław, Olsztyn and partially joined to Gdańsk, Katowice and Poznań voivodeships. Two cities were granted voivodeship status: Warsaw and Łódź. A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... Recovered Territories, Regained Territories or Western and Northern Territories (Polish: ) were the official terms used by Polish post-war authorities to denote those former German territories, which were in the past part of Polish state and over centuries became lost and Germanised, and which were returned to Poland after the... Szczecin Voivodeship Szczecin Voivodeship (1) (Polish: województwo szczeciÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975-1998, superseded by West Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Wroclaw Voivodeship Wroclaw Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wrocÅ‚awskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Olsztyn Voivodeship Olsztyn Voivodeship (Polish: województwo olsztyÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. ... The name GdaÅ„sk Voivodeship has been used twice to designate local governments in Poland. ... Katowice Voivodeship (Polish: województwo katowickie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975-1998, superseded by the Silesian Voivodeship. ... Map as of 1975 // PoznaÅ„ Voivodeship (1) 1975-1998 PoznaÅ„ Voivodeship 1975-1998 (Polish: województwo poznaÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodeship. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ...


In 1950 new voivodeships were created: Koszalin - previously part of Szczecin, Opole - previously part of Katowice, and Zielona Góra - previously part of Poznań, Wrocław and Szczecin voivodeships. In addition, three other cities were granted the voivodeship status: Wrocław, Kraków and Poznań. Koszalin Voivodeship (2) (Polish: województwo koszaliÅ„skie) - a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by West Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Szczecin Voivodeship Szczecin Voivodeship (1) (Polish: województwo szczeciÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975-1998, superseded by West Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Capital city Opole Area 9412. ... Katowice Voivodeship (Polish: województwo katowickie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975-1998, superseded by the Silesian Voivodeship. ... Zielona Góra Voivodeship Zielona Góra Voivodeship (Polish: województwo zielonogórskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Lubusz Voivodeship. ... Map as of 1975 // PoznaÅ„ Voivodeship (1) 1975-1998 PoznaÅ„ Voivodeship 1975-1998 (Polish: województwo poznaÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodeship. ... Wroclaw Voivodeship Wroclaw Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wrocÅ‚awskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Lower Silesian Voivodeship. ... Szczecin Voivodeship Szczecin Voivodeship (1) (Polish: województwo szczeciÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975-1998, superseded by West Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ...


In 1973, Poland voivodeships were changed again. This reorganization of administrative division of Poland was mainly a result of local government reform acts of 1973 to 1975. In place of three level administrative division (voivodeship, county, commune), new two-level administrative division was introduced (49 small voidships and communes). The three smallest voivodeships: Warsaw, Kraków and Łódź had a special status of municipal voivodeship; the city president (mayor) was also province governor. For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina Łódź City Rights 1423 Government  - Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki Area  - City 293. ...

Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of Poland:

References

  1. ^ Neier, Aryeh (2003). Taking Liberties: Four Decades in the Struggle for Rights. Public Affairs, p. 251. ISBN 1891620827. 
  2. ^ Jackson, John E; Jacek Klich, Krystyna Poznanska (2005). The Political Economy of Poland's Transition: New Firms and Reform Governments. Cambridge University Press, p. 21. ISBN 0521838959. 
  1. (1995) PRL dla początkujących. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, 348. ISBN 83-7023-461-5. 

Bibliography

  • Rebellious Poles: Political Crises and Popular Protest Under State Socialism, 1945-89 by Ekiert, Grzegorz in East European Politics And Societies, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 299-338, March 1997

External links

  • (Polish) Internetowe Muzeum Polski Ludowej
  • (Polish) Komunizm, socjalizm i czasy PRL-u
  • (Polish) Propaganda komunistyczna
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