FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Pentose" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pentose

A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ...


They either have an aldehyde functional group in position 1 (aldopentoses), or a ketone functional group in position 2 (ketopentoses). An aldehyde. ... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ...


The aldopentoses have three chiral centres ("asymmetric carbon atoms") and so 8 different stereoisomers are possible. Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ...


The 4 D-aldopentoses are:

 CH=O CH=O CH=O CH=O | | | | HC-OH HO-CH HC-OH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HO-CH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH | | | | CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH D-Ribose D-Arabinose D-Xylose D-Lyxose 

A mnemonic suggested by a Cornell University undergraduate that can be used to remember the four D-aldopentoses is "ribs are extra lean." Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Fischer projection of L-arabinose The chemical structure of D-arabinofuranose Arabinose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde (CHO) functional group. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Not to be confused with pneumonic. ... Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ...



The ketopentoses have 2 chiral centres and therefore 4 possible stereoisomers — ribulose (L- and D-form) and xylulose (L- and D-form). Fischer projection of D-ribulose Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. ... Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ...


The D-isomers of both are known to occur naturally as is the L-isomer of xylulose: Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ...

 CH2OH CH2OH | | C=O C=O | | HC-OH HO-CH | | HC-OH HC-OH | | CH2OH CH2OH D-Ribulose D-Xylulose 


The aldehyde and ketone functional groups in these carbohydrates react with neighbouring hydroxyl functional groups to form intramolecular hemiacetals or hemiketals, respectively. The resulting ring structure is related to furan, and is termed a furanose. The ring spontaneously opens and closes, allowing rotation to occur about the bond between the carbonyl group and the neighbouring carbon atom — yielding two distinct configurations (α and β). This process is termed mutarotation. Fischer projection of D-ribulose Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. ... Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Intramolecular describes a process or characteristic limited within the structure of a single, or each molecule; a property or phenomenon limited to the extent of a single, or each molecule. ... A hemiacetal is a functional group or compound containing the function group in the form of: where R and R are any carbon backbones. ... A hemiacetal is a functional group or compound containing the function group in the form of: where R and R are any carbon backbones. ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring and is a sub-terminal ketone which gives it reducing power. ... Mutarotation is the term given to the change in the specific rotation of plane polarized light, when it is passed through an aldohexose ( Monosaccharides with six carbon atoms and H-C=0 Group ). Mutarotation refers to the conversion of a pure anomer of a hemiacetal carbohydrate to an equilibrium mixture...


Ribose is a constituent of RNA, and the related deoxyribose of DNA. Ribose Ribose, primarily seen as D-ribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Ribonucleic acid or RNA is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers that plays several important roles in the processes that translate genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into protein products; RNA acts as a messenger between DNA and the protein synthesis complexes known as ribosomes, forms vital portions... Deoxyribose Deoxyribose, also known as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pentose Phosphate Pathway (862 words)
The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (also called Phosphogluconate Pathway, or Hexose Monophosphate Shunt) is depicted with structures of intermediates in Fig.
The remainder of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway accomplishes conversion of the
The flow of intermediates containing 15 C atoms through Pentose Phosphate Pathway reactions by which 5-C sugars are converted to 3-C and 6-C sugars is summarized in the diagram at right and balance sheet below.
GLYCOLYSIS, GLUCONEOGENESIS AND THE PENTOSE PATHWAY (2812 words)
The pentose pathway is logically divided into two components, an oxidative component in which 2 moles of NADPH are produced for each mole of glucose 6-phosphate that enters the pathway.
The reactions of the oxidative phase of the pentose pathway are catalyzed by cytosolic enzymes.
The nonoxidative, or carbon shuffling, phase of the pentose pathway consists of a series of rearrangements of 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 carbon sugars through which 6 molecules of ribulose 5-phosphate are converted into 5 molecules of glucose 6-phosphate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m