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Encyclopedia > People's Commissariat for State Security (USSR)

The People's Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB - was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20 1941, and again from 1943 to 1946, and then renamed into the Ministry for State Security, or MGB. Soviet redirects here. ... Secret police (sometimes political police) are a police organization which operates in secrecy for the national purpose of maintaining national security against internal threats to the state. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The word MGB has several different meanings: MGB (USSR) was a predecessor of the KGB (secret police). ...

Contents

Separate administration

On February 3, 1941 Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, to improve functions of soviet security organs, decide to remove from existing People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (well known as- NKVD) structure, it biggest and strongest part which was the Main Directorate of State Security (or GUGB), and transform it to separate administration, that was called People's Commissariat for State Security or NKGB. February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Президиум Верховного Совета СССР in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental body. ... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... The Main Directorate of State Security (Russian: Glavnoe Upravlenie Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti) was the name of the Soviet secret police from July 1934 to April 1943. ...


NKGB tasks

Base on NKVD and NKGB directive number 782/B265M from March 1, 1941, the NKGB tasks were as below - The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ...

  • Conduct of intelligence work abroad.
  • Battle with espionage, sabotage and terrorist acts organized by foreign Special Services on USSR territory.
  • Penetration and liquidation of anti-Soviet party’s and counter-revolutionary organizations.
  • Oversight on ideology of soviet society
  • Protection of high party and government officials

1941 organization

The head of NKGB as a People's Commissar of State Security was: born in 1895 Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov. His first deputy was Ivan Serov then Commissar 3rd rank of State Security, and two other deputies were - Bogdan Kobulov and Mikhail Gribov. 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Vsevolod Nikolayevich Merkulov (Всеволод Николаевич Меркулов in Russian) (10. ... Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ...


NKGB February 1941 organization Image File history File links NKGB_organization_13974_image001. ...


Changes 1941/1943

Soviet security organization return to former state already in July the same year (1941), after German invasion. NKGB was return to NKVD as GUGB. Again in 1943, Main Directorate of State Security (or GUGB), was transform it to separate administration NKGB.
Causes these frequent reorganizations have not been explained. American intelligence analyst and author on secret service topic John Dziak in his 1988 book: Chekisty: A History of the KGB, writes - This article is about the year. ... The 1944 Invasion of Normandy An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geo-political entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period, and sometimes permanently. ... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... The Main Directorate of State Security (Russian: Glavnoe Upravlenie Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti) was the name of the Soviet secret police from July 1934 to April 1943. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

These particular organizational changes were never explained to the end, prehaps they had something to do with soviet occupation of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, eastern Poland, part of Romania (Bessarabia and northern Bukovina), and its nations. Suddenly the number of apprehensions, deportations, executions and Gulags has grown, that required reorganization of structures and boost of man power in security administration.
(...) Shock caused after German aggression and fast progress of their army, has driven soviet government to organize security organs under one command.
(...) Soviet victory in Stalingrad have made prospect of recovery war losses, that was the reason for secondary separation of soviet security forces. 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Russia in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp...

It is possible to explain these changes with opinion that Joseph Stalin, who was worried sick about his total power and personal safety, that he did not want to leave so powerful institution as NKVD, in hands of one man, in fear that one day he will turn against him. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


1943 organization

NKGB organization may 1943-46 Image File history File links NKGB_org_for_1943_and_1946_30908_image001. ...


From commissariats to ministries

In 1946, other changes followed. Existing People's Commissariats were renamed as "ministries." People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs (or NKVD) was renamed Ministry of Internal Affairs (Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del) or MVD, and the People's Commissariat for State Security was renamed Ministry for State Security (Ministerstvo Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti) or MGB. 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... From 1919 to 1946, functions of ministers in the government of Russia and, later, the Soviet Union were performed by Peoples Commissars (Russian title: Narodny Komissar, or Narkom). ... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... Numerous countries and governments have or have had a Ministry for State Security or Ministry of State Security. ...


References

  • Piotr Kołakowski - NKWD i GRU na ziemiach Polskich 1939-1945 - (Kulisy wywiadu i kontrwywiadu) - Dom wydawniczy Bellona Warszawa 2002 - (NKVD and GRU on Polish soil 1939-1945 [Intelligence counter-intelligence series] Warsaw, 2002)
  • John J. Dziak - A History of the KGB, Lexington Books
  • Norman Polmar, Thomas B Allen - Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage 1997

See also


 
 

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