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Encyclopedia > People's Liberation Army Navy
People's Liberation Army
Components
PLA People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army Ground Force
People's Liberation Army Navy
People's Liberation Army Air Force
Second Artillery Corps
Ranks of the Chinese Military
Ranks of the People's Liberation Army Navy
Ranks of the People's Liberation Army Air Force
Ranks of the People's Liberation Army
History of the Chinese Military
Military history of China
History of the People's Liberation Army

The Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) (Simp.中国人民解放军海军, Trad. 中國人民解放軍海軍, Pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Hǎijūn) is the naval branch of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), the military of the People's Republic of China. Until the early 1990s, the navy performed a subordinate role to the PLA Land Forces. Since then it has undergone rapid modernisation. The PLAN also includes 35,000 Coastal Defence Force and 56,000 Naval infantry/Marines, plus a 56,000 PLAN Aviation operating several hundred landbased aircraft and shipbased helicopters. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links National_emblem_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Peoples_Liberation_Army_Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Ground_Force_Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Ground Force. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Air_Force_Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) (simplified Chinese: 解放军空军; pinyin: JiÄ›fàngjÅ«n KōngjÅ«n) is the aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army, the military of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Second Artillery Corps are a major division of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army that controls Chinas land-based ICBMs. ... The following graph presents the images, names, transliterations and equivalent ranks in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... The following graph presents the images, names, transliterations and equivalent ranks in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Air Force. ... The following graph presents the images, names, transliterations and equivalent ranks in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. ... The military history of China extends from around 1500 BCE to the present day. ... PLA flag The History of the Peoples Liberation Army is that of the military of mainland China. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of WW1 A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag of the Peoples Liberation Army Ground Force. ... The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy Marine Corps is the amphibious arm of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... The Peoples Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF) (解放军海军航空兵; pinyin: JiÄ›fàng JÅ«n HÇŽijÅ«n HángkōngbÄ«ng) is the naval aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ...

Contents


Mission of the PLAN

PLAN Jack and Ensign

Peacetime Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ...

  • Sea patrols of littoral waters
  • Establish presence in disputed territorial waters and protect current interests
  • Anti-piracy, anti-smuggling, search and rescue
  • Maintain security of territorial waters
  • Active logistical support role of combatants and island garrisons

Wartime

  • Littoral defense of local seas
  • Blockade or protection of vital ship routes and choke points (eg. Taiwan strait)
  • Tactical transport, support, and amphibious operations of ground forces
  • Air defense
  • Anti-submarine operations
  • Engagement of enemy shipping
  • Active logistical support role of combatants and island garrisons

History

See also Naval history of China. There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ...


The PLAN traces its lineage to units of the Republic of China Navy who defected to the PLA towards the end of the Chinese Civil War. In 1949, Mao Zedong asserted that "to oppose imperialist aggression, we must build a powerful navy." The Naval Academy was set up at Dalian in March 1950, mostly with Soviet instructors. The Navy was established in September 1950 by consolidating regional naval forces under General Staff Department command in Jiangyan, now in Taizhou, Jiangsu province. It then consisted of a motley collection of ships and boats acquired from the Kuomintang forces. The Naval Air Force was added two years later. By 1954 an estimated 2,500 Soviet naval advisers were in China—possibly one adviser to every thirty Chinese naval personnel—and the Soviet Union began providing modern ships. With Soviet assistance, the navy reorganized in 1954 and 1955 into the North Sea Fleet, East Sea Fleet, and South Sea Fleet, and a corps of admirals and other naval officers was established from the ranks of the ground forces. In shipbuilding the Soviets first assisted the Chinese, then the Chinese copied Soviet designs without assistance, and finally the Chinese produced vessels of their own design. Eventually Soviet assistance progressed to the point that a joint Sino-Soviet Pacific Ocean fleet was under discussion. The Republic of China Navy (中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó HÇŽijÅ«n) is the maritime branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalist Party Chinese Communist Party Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 3,600,000 circa June 1948 2,800,000 circa June 1948 The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: 國共内戰; Simplified Chinese: 国共内战; Pinyin: guógòng neìzhàn; literally Nationalist-Communist Civil War) was a conflict in... (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976) (also Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles transliteration) was a Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led Chinas communist revolution after decades of foreign occupation and civil war in the 20th century. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: 大连; Traditional Chinese: 大連; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ta-lien), or Dalny (during Russian controlled periods, aka Dairen during Japanese periods, or from Mid-century (Jointly administered by both USSR/PRC) formerly also Lüda or Luta), is the second of two strategic ice-free seaports on the Liaodong... Jiangyan is a city in the prefecture of Taizhou in Jiangsu province, China. ... For the prefecture-level city in Zhejiang province, see Taizhou, Zhejiang. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhōngguó GuómíndÇŽng), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... The North Sea Fleet (NSF) is one of three fleets of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... The East Sea Fleet was the first naval force formed by the Peoples Republic of China, on 23 April 1949, and was initially based at Shanghai. ... The Peoples Republic of Chinas South Sea Fleet (SSF) was first established in late 1949. ... The word admiral comes from the Arabic term amir-al-bahr meaning commander of the seas. ...


Through the upheavals of the late 1950s and 1960s the Navy remained relatively undisturbed. Under the leadership of Minister of National Defense Lin Biao, large investments were made in naval construction during the frugal years immediately after the Great Leap Forward. During the Cultural Revolution, a number of top naval commissars and commanders were purged, and naval forces were used to suppress a revolt in Wuhan in July 1967, but the service largely avoided the turmoil affecting the country. Although it paid lip service to Mao and assigned political commissars aboard ships, the Navy continued to train, build, and maintain the fleets. Lin Biao (Chinese: 林彪; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lin Piao) (December 5, 1907 - September 13, 1971) was a Chinese Communist military and political leader, once known as Mao Zedongs comrade-in-arms, but later condemned as a traitor. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: 大跃进; Traditional Chinese: 大躍進; Pinyin: Dàyuèjìn) of the Peoples Republic of China was an economic and social plan to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers into a modern, industrialized... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Location within China Modern and ancient Wuhan (Simplified Chinese: 武汉; Traditional Chinese: 武漢; Pinyin: Wǔhàn) is the capital of Hubei province, and is the most populous city in central China. ...

PLAN sailors in Qingdao, China
PLAN sailors in Qingdao, China

In the 1970s, when approximately 20 percent of the defense budget was allocated to naval forces, the Navy grew dramatically. The conventional submarine force increased from 35 to 100 boats, the number of missile-carrying ships grew from 20 to 200, and the production of larger surface ships, including support ships for oceangoing operations, increased. The Navy also began development of nuclear-powered attack submarines and nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... (Simplified Chinese: 青岛; Traditional Chinese: 青島; pinyin: Qīngdǎo; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal System Pinyin transliteration Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... The word nuclear means of or belonging to the nucleus of something. ...


In the 1980s, under the leadership of Chief Naval Commander Liu Huaqing, the Navy developed into a regional naval power. Naval construction continued at a level somewhat below the 1970s rate. Modernization efforts encompassed higher educational and technical standards for personnel; reformulation of the traditional coastal defense doctrine and force structure in favor of more green-water operations; and training in naval combined-arms operations involving submarine, surface, naval aviation, and coastal defense forces. Examples of the expansion of China's capabilities were the 1980 recovery of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) in the Western Pacific by a twenty-ship fleet, extended naval operations in the South China Sea in 1984 and 1985, and the visit of two naval ships to three South Asian nations in 1985. In 1982 the Navy conducted a successful test of an underwater-launched ballistic missile. The Navy also had some success in developing a variety of surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles, improving basic capabilities. Liu Huaqing (劉華清, pinyin liu2 hua2 qing1) (b. ... A Minuteman III missile after a test launch. ...


Current

Guangzhou class destroyer
Guangzhou class destroyer

Image File history File linksMetadata 052b5l. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 052b5l. ...

Strategy, Plans, Priorities

In recent years, the PLAN has become more prominent owing to a change in Chinese strategic priorities. The new strategic threats include conflict with the United States and/or a resurgent Japan in areas such as Taiwan or the Spratly Islands. As part of its overall program of naval modernization, the PLAN has a long term plan of developing a blue water navy. A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...


There has been speculation about PLAN building or acquiring an aircraft carrier [1], but the idea appears to have a lower priority than other efforts. Most naval analysts believe that, without significant overall naval modernization, a PLAN aircraft carrier at present would be militarily useless and would take resources away from other parts of the military. This assessment appears to be shared by the Chinese military and political leadership. China currently has the Kuznetsov class Soviet aircraft carrier Varyag in Dalian. China could finish this carrier and make it operational, or simply use it for takeoff and landing training. An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (originally named Tbilisi) is an aircraft carrier serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ... Varyag was to be a Kuznetsov-class multirole aircraft carrier. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: 大连; Traditional Chinese: 大連; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ta-lien), or Dalny (during Russian controlled periods, aka Dairen during Japanese periods, or from Mid-century (Jointly administered by both USSR/PRC) formerly also Lüda or Luta), is the second of two strategic ice-free seaports on the Liaodong...


In June 2005, it was reported by boxun.com that China would build a 30 billion yuan (US$3.62 billion) carrier with a displacement of 78,000 tons, to be built by the Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai. The rumor was dismissed by defense official Zhang Guangqin. Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ...


Major Upgrades in the 21st Century

PLAN Sovremenny-class destroyer Taizhou
PLAN Sovremenny-class destroyer Taizhou

China has made progress in modernising its fleet in the last few years with the purchase of Sovremenny class destroyers and Kilo class submarines. The first two destroyers were equipped with the SS-N-22 anti-ship missile . Image File history File links Destroyer_sovremenny. ... Image File history File links Destroyer_sovremenny. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Yunes, an Iranian submarine of the Kilo class Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a type of military diesel-electric submarines that are made in Russia. ... SS-N-22 Sunburn is the NATO reporting name for two unrelated Soviet anti-ship missiles. ... RBS-15 missile launched from a Sisu missile carriage. ...


China's submarine fleet has also made advances. The Kilo-class subs are quieter than their predecessors and are equipped with two next-generation weapons: the Klub anti-ship cruise missile and the VA-111 Shkval torpedo. Many Chinese submarines, including the Kilo, are also thought to have air-independent propulsion, which would allow them to remain submerged for longer periods of time than they could previously maintain. The VA-111 Shkval (from Russian: шквал - squall) torpedo and its descendants are supercavitating torpedoes developed by the Russian Navy. ... Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP), is a term that encompasses technologies which allow a submarine to operate without the need to surface or use a snort mast to access atmospheric oxygen. ...


Chinese naval production has improved, in part due to Russian assistance. Its latest destroyers use more local hardware of an improved quality, such as better fire-control systems and stealth technology in their hull designs to reduce their radar profile. F-117 Stealth Fighter Stealth technology covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar and other detection methods. ...


Organization

PLAN Headquarters

PLAN HQ is subordinate to the PLA General Staff Department and the Chairman of the CMC.

Fleets

The People's Liberation Army Navy is divided into three fleets.

On March 10, 2006, People's Liberation Army Lt. Gen. Wang Zhiyuan announced that China will research and build an aircraft carrier and develop a CVBG.[1] Observers said the first carrier would be deployed to secure South China Sea energy supply line. The North Sea Fleet (NSF) is one of three fleets of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ... (Simplified Chinese: 青岛; Traditional Chinese: 青島; pinyin: QÄ«ngdÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal System Pinyin transliteration Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Bohai Bay is one of the three bays forming the Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the China. ... ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ... The East Sea Fleet was the first naval force formed by the Peoples Republic of China, on 23 April 1949, and was initially based at Shanghai. ... Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: 宁波; Traditional Chinese: 寧波; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; pinyin: Zhèjiāng; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is a eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... The Peoples Republic of Chinas South Sea Fleet (SSF) was first established in late 1949. ... Location of Zhanjiang Zhanjiang (湛江) is a city in Guangdong province, in southeast China. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The South China Sea, showing surrounding countries and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 km². It is the largest sea body after the five... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Naval Aviation

Main article: People's Liberation Army Naval Air Force The Peoples Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF) (解放军海军航空兵; pinyin: Jiěfàng Jūn Hǎijūn Hángkōngbīng) is the naval aviation branch of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ...


The PLANAF has 25,000 personnel and roughly 800 aircraft under the navy's command. It operates similar aircraft to the air force, including fighters, bombers, strike aircraft, tankers, reconnaissance, electronic warfare, maritime patrol, seaplane, transport, training and helicopter types. The PLANAF has traditionally received older aircraft than the PLAAF and has taken less ambitious steps towards mass modernization. Advancements in new technologies, weaponry and aircraft acquisition were made after 2000. The modern day PLANAF is capable of performing a number of roles, and is quite numerically and technologically adept in anti-ship and air defense operations.


Coastal Defense

With around 25,000 personnel, the navy's coastal defense force forms the frontal force in defending China's coast from amphibious and air attack. The coastal defense troops operate a variety of artillery and missile systems that are capable of engaging air and sea targets. The coastal defense troops have played a key role in PLAN history. In 1958, this force fired artillery against KMT forces on the islands near the mainland. Throughout the 1960s-80s, the coastal defense troops were focused on defending China's coast from a possible Soviet sea-borne invasion.


The principle weapon that has served with the coastal defense troops is the HY-2 coast-launched anti-ship missile (based fundamentally on the Soviet SS-N-2 Styx). These missiles could be launched from either fixed emplacements, or mobile truck mounts. Since the 1990s, the coastal defense forces have received more types of short to long range anti-ship missiles.


With the fall of the Soviet Union, the plausible threat of amphibious assault upon China seemed less possible. Though no longer a vital component of the PLAN, the coastal defense forces nonetheless would be important in any conflict to protect key PLAN coastal assets from enemy sabotage, as well as destroying aircraft attempting to attack the mainland.


Marine Corps

Main article: People's Liberation Army Marine Corps The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy Marine Corps is the amphibious arm of the Peoples Liberation Army Navy. ...


The PLAN has command over two 6000-man marine brigades both based in the South China Sea. It is believed in time of war, up to 28,000 Marines can be mobilized. These two brigades possess combined arms units, including armour, artillery, missile, air defense, and logistical support.


PLAN marines can perform a variety of missions. They are part of the rapid mobilization forces of the Chinese military. All marines are trained in amphibious warfare. The marines perform two principle missions in the PLAN: 1) Serve as the spearhead of any amphibious operation; and 2) Garrisson or assault island chains, particular potentially disputed territories in the regional waters.


Special forces elements of the marines include special amphibious reconnaisance units known as 'frogmen'. These are troops that could be launched from submarines or small stealthy craft to survey landing sights and sabotage enemy defenses prior to a full marine assault.


Paramilitary Maritime Organizations

The PLAN is complemented by paramilitary maritime services, such as CMS, Hai Guang, People's Armed Police and the militia. The CMS is known to perform mostly coastal and ocean search and rescue or patrols. The CMS has received quite a few large patrol ships that would significantly enhance their operations. Hai Guang, militia, police and other services operate hundreds of small patrol craft. For maritime patrol services, these craft are usually quite well armed with machine guns and 37mm AA guns. It is believed that in the near future, an integration of all these separate services would form a Chinese coast guard. In addition, these services operate their own small aviation units to assist their maritime patrol capabilities. Hai Guang and CMS are known to operate a handful of Harbin Z-9 helicopters, and a maritime patrol aircraft based on the harbin Y-12 STOL transport.


Roles of these services are diverse but include:

  • Patrol of territorial waters and disputed territories
  • Anti-smuggling, anti-piracy
  • Maritime policing and ship inspections
  • Harbour and coastal security
  • Research and survey
  • Search and Rescue
  • Fisheries protection

Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Main article: Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy The Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the Naval branch of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA). ...


Naval Weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Main article: Naval Weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy The Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) is the Naval branch of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA). ...


The Future Fleet

The PLAN's ambitions include operating out to the first and second island chains, as far as the South Pacific near Australia and spanning to the Aleutian islands, and operations extending to the Straits of Malacca near the Indian Ocean.


The future PLAN fleet will be composed of a balance of assets aimed at maximising the PLAN's fighting effectiveness. On the high end, there would be high technology destroyers equipped with long range air defense missiles (052B/C, 051C); destroyers armed with sophisticated anti-ship weaponry (Sovremenny class); advanced nuclear powered attack and ballistic missile submarines (093, 094); advanced conventional attack submarines (Kilo and Yuan); aircraft carriers and large amphibious warfare vessels capable mobilizing troops at long distances. On the medium and low end, there would be more economical yet multi-role capable frigates and destroyers (upgraded Luda, Luhu, Jiangwei II, 054A); fast littoral missile attack craft (Houjian, Houxin, 220X); various landing ships and light craft; conventionally powered coastal patrol submarines (Song).


The future fleet will have the obsolete combat ships (based on 1960s designs) phased out in the coming decades as more modern designs enter full production. It may take until 2025 until the bulk of these older ships are retired. Until then, they will serve principally on the low end, as multi-role patrol/escort platforms. Their use could be further enhanced in the future by being used as fast transports or fire support platforms.


2001-2006 so far have demonstrated a rapid building and acquisition program. There were more than a dozen new classes of ships built in these last five years, totalling some sixty brand new ships (including landing ships and auxilaries). Simultaneously, dozens of other ships have been either phased out of service or refitted with new equipment.


Though the PLAN has made significant strides in anti-ship and anti-aircraft weaponry, its fundamental weakness is in ASW capabilities. Despite the utilization of helicopters, torpedoes and depth charges, the PLAN lacks advanced sonar systems that are necessary to hunt down modern submarines. Electronic Warfare is another weakness of the PLAN. All but the newest ships and weapons are susceptible to jamming and other electronic countermeasures. The command/control systems remain at the fleet level, with only some form of integration in the latest combatants. Training is another teething factor. With the large influx of PLAN warships, new crews will have to be trained intensively. Especially after the 361 submarine accident, there has been much doubt about PLAN personnel capabilities in effective damage control, safety and fire fighting. These areas of weakness can only be addressed in the coming decades, as the PLAN may choose to modernize one area at a time, due to budgetary issues.


See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Varyag was to be a Kuznetsov-class multirole aircraft carrier. ... The Republic of China Navy (中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn) is the maritime branch of the armed forces of the Republic of China. ... See also Chinese military Ranks of the Peoples Liberation Army Categories: Military ranks by country | Military of the Peoples Republic of China ...

References

  1. ^ Report: China plans to build carrier, 2006 March 10, Marine Corps Times.

External links

  • PLAN - Chinese Defence Today
  • Chinese Naval Force
  • Chinese Military Aviation
  • Global Security - China
  • PLA Daily - Jiefangjun Bao


 
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army Ground Force | People's Liberation Army Navy | People's Liberation Army Air Force

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