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Encyclopedia > Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Central processing unit

An LGA 775 Pentium 4
Produced: From 2000 to 2008
Manufacturer: Intel
CPU speeds: 1.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz
FSB speeds: 400 MT/s to 1066 MT/s
Process:
(MOSFET channel length)
0.18 µm to 0.065 µm
Instruction set: x86 (i386), x86-64
Microarchitecture: NetBurst
Sockets:
Core names:
  • Willamette
  • Northwood
  • Prescott
  • Cedar Mill

The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intel's single-core mainstream desktop and laptop CPUs introduced on November 20, 2000[2] (August 8, 2008 is the date of last shipments of Pentium 4s[3]). They had the 7th-generation architecture - called NetBurst - which was the company's first all-new design since 1995, when the Intel P6 architecture of the Pentium Pro branded CPUs had been introduced. The NetBurst differed from the preceding Intel P6 - of CPUs branded Pentium III, II, etc. - by featuring a very deep instruction pipeline to achieve very high clock speeds[4] (up to 4 GHz) limited only by max. power consumption (TDP) reaching up to 115 W in 3.6–3.8 GHz Prescotts and Prescotts 2M[5] (a high TDP requires an additional cooling that can be noisy or expensive). In 2004, the initial 32-bit x86 instruction set of the Pentium 4 branded microprocessors was extended by the 64-bit x86-64 set. CPU redirects here. ... Image File history File links P4LGA755. ... Intels latest Socket for a processor is Socket T, or, LGA 775. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... CPU redirects here. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... In personal computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... In computer engineering, microarchitecture (sometime abbreviated to µarch or uarch) is a description of the electrical circuitry of a computer, central processing unit, or digital signal processor that is sufficient for completely describing the operation of the hardware. ... The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... Socket 423 was a CPU socket used for the first Pentium 4 processors, based on the Willamette core. ... In computing, Socket 478 is a type of CPU socket used for Intels Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs. ... Intels latest Socket for a processor is Socket T, or, LGA 775. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth generation Intel x86 microprocessor architecture, released in 1995. ... The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor (P6 core) produced by Intel and was originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later, was reduced to a more narrow role as a server and high-end desktop chip. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth generation Intel x86 microprocessor architecture, released in 1995. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... Intel Pentium II Logo The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ... Basic five-stage pipeline in a RISC machine (IF = Instruction Fetch, ID = Instruction Decode, EX = Execute, MEM = Memory access, WB = Register write back) An instruction pipeline is a technique used in the design of computers and other digital electronic devices to increase their performance. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... . ... . ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


Pentium 4 branded CPUs introduced the SSE2 and SSE3 instruction sets to accelerate calculations, transactions, media processing, 3D graphics, and games. They also integrated Hyper-Threading (HT), a feature to make one physical CPU working as two logical and virtual CPUs, and more other features. The Intel's flagship branded Pentium 4 also came in a low-end version branded Celeron (often referred to as Celeron 4), and a high-end derivative branded Xeon intended for multiprocessor servers and workstations. In 2005, the Pentium 4 was superseded by the Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition brands of dual-core CPUs. CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Celeron brand refers to a range of Intels x86 CPUs for budget/value personal computers. ... This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ... Multiprocessing is traditionally known as the use of multiple concurrent processes in a system as opposed to a single process at any one instant. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Pentium Extreme Edition brand logo // Smithfield Pentium Extreme Edition is the brand name given to a series of Intel microprocessors introduced during the 2nd Quarter 2005 Intel Developers Forum, not to be confused with the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (an earlier, single-core processor occupying the same niche). ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ...

Contents

Architecture

In benchmark evaluations, the advantages of the NetBurst architecture were not clear. With carefully optimized application code, the first P4 did outperform Intel's fastest Pentium III, as expected. But in legacy applications with many branching or x87 floating-point instructions, the P4 would merely match or even fall behind its predecessor. Furthermore, the NetBurst architecture dissipated more heat than any previous Intel or AMD processor. The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... It has been suggested that Legacy code be merged into this article or section. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ...


As a result, the Pentium 4's introduction was met with mixed reviews: Developers disliked the Pentium 4, as it posed a new set of code optimization rules. For example, in mathematical applications AMD's much lower-clocked Athlon easily outperformed the Pentium 4, which would only catch up if software were re-compiled with SSE2 support. Computer-savvy buyers avoided Pentium 4 PCs due to their price-premium and questionable benefit. In terms of product marketing, the Pentium 4's singular emphasis on clock frequency (above all else) made it a marketer's dream. The result of this was that the NetBurst architecture was often referred to as a marchitecture by various computing websites and publications during the life of the Pentium 4. In computing, optimization is the process of modifying a system to make some aspect of it work more efficiently or use fewer resources. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... Marchitecture is a term given to any form of architecture perceived to have been produced purely for marketing reasons. ...

New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo

The two classical metrics of CPU performance are IPC (instructions per cycle) and clock-frequency. While IPC is difficult to quantify (due to dependence on the benchmark application's instruction mix), clock-frequency is a simple measurement yielding a single absolute number. Unsophisticated buyers would simply associate the highest clock-rating with the best product, and the Pentium 4 was the undisputed Megahertz champion. As AMD was unable to compete by these rules, it countered Intel's marketing advantage with the 'Megahertz myth campaign.' AMD product marketing used a "PR-rating" system, which assigned a merit value based on relative-performance to a baseline machine. Image File history File links Intel_Pentium_4_HT.png Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Intel_Pentium_4_HT.png Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In computing, a benchmark is the act of running a computer program, a set of programs, or other operations, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, normally by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

See also: Megahertz myth

At the launch of the P4, Intel stated NetBurst was expected to scale to 10 GHz (over several fabrication process generations). However, the NetBurst architecture ultimately hit a frequency ceiling far below expectation—the fastest retail Pentium 4 never exceeded 4 GHz. Intel had not anticipated a rapid upward scaling of transistor power leakage that began to occur as the chip reached the 90 nm process node and smaller. This new power leakage phenomenon, along with the standard thermal output, created cooling and clock scaling problems as clock speeds increased. Reacting to these unexpected obstacles, Intel attempted several core redesigns ("Prescott" most notably) and explored new manufacturing technologies. Nothing solved their problems though and in 2005-6 Intel shifted development away from NetBurst to focus on the cooler running Pentium M architecture. In March 2006, Intel announced the Intel Core microarchitecture, which puts greater emphasis on energy efficiency and performance per clock. The final NetBurst-derived products were released in 2006, with all subsequent product families switching exclusively to the Intel Core microarchitecture. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ... NASAs Glenn Research Center cleanroom. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels single-core mainstream desktop and laptop CPUs introduced on November 20, 2000[2] (August 8, 2008 is the date of last shipments of Pentium 4s[3]). They had the 7th-generation architecture - called NetBurst - which was the companys first all... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Intel Core microarchitecture (previously known as the Intel Next-Generation Micro-Architecture, or NGMA) is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. ...


Processor cores

A Pentium 4, 2.4 GHz

The Pentium 4 has an IHS (Integrated Heat Spreader) that prevents the CPU core from accidentally getting damaged when mounting and unmounting cooling solutions. Prior to the IHS, a CPU shim was sometimes used by people worried about damaging the core. Overclockers sometimes removed the IHS on Willamette and Northwood cores to allow for more direct heat transfer. However, in revisions since Prescott the IHS is directly welded to the processor core, meaning that the IHS cannot be removed without irreparably damaging the chip. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,856 × 2,142 pixels, file size: 809 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,856 × 2,142 pixels, file size: 809 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Illustrative image of a shim. ...


Willamette

A 'Willamette' core Pentium 4 processor

Willamette, project code name for the first Pentium 4 architecture implementation, experienced long delays in completion of its design process. The project was started in 1998, when Intel saw the Pentium II as their permanent line. At that time, the Willamette core was expected to operate at frequencies of around 1 GHz, maximum. However, Willamette release delays saw the introduction of the Pentium III prior to its completion. Since the radical differences in these architectures meant Intel could not market Willamette as a Pentium III, it was named Pentium 4, ending Intel's Roman-numeral nomenclature system. A Willamette core Pentium 4. ... A Willamette core Pentium 4. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ...


In November 2000, Intel released the Willamette Pentium 4 at speeds of 1.4 and 1.5 GHz. Most industry experts regarded the initial release as a stopgap product, introduced before it was truly ready. According to these experts, the Willamette was released because the competing AMD Athlon Thunderbird was at that time outperforming the elderly Pentium III, and further improvements to the P-III were not yet possible. The cores were produced using a 0.18 micrometer (180 nm) process and initially used Socket 423 on motherboards, with later revisions moving to Socket 478. These variants were identified by the Intel product codes 80528 and 80531 respectively. Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Socket 423 was a CPU socket used for the first Pentium 4 processors, based on the Willamette core. ... In computing, Socket 478 is a type of CPU socket used for Intels Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs. ...


On the test bench, the Willamette was somewhat disappointing to analysts in that not only was it unable to outperform the Athlon and the highest-clocked Pentium IIIs in all testing situations, it was clearly not superior to even the low-end AMD Duron. Although introduced at a price of US$819 (in 1000 unit quantities), it sold at a modest but respectable rate, handicapped somewhat by the requirement of relatively expensive Rambus Dynamic RAM (RDRAM). The Pentium III remained Intel's top selling chip, with the Athlon also selling slightly better than the Pentium 4. The AMD Duron is an x86-compatible computer processor manufactured by AMD. It was released in the summer of 2000 as a low-cost alternative to AMDs own Athlon processor and the Pentium III and Celeron processor lines from rival Intel. ... This article is about the company. ... Direct Rambus DRAM or DRDRAM (sometimes just called Rambus DRAM or RDRAM) is a type of synchronous dynamic RAM, designed by the Rambus Corporation. ...


In January 2001, a still slower 1.3 GHz model was added to the range, but over the next twelve months, Intel gradually started reducing AMD's leadership in performance. April 2001 brought the 1.7 GHz P4, the first one to provide performance clearly superior to the old Pentium III. July saw 1.6 and 1.8 GHz models and in August 2001, Intel released 1.9 and 2.0 GHz Pentium 4s. In the same month, they released a new chipset that supported much cheaper PC-133 SDRAM. While SDRAM was much slower than RDRAM, because SDRAM was much cheaper it caused the Pentium 4's sales to grow massively. The new chipset allowed the P4 to displace the Pentium III virtually overnight, becoming the top-selling processor on the market.


The Willamette code name is derived from the Willamette River and Willamette Valley region of Oregon, where a large number of Intel manufacturing facilities are located. The Willamette River (pronounced wil-LAM-met) is a tributary of the Columbia River, approximately 240 mi (386 km) long, in northwestern Oregon in the United States. ... The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley The Willamette Valley is the region in northwest Oregon in the United States that surrounds the Willamette River as it proceeds northward from its emergence from mountains near Eugene to its confluence with the Columbia River. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


Northwood

A 'Northwood' core Pentium 4 processor (P4A)

In October 2001, the Athlon XP regained a clear lead for AMD.[citation needed], but in January 2002, Intel released Pentium 4s with their new Northwood core at 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 GHz. Northwood (product code 80532) combined an increase in the secondary cache size from 256 KiB to 512 KiB (increasing the transistor count to 55 million, up from 42 million) with a transition to a new 130 nm (0.13 micrometer) fabrication process. By making the chip out of smaller transistors, chips can run at higher clocks or at the same speed while producing less heat. Unfortunately for many consumers, the new core also made upgrades impossible due to the requirement of a new socket (Socket 478), although later adapters were made for Socket 423 to use the Northwood processors. Northwood core Pentium 4 processor. ... Northwood core Pentium 4 processor. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ...


With Northwood, the P4 came of age. The battle for performance leadership remained competitive (as AMD introduced faster versions of the Athlon XP) but most observers agreed that the fastest Northwood P4 was usually ahead of its rival. This was particularly so in the summer of 2002, when AMD's changeover to a 130 nm production process was delayed and the P4s in the 2.4 to 2.8 GHz range were clearly the fastest chips on the market.


A 2.4 GHz P4 was released in April 2002, and the bus speed increased from 400 MT/s to 533 MT/s for a 2.26 GHz, 2.4 GHz, and 2.53 GHz part in May, 2.6 and 2.8 GHz parts in August, and a 3.06 GHz Pentium 4 arrived in November.


The 3.06 GHz processor supported Hyper-Threading (first appeared in Xeon), enabling multiple threads to be run together by duplicating some parts of the processor in order to let the operating system believe that there are two logical processors. HyperThreading was present in all Northwood CPUs, but was disabled in the core in all but the 3.06 GHz model. Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ...


In April 2003, Intel launched new 800 MT/s FSB variants, ranging from 2.4 to 3.0 GHz. The key difference on these new versions was that they all supported Hyper-Threading, and ran their system buses at 800 MT/s. This was supposedly to compete better with AMD's Hammer line of processors. However, only Opteron was launched, and motherboard manufactures initially refused to build Opteron-based motherboards with an AGP controller, thus preventing the Opteron from encroaching on the Pentium 4's territory. AMD did boost the Athlon XP's bus speed from 333 MT/s to 400 MT/s, but it wasn't enough to hold off the new 3.0 GHz P4– and the FSB wasn't the problem; the 333 MT/s to 400 MT/s transition yielded little to no performance increase. A 3.2 GHz variant was launched in June and a final 3.4 GHz version was launched in early 2004. The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ...


Overclocking early stepping Northwood cores yielded a startling phenomenon. When VCore was increased past 1.7 V, the processor would slowly become more unstable over time, before dying and becoming totally unusable. This is believed to have been caused by the physical phenomenon known as Electromigration, where the internal pathways of the CPU become degraded over time due to excessive electron energy. This was also known as Sudden Northwood Death Syndrome. Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms. ...


Mobile Pentium 4

Pentium 4 logo, M-Variation (P4M)

The Mobile Intel Pentium 4 Processor [1] was released to address the problem of putting a full Pentium 4 desktop chip into a laptop, which some manufacturers were doing. The Mobile P4 still used 70 W of power, which let it bridge the gap between the full Pentium 4 (using about 82 W), and the Mobile Pentium 4 M (using about 35 W). Image File history File links Pentium4mlogo. ... Image File history File links Pentium4mlogo. ...


Mobile Pentium 4 M

Also based on the Northwood core, the Mobile Intel Pentium 4 Processor - M [2] was released on April 23, 2002 [3] and included Intel's SpeedStep and Deeper Sleep technologies, and Hyper-Threading in some models. Intel's naming conventions made it difficult at the time of the processor's release to identify the processor model.There was the Pentium III mobile chip (or the PIII-M), the Mobile Pentium 4 M (or the P4-M), the Mobile Pentium 4 (or the Mobile P4), and then just the Pentium M which itself was based on the Pentium III. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... SpeedStep has lowered this Pentium 4s Clock Speed from 3Ghz to 2. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ...


Gallatin (Extreme Edition)


This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. It will be deleted after Error: invalid time.

In September 2003, at the Intel Developer Forum, the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (P4EE) was announced, just over a week before the launch of Athlon 64, and Athlon 64 FX (AMD64 FX). The design was mostly identical to Pentium 4 (to the extent that it would run in the same motherboards), but differed by an added 2 MiB of Level 3 cache. It shared the same Gallatin core as the Xeon MP, though in a Socket 478 form factor (as opposed to Socket 603 for the Xeon MP) and with an 800 MT/s bus, twice as fast as that of the Xeon MP. An LGA 775 version is also available. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003. ... The Athlon 64 FX is an AMD K8 series processor targeted at enthusiasts. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ...


While Intel maintained that the Extreme Edition was aimed at gamers, some viewed it as an attempt to steal the Athlon 64's launch thunder, nicknaming it the "Emergency Edition". Many condemned Intel for cannibalizing the Xeon line, but because of this, no such complaints were aimed at AMD, who retaliated by doing the same with their Athlon 64 FX.


The effect of the added cache was somewhat variable. In office applications, the Extreme Edition was generally a bit slower than the Northwood, owing to higher latency added by the L3 cache. Some games benefited from the added cache, particularly those based on the Quake III and Unreal engines. However, the area which improved the most was multimedia encoding, which was not only faster than the Pentium 4, but also both Athlon 64s. The Unreal Engine is a widely-used game engine developed by Epic Games. ...


A slight performance increase was achieved in late 2004 by increasing the bus speed from 800 MT/s to 1066 MT/s. Only one Gallatin-based chip at 3.46 GHz was released before the Extreme Edition was migrated to the Prescott core. The new 3.73 GHz Extreme Edition had the same features as a 6x0-sequence Prescott 2M, but with a 1066 MT/s bus. In practice however, the 3.73 GHz Extreme Edition almost always proved to be slower than the 3.46 GHz version.


The 'Pentium 4 Extreme Edition' should not be confused with a similarly-named later model, the 'Pentium Extreme Edition', which is based on the dual-core Pentium D. Pentium Extreme Edition brand logo // Smithfield Pentium Extreme Edition is the brand name given to a series of Intel microprocessors introduced during the 2nd Quarter 2005 Intel Developers Forum, not to be confused with the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (an earlier, single-core processor occupying the same niche). ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ...


Prescott

Pentium 4 LGA775

On February 1, 2004, Intel introduced a new core codenamed "Prescott". The core uses a 90 nm process for the first time, and "[it] is also a major reworking of the Pentium 4's microarchitecture—major enough that some analysts are surprised Intel didn't opt to call this processor the Pentium 5".[6] Although a Prescott clocked at the same rate as a Northwood, benchmarks show that a Northwood performed slightly better than a Prescott in gaming applications. However, with video editing and other multimedia software, the Prescott's extra cache and SSE3 instructions give it a clear clock-for-clock advantage over the Northwood. The Prescott architecture allows it to be easily set at higher clock-rates. (See Overclocking.) 3.8 GHz was the fastest Prescott-based processor ever mass-produced. Image File history File links P4LGA755. ... Image File history File links P4LGA755. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 90 nm node refers to the level of semiconductor process technology that was reached in the 2002-2003 timeframe, by most leading semiconductor companies, like Intel, Texas Instruments, IBM, and TSMC. The origin of the 90 nm value is historical, as it represents a 70% scaling every 2-3... AMD Athlon XP Overclocking BIOS Setup on ABIT NF7-S. FSB frequency (External clock) has increased from 133 MHz to 148 MHz, and clock multiplier factor has changed from 13. ...


Upon release, the Prescott turned out to generate approximately 40% more heat clock-for-clock than the Northwood, and almost every review of it was negative, earning it the soubriquet PresHot. A shift in socket type (from Socket 478 to LGA775) was expected to reduce the heat to more acceptable levels, but in fact proved to have the opposite effect, with power requirements increasing by a further 10%. However, the LGA775 reference cooler and mounting system were somewhat better designs, so average temperatures were slightly lowered. Subsequent revisions to the processor by Intel engineers were expected to reduce average temperatures, but this never happened outside of the lowest speed grades. Prescott Pentium 4s were given the product codes 80546 (Socket 478) and 80547 (LGA775). Sobriquet, a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise. ... In computing, Socket 478 is a type of CPU socket used for Intels Pentium 4 and Celeron series CPUs. ... Socket T, also known as LGA 775, is Intels latest CPU socket. ...


Finally, the thermal problems were so severe, Intel decided to abandon the Prescott architecture altogether, and attempts to roll out a 4 GHz part were abandoned, as a waste of internal resources. Also of concern was the fact that a review showed that in games, it took a 5.2 GHz Prescott core to soundly beat the performance of an Athlon FX-55 that clocked at 2.6 GHz.[4] Considering Intel boasted at launch the Pentium 4 architecture was intended to support up to 10 GHz operation, this can be seen as one of the most significant, certainly most public, engineering shortfalls in Intel’s history. This also meant that while Northwood ultimately achieved clockspeeds 70% higher than Willamette did, Prescott only managed a 12% rise over Northwood.


The Pentium M instead became the internal reference layout for Intel’s design teams, and P4 development was essentially abandoned. To this extent, the little-funded Israeli design team that produced the Pentium M core took over the much larger desktop development project.[7] Introduced in March 2003, the Pentium M is an x86 architecture microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. ...


Why the Prescott ended up in such a disaster can be attributed to internal politics at Intel as much as to poor design. The engineering group was not able to meet the marketing departments desire for ever higher clock speeds, to differentiate their products from AMD. The processor design was not able to clock at the higher speeds required for increased performance and the power consumption was simply untenable. The engineering group kept this information from people in other departments at Intel until it was too late. The termination of the P4 project, when it finally came, had consequences for many members of the management team at the desktop division, but not so much in the engineering or manufacturing groups. [citation needed]


Originally, two Prescott lines were released: the E-series, with an 800 MT/s FSB and Hyper-Threading support, and the low-end A-series, with a 533 MT/s FSB and Hyper-Threading disabled. Initially there were big problems with people who installed Windows XP Service Pack 2 on systems with these processors as an incompatibility with the BIOS, processor and SP2 coding led to systems unable to boot. Microsoft and Intel worked on a solution; Users with this problem can find out how to install SP2 on a Prescott machine. Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


LGA775 Prescotts use a rating system, labeling them as the 5xx series (Celerons are the 3xx series, while Pentium Ms are the 7xx series). The LGA775 version of the E-series uses model numbers 5x0 (520-560), and the LGA775 version of the A-series uses model numbers 5x5 and 5x9 (505-519). The fastest, the 570J and 571, is clocked at 3.8 GHz. Plans for 4 GHz processors were axed by Intel in favor of dual core processors, although some European retailers claim to be selling a Pentium 4 580, clocked at 4 GHz.


The 5x0J series (and its low-end equivalent, the 5x5J and 5x9J series) introduced the XD Bit (eXecute Disable) or Execute Disabled Bit [5] to Intel's line of processors. This technology, first introduced to the x86 line by AMD and called NX (No eXecute), can help prevent certain types of malicious code from exploiting a buffer overflow to get executed. NX stands for No eXecute. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... An exploit is a common term in the computer security community to refer to a piece of software that takes advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability, leading to privilege escalation or denial of service on a computer system. ... In computer security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is a programming error which may result in a memory access exception and program termination, or in the event of the user being malicious, a possible breach of system security. ...


Intel also released a series of Prescotts supporting Intel 64, Intel's implementation of the x86-64 64-bit extensions to the x86 architecture. These were originally released as the F-series, and only sold to OEMs, but they were later renamed to the 5x1 series and sold to the general public. Two low-end Intel64-enabled Prescotts, based on the 5x5/5x9 series, were also released with model numbers 506 and 516. x86-64 is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set; it is a superset of the Intel x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


5x0, 5x0J, and 5x1 series Prescotts have incorporated Hyper-Threading in order to speed up some processes that use multithreaded software, such as video editing. The 5x1 series also supports 64 bit computing. Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ...


Prescott 2M

Intel, by the first quarter of 2005, released a new Prescott core with 6x0 numbering, codenamed "Prescott 2M". Prescott 2M is also sometimes known by the name of its Xeon derivative, "Irwindale". It features Intel 64, the XD Bit, EIST (Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology), Tm2 (for processors at 3.6GHz and above), and 2 MiB of L2 cache. However, any advantage introduced by the added cache is mostly negated due to higher cache latency, and the double word size if using Intel 64 mode. Rather than being a targeted speed boost the double size cache is intended to provide the same space and hence performance for 64-bit mode operations. This article is about the Intel microprocessor. ... x86-64 is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set; it is a superset of the Intel x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... SpeedStep has lowered this Pentium 4s Clock Speed from 3Ghz to 2. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... x86-64 is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set; it is a superset of the Intel x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


6xx series Prescott 2Ms have incorporated Hyper-Threading in order to speed up some processes that use multithreaded software, such as video editing. Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ...


On 14 November 2005, Intel released Prescott 2M processors with VT (Virtualization Technology, codenamed "Vanderpool") enabled. Intel only released two models of this Prescott 2M category: 662 and 672, running at 3.6 and 3.8 GHz, respectively. is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computing, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. ...


Cedar Mill

The final revision of the Pentium 4 was Cedar Mill, released in early 2006. This was simply a straight shrink of the 600-series core to 65 nm, with no real feature additions. Cedar Mill had a lower heat output than Prescott, with a TDP of 86 W. It has a 65 nm core and features a 31-stage pipeline (just like Prescott), 800 MT/s FSB, Intel 64, HyperThreading and Virtualization Technology. As with Prescott 2M, Cedar Mill also has 2 MiB of L2 cache. It was released as Pentium 6x1 and 6x3 (product code 80552) at frequencies from 3.0 GHz up to 3.6 GHz. None of the 6x1 range (631, 641, 651, and 661) has Virtualization Technology support. As of March 2007 it has not been possible to source 6x3 nor has Intel any records of this product line on their homepage. The 65 nanometer (65 nm) process is the next milestone as of 2005 in semiconductor manufacturing and fabrication. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... In personal computers, the front side bus (FSB) or system bus is the physical bi-directional bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and the northbridge. ... x86-64 is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set; it is a superset of the Intel x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... In computing, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. ... In computing, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources. ...


Overclocking record

In 2007, a frequency of 8.32 GHz was reached by an Italian overclocking team known as SFERA OC Team, using a Pentium 4 641 with a FSB of 520 MHz and a multiplier of 16. This is considered the highest clock frequency ever realized on a consumer CPU.[8]


Successor

Main article: Intel Core 2

The original successor to the Pentium 4 was Tejas, which was scheduled for an early-mid-2005 release. However, it was cancelled a few months after the release of Prescott due to extremely high power consumption (a 2.8 GHz Tejas consumed 150 W of power, compared to around 80 W for a Northwood of the same speed, and 100 W for a comparably clocked Prescott) and development on the NetBurst architecture as a whole ceased, with the exception of the dual-core Pentium D/Extreme Edition and Cedar Mill. The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intels consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. ... Tejas was a code name for Intels microprocessor which was to be a successor to the latest Pentium 4 with Prescott core. ...


Since May 2005, Intel has released dual-core processors based on the Pentium 4 under the names Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition. They represent Intel's shift towards parallelism and their intent to eventually make the bulk of their main processor line dual-core. These came under the code names Smithfield and Presler for the 90 nm and 65 nm parts respectively. Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Pentium Extreme Edition brand logo // Smithfield Pentium Extreme Edition is the brand name given to a series of Intel microprocessors introduced during the 2nd Quarter 2005 Intel Developers Forum, not to be confused with the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition (an earlier, single-core processor occupying the same niche). ...


The ultimate successors to Pentium 4 are the Intel Core 2 processors using the "Conroe" core based upon the Intel Core microarchitecture, released on July 27, 2006. Intel Core 2 processors have, so far, only been released as dual and quad core processors. Single Core counterparts are present in the Intel Core line, primarily for the OEM market. The Core 2 brand refers to a range of Intels consumer 64-bit dual-core and MCM quad-core CPUs with the x86-64 instruction set, and based on the Intel Core microarchitecture, which derived from the 32-bit dual-core Yonah laptop processor. ... The Intel Core microarchitecture (previously known as the Intel Next-Generation Micro-Architecture, or NGMA) is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Microprocessor Hall of Fame. Intel. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  2. ^ Intel Introduces The Pentium® 4 Processor. Intel. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  3. ^ Intel intros 3.0 GHz quad-core Xeon, drops Pentiums. TG Daily. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  4. ^ Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9650 45nm Quad Core CPU. PC Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  5. ^ The 65 nm Pentium D 900's Coming Out Party: Thermal Design Power Overview. Tom's Hardware. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  6. ^ Intel's Pentium 4 Prescott processor. The Tech Report (February 2, 2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  7. ^ How Israel saved Intel. The Seattle Times (April 9, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-07.
  8. ^ Galistel, Andreas. "Team Italy pushes the golden Pentium 641 to 8320MHz", 2004-08-12. Retrieved on 2007-10-06. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Seattle Times is the leading daily newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Intel® Pentium® 4 Processors for Embedded Computing - Overview (652 words)
While incorporating Intel's most advanced embedded processor technologies, the Intel Pentium 4 processor, Intel Prentium 4 Processor with HT Technology, and Intel Pentium 4 processor - M are software-compatible with previous Intel®; Architecture processors.
Intel Pentium 4 Processor with HT Technology: Available at 3.0 GHz and 3.4 GHz with 1M or 2M cache, and a 800 MHz front side bus delivering 6.4 GB of data per second into and out of the processor.
Intel Pentium 4 Processor: Available at 2.0 GHz and 2.6 GHz with a 400 MHz front side bus delivering 3.2 GB of data per second and at 2.8 and 2.4 GHz with a 533 MHz front side bus delivering 4.2 GB of data per second into and out of the processor.
Pentium 4 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4013 words)
The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995.
The original Pentium 4, codenamed "Willamette", ran at 1.4 and 1.5 GHz and was released in November 2000 on the Socket 423 platform.
Pentium 4 processors use a frontside bus that transfers data on all four corners of the square wave (rising, peak, falling, and trough), instead of on one corner as older processors do, so the actual square wave that controls the clock runs at one-quarter of the FSB frequency.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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