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Encyclopedia > Pentecost
The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. At the top is a dove, representing the Holy Spirit. The Virgin Mary stands at the center, surrounded by the Twelve Apostles and other disciples (Musée Condé, Chantilly).
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Pentecost (Ancient Greek: πεντηκοστή [ἡμέρα], pentekostē [hēmera], "the fiftieth day") is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian liturgical year, celebrated the 49th day (7 weeks) after Easter Sunday (the tenth day after Ascension Thursday). Historically and symbolically related to the Jewish harvest festival of Shavuot, it commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus as described in the Book of Acts, Chapter 2. Pentecost is also called Whitsun, Whitsunday, or Whit Sunday, especially in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x938, 428 KB) Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Folio 79r - Pentecost the Musée Condé, Chantilly. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x938, 428 KB) Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Folio 79r - Pentecost the Musée Condé, Chantilly. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... 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In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... 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Contents

Etymology

Pentecost is derived from the Greek name for Shavuot, one of the three Pilgrimage Festivals required in the Law of Moses. It is described mainly in Leviticus 23:5-21 and Deuteronomy 16:8-10. As in Leviticus the Pesah (Passover) begins "in the fourteenth day of the first month (14 Nisan) at even", and the next day begins "the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord" which lasts for seven days (servile work being prohibited). This celebration also marks the beginning of harvest activities (in a Mediterranean climate), therefore "a sheaf of the firstfruits" of the harvest will be waved by the priest before Yahweh "on the morrow after the sabbath". Then, verses 15 and 16 state: The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday (lasting seven days in Israel and among some liberal Diaspora Jews, and eight days among other Diaspora Jews) that commemorates the exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Egypt; it is also observed by some Christians to... Quartodecimanism (fourteenism) was the practice of fixing the date of Easter (in the Bible called Pesach) to the 14th day of Nisan in the Bibles Hebrew Calendar which, according to the Gospels, was the time Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The factual accuracy of this article needs to be verified. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... First Fruits are a religious offering of the first agricultural produce of the harvest. ... Wave offering are peace-offerings so called, because they were waved (Tnufah in Hebrew) by the priests (Ex. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ...

And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete:/ Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbaths shall ye number fifty days (Hebrew: hamishshim yom; Greek: πεντήκοντα ἡμέρας, pentekonta hemeras) and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD. A gift offering (Hebrew: minchah), also referred to as grain offerings, meal offerings, and in the King James Version as meat offerings,[1] is a type of Biblical sacrifice, specifically a sacrifice that did not include meat. ...

The "new dairy offering" consisted in two loaves made from the new wheat (to be waved). Sacrifices for the feast consisted of "seven lambs without blemish of the first year", one young bullock, two rams (this is the burnt offering), the sacrifice of "one kid of the goats for a sin offering", and "two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offerings". This hamishshim yom or pentekonta hemeras marked the end of the harvest. On the other hand, Deuteronomy (16:8-10) states: Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ...

Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread: and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the LORD thy God: thou shalt do no work therein./ Seven weeks shalt thou number unto thee: begin to number seven weeks from such time as thou beginest to put the sickle unto the corn./ And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks [Hebrew: Chag shavuot; Greek: ἑορτὴν ἑβδομάδων, heorten hebdomadon] unto the Lord thy God with a tribute of a freewill offering of thine hand, which thou shalt give unto the LORD thy God, according as the LORD thy God hath blessed thee.

The Hebrew name khag shavuot became the best-known name of the feast, while the Greek heorte hebdomadon remains practically unknown. The feast is also named in Hebrew texts khag hakatsir (feast of the harvest) and yom habbikurim (day of the first fruits).


The date of Pesah was changed during history in the month Nisan, but the procedure of calculating khag shavuot remained the same. However, a debate ignited between Sadducees and Pharisees regarding this procedure. The debate was due to the interpretation of the words "the morrow after the sabbath". The Sadducees considered the sabbath as the usual weekly day and, therefore, calculated the date of Pentecost as the fiftieth day from the Sunday after passover, a formula used today by the Christian Church. The Pharisees decoded the word "sabbath" from Leviticus 23:15 as referring to the first day of "the feast of unleavened bread", which was, at that time, 15 Nisan. Therefore, they numbered fifty days from 16 Nisan, no matter what day of the week it was. Their formula is nowadays in use in Judaism. Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The sect of the Sadducees - possibly from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ...


From the fact that this feast marked the end of harvesting we must not link it exclusively to agriculture, because it is a feast celebrating the relation between Yahweh and His worshippers; but we can note that the quoted Biblical texts are addressed to an agricultural civilization.


Whitsun

Pentecost is also known as "Whitsun" (or "Whit Sunday") in the United Kingdom. The week beginning on Whit Sunday is called "Whitsuntide" (formerly also spelled "Whitsontide") or "Whitsun Week". The term is derived from Middle English whitsonday, from Old English hwīta sunnandæg, "White Sunday", in reference to the white ceremonial robes formally worn on this day. An alternative derivation is from "Wit" or "Wisdom" Sunday, the day when the Apostles were filled with wisdom by the Holy Spirit.[1] Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

"This day is called Wytsonday because the Holy Ghost brought wytte and wisdom into Christis disciples … and filled them full of ghostly wytte." — In die Pentecostis

In the Roman Catholic Christian tradition, the Holy Wisdom of God (Hagia Sophia in Greek) is a divine attribute in which new Christians share to some degree through the sacrament of Confirmation (Confirmation not being a Sacrament in reformed traditions), when they receive the Holy Spirit and share in Pentecost. Many churches are dedicated to it, the most famous being Hagia Sophia in Istanbul (Constantinople). It is sometimes associated with a sainted martyr of the same name, Saint Sophia, whose daughters are Faith, Hope and Charity. Many icons depict the four together.[2] Holy Wisdom, also called Divine Wisdom (Greek: “Holy Wisdom”, Sancta Sophia in Latin) is the theological idea that in God alone is perfect Wisdom to be found. ... confirmed redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Hagia Sophia can refer to: The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, a former Christian church, now a museum, in Istanbul, formerly Constantinople. ... Faith, Hope and Charity (Latin: Fides, Spes et Caritas, New Testament Greek: (Pistis, Elpis, and Agape), Church Slavonic: (Věra, Nadežda, Ljuby) are a group of Christian martyred saints. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It has also been suggested that "Whitsun" means simply "White Sunday"[3] because, "(i)n the Primitive Church the newly-baptised wore white from Easter to Pentecost, and were called alba’ti ("white-robed"). The last of the Sundays, which was also the chief festival, was called emphatically Domin’ica in Albis ("Sunday in White")."[4]


The only two other Germanic languages to name this holiday 'Whitsunday' are Faroese and Icelandic, where it is called Hvítasunnudagur (White-Sunday). It and the following Monday, which is called Annar hvítasunnudagur (2nd White-Sunday) are both official holidays in the Faroe Islands and Iceland. Welsh, a Celtic language, refers to it as Y Sulgwyn (Sul: Sunday; gwyn: white).


Significance

During history, the Pentecost has acquired great meanings. The Rabbinic Judaism (Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, 68b; Midrash, Tanhuma, 26c) commemorated through khag shavuot the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai, because, according to Exodus 19:1, this event took place on the fiftieth day after the departure from Egypt. Some Christians place on the day of Pentecost the birth of the Church, a phenomenon characterized by the Descent of the Holy Spirit. The harvest itself can be a metaphor of the Final Judgement, as shown by Jesus in Matthew 9:37-38: Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Then saith He unto His disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few;/ Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He will send forth labourers into His harvest.

Christians understand Pentecost as a powerful feast of the salvation, because it speaks about the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai, about the founding of the Church, and about the Final Judgement. Pentecost can be seen parallel to Shavout, As Easter is to Passover. On Passover, the Jews were delivered from slavery in Egypt; On Easter, mankind was delivered from slavery to sin. On Shavout the Children of Israel received the Law; On Pentecost, the Church received the fullness of the Holy Spirit. Some basic numerology will enlighten us more: hamishshim yom is day 7²+1. points to the Creation after eschaton, i.e. the "new heaven" and the "new earth" from Revelation 21:1; while the +1 shows Who is involved in the process: Yahweh, the Lord of the covenant (the mûlâ, Jewish circumcision, which is "a token of the covenant", must be done on the 7+1 day from birth), in Jewish mentality; Yahweh, the Lord of the covenant, through Jesus resurrected (the Resurrection took place in the 7+1 day of the week), in Christian mentality. Look up numerology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


The events experienced by the Apostles in Jerusalem during khag shavuot were understood by the Apostles as the sending of the Holy Ghost, which had been promised by Jesus (John 14:26): For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

But the Comforter [παράκλητος], which is the Holy Ghost [το πνευμα το ‘άγιον], Whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you. Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The Apostles were very aware that what happened to them was a Descent of the Holy Spirit, so, in his sermon, Peter quotes the 2nd chapter of the Book of Joel. There are, in fact, three major prophetic texts which speak about the Descent of the Holy Spirit: Ezekiel 36:27, Isaiah 44:3 and, of course, Joel 3:1-5 (KJV has Joel 2:28-32). The Christian dogma, based upon John 14:20, affirms that the Descent of the Holy Spirit signifies the extension of the divine body of Christ in all the believers, being the last fundamental act of the objective salvation (i.e. the salvation of mankind). The phenomenon was closely linked to the eschaton (the end of the world) by Joel and it is very symptomatic that Peter quoted, on this matter, no other but Joel: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside_down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Joel is part of the Jewish Tanakh, and also the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Eschaton can refer to: The end of everything, as studied in the subject of eschatology. ...

And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:/ And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out My spirit./ And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke./ The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come./ And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said, and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call. Mount Zion (Hebrew: ‎ transliteration: Har Tziyyon - Height) is the ancient name of a mountain in jerusalem southe of the old city. ...

Events

Descent of the Holy Spirit

Eastern Orthodox Icon of the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles. At the bottom is an allegorical figure, called Kosmos, which symbolizes the world.

The events took place on the day of the Pentecost, in Jerusalem, at 09:00 ("the third hour of the day", according to Jewish timekeeping). The community of Christ's disciples, approximately 120 people, was gathered "into an upper room" in a building that Tradition locates on Mount Zion. The Tradition also says that it was the same room where Jesus ate His Last Supper. The tremendous phenomenon is very well described in Acts 2:1-4: Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Cenacle is the traditional Latin term for the Upper Room, or the site of The Last Supper. ... The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... Mount Zion (Hebrew: ‎ transliteration: Har Tziyyon - Height) is the ancient name of a mountain in jerusalem southe of the old city. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ...

And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.
And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting.
And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them.
And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

The phrase "a rushing mighty wind" is almost a literal translation of the Hebrew word ruah, meaning in Hebrew texts the Spirit of God. The experience is a powerful mystic one, hence the sensation of sacred possession (misinterpreted by passers-by as drunkenness) and the advent of supernatural gifts: the speaking with other tongues (glossolalia) and prophesying. During the Apostolic times, many of the people who received Christian baptism experienced the same extraordinary gifts. Therefore, according to some, the real Christian baptism is a personal Pentecost. Tongues redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Baptism of the three-thousand

According to the Book of Acts, the experience of the Pentecost was noticed by all in the large crowd, causing confusion and awe. The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...

When they heard this sound, a crowd came together in bewilderment, because each one heard them speaking in his own language…. Then how is it that each of us hears them in his own native language? …Amazed and perplexed, they asked one another, "What does this mean?" Acts 2:6-12

Then the Apostle Peter, standing with the eleven other apostles, spoke to the crowd. He explained that these strange events had been predicted by the prophet Joel, and that Jesus' resurrection from the dead and exaltation to heaven had been prophesied by David. Peter explained that these events confirmed David's prophecy. Peter then exhorted his listeners to turn to Christ. When Peter was asked what men should do he responded by saying "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." About three thousand responded to Peter's sermon and were baptized and were therefore "added" to the number of believers or the church. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Book of Joel. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by...


Traditions and holidays

A pilgrim procession of the Way of the Cross, a traditional Roman Catholic celebration of Pentecost in Vepriai, Lithuania
  • In Denmark, it is rarely celebrated elaborately. However, it is still celebrated as a public holiday, and children have the following day off from school. Many Danes, especially youths, do not know the meaning of pentecost.
  • In certain states of Germany, such as the Catholic states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, depending on when a school began classes for the year, Pentecost can be a two week break for students similar to a Spring break in the United States.
  • In Italy it was customary to scatter rose petals from the ceiling of the churches to recall the miracle of the fiery tongues; hence in Sicily and elsewhere in Italy Whitsunday is called Pasqua rosatum. The Italian name Pasqua rossa comes from the red colours of the vestments used on Whitsunday.
  • In France it was customary to blow trumpets during Divine service, to recall the sound of the mighty wind which accompanied the Descent of the Holy Spirit.
  • In England the gentry amused themselves with horse races. The Whitsun Ales or merrymakings are almost wholly obsolete in England. At these ales the Whitsun plays were performed. In the old industrial heartlands of the North of England, in particular Greater Manchester, the first Friday after Pentecost is known as Whit Friday and is marked by Whit Walks and is often the occasion for brass band competitions.
  • In Poland the Pentecost is called "the Green Holiday" - people decorate their houses with green branches, which - according to tradition - are said to bring God's blessing upon the home and the people living in it. Another custom, which is slowly becoming rare, is making processions to the fields, where the crops are blessed.
  • In Ukraine, Pentecost is called "Green Sunday". The inside of the church is covered with fresh branches of green deciduous trees. Green branches are also placed on the outside banisters and doors of the church and people also place a green branch on the door of their homes. Clergy and altar boys also wear green vestments as do many in the congregation. This custom comes from the fact that on Pentecost 3000 people were baptized into the new faith. Green symbolizes new life and Pentecost is thought to be the birthday of the church.
St. Andrew's Cathedral, St. Petersburg, decorated for Pentecost.
  • In the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, Pentecost is one of the 12 Great Feasts of the church year, and is second in importance only to Pascha (Easter). It is celebrated with an All-Night Vigil on the Eve of the Feast and Divine Liturgy on the day of the Feast. An extraordinary service called the Kneeling Prayer, is served on the night of Pentecost. This is a Vespers service to which are added three sets of long poetical prayers, the composition of Saint Basil the Great, during which everyone makes a full prostration, touching their foreheads to the floor (prostrations in church having been forbidden from the day of Pascha (Easter) up to this point). The churches are decorated with greenery, and among the Russians the clergy and faithful carry flowers and green branches in their hands during the services. Pentecost is a traditional time for baptisms. The week prior to the feast is known as "green week", during which all manner of plants and herbs are gathered. The Sunday of Pentecost is called "Trinity Sunday," the next day is called "Monday of the Holy Spirit," and Tuesday of Pentecost week is called the "Third Day of the Trinity."[5] The Eastern Orthodox church considers the whole week following Pentecost to be an ecclesiastical feast (see Afterfeast) and is a fast-free week. The second Monday after Pentecost is the beginning of the Apostles' Fast (which continues until the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul on June 29). Theologically, Orthodox do not consider Pentecost to be the "birthday" of the Church; they see the Church as having existed before the creation of the world (cf. The Shepherd of Hermas[6]) The Orthodox icon of the feast depicts the Twelve Apostles seated in a semi-circle (sometimes the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) is shown sitting in the center of them). At the top of the icon, the Holy Spirit, in the form of tongues of fire, is descending upon them. At the bottom is an allegorical figure, called Kosmos, which symbolizes the world. Although Kosmos is crowned with glory he sits in the darkness caused by the ignorance of God. He is holding a towel on which have been placed 12 scrolls, representing the teaching of the Twelve Apostles.
  • In Sweden Pentecost is celebrated rarely. The Saturday is called "Pentecost Eve," and the following Sunday "Pentecost Day." The Monday is called "Second Pentecost Day," but since 2005, it is no longer a public holiday. The National Holiday - 6th June - was made a "Red Day" instead. "Red Days" are so called because the dates of holidays are coloured with red on Swedish calendars.

The following Monday is a holiday in much of Europe. The day is known as Whit Monday in England, Wales, and Ireland, and is also celebrated in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, The Netherlands, Poland, Belgium, parts of Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Hungary. Since 1967, however, Whit Monday has not been a public holiday in the United Kingdom; the holiday has been moved to the fixed date of the last Monday in May, which sometimes but by no means always coincides with Whit Monday. Whit Monday also ceased to be a statutory holiday in France in 2005, where the abolishment led to strong protests. Also in Sweden Whit Monday is no longer a holiday and June 6 (Swedish National Day) has become a day off. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 803 pixel, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1071 × 803 pixel, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Stations of the Cross (or Way of the Cross; in Latin, Via Crucis or Via Dolorosa) refers to the depiction of the final days (or Passion) of Jesus, and the Roman Catholic and Anglican devotion commemorating the Passion. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality UkmergÄ— district municipality Elderate Vepriai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Vepriai elderate Population (rank) 1,000 in 2005 (unranked) First mentioned 1384 Granted city rights Vepriai is a largest town in UkmergÄ— district, Lithuania, situated south-west... 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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... // Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church Easter/Pascha The feast of the Resurrection of Jesus, called Easter or Pascha, is the greatest of the feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... The All-Night Vigil (Russian: ), Opus 37, is an a cappella choral composition by Sergei Rachmaninoff, written and premiered in 1915. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Basil (ca. ... Look up Genuflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Medieval Russian icon of the Old Testament Trinity by St. ... An Afterfeast is a period of celebration attached to one of the Great Feasts celebrated by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches (roughly equivalent to what in the West would be called an Octave). ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Feast of Sts. ... The Shepherd of Hermas is a Christian work of the first or second century which had great authority in ancient times and was considered by some as one of the books of the Bible. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Dates for Pentecost, 2002-2020
Year Western Eastern
2002 May 19 June 23
2003 June 8 June 15
2004 May 30
2005 May 15 June 19
2006 June 4 June 11
2007 May 27
2008 May 11 June 15
2009 May 31 June 7
2010 May 23
2011 June 12
2012 May 27 June 3
2013 May 19 June 23
2014 June 8
2015 May 24 May 31
2016 May 15 June 19
2017 June 4
2018 May 20 May 27
2019 June 9 June 16
2020 May 31 June 7

The ultimate origin of all customs associating Pentecost with greenery would ostensibly be the Jewish holiday of Shavuot when it is customary to decorate synagogues with greenery. This holiday marks the time when Moses received the Torah on Mount Sinai on behalf of the Nation of Israel, and tradition holds that Mount Sinai, despite being in the wilderness of the Sinai desert, miraculously flowered and bloomed in honor of this occasion. The custom of decorating synagogues with greenery on Shavuot, mentioned in many halakhic works, commemorates the miracle, and may perhaps date back to the time of the Jewish Temple. The Mishna records that the Oxen leading the processions bringing "first fruits" to the Temple (which began on Shavuot) wore wreaths of Olive branches on their heads. (Bikkurim 3:3) While there are no mishnaic sources for the Temple itself having been decorated with greenery at that time, the Tractate of Midot records there having been one band of flowery engravings surrounding the altar, which may be connected with commemorating the same miracle. What's more, there is no Talmudic record of what was done with the said wreaths following the slaughtering of the oxen. It would seem quite probable that the wreaths would have remained ad loc, decorating the area, in one sense or another. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Jewish temple: Jewish temple or The Jewish Temple, may refer to the original two ancient Jewish Temples in Jerusalem. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, Repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Zeraim (זרעים) is the first Order of the Mishnah (and Tosefta and Talmud). ...


Whitsunday remains one of the Scottish term days, at which debts are paid and leases traditionally expire, but this Scottish Whitsunday is now always considered to fall on May 15. Scottish Term Days were relevant to the people of Scotland in the Middle Ages. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ordinations to the diaconate and priesthood are often held on Pentecost.


Date

Pentecost does not fall on the same fixed calendar date every year, but is part of the Moveable Cycle of the ecclesiastical year. According to Church tradition, Pentecost is always seven weeks after Easter Sunday; that is to say, 50 days after Easter (inclusive of Easter Day). Said otherwise, it falls on the eighth Sunday, counting Easter Day (see article on Computus for the calculation of the date of Easter). Pentecost falls in mid- to late spring in the Northern Hemisphere and mid- to late autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, the cycle of the moveable feast is built around Pascha, or Easter. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... Spring is one of the four temperate seasons. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... This article is about the temperate season. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


Since the date of Easter is calculated differently in the East and the West, see Easter controversy, the two traditions will celebrate the feast on different days most years (though in some years both celebrations will coincide on the same day, as in 2007). The earliest possible date in the West is May 10 (as in 1818 and 2285), and latest possible date is June 13 (as in 1943 and 2038). In the East, the earliest possible date is May 24, and the latest possible date is June 27. The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate Easter. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

  • Pentecontad calendar

References

Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable - sometimes referred to simply as Brewers - is a reference work containing definitions and explanations of many famous phrases, allusions and figures, whether historical or mythical. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Patrologia Graeca (or Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca) is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers in the Greek language in 161 volumes plus a separate index, produced in 1857–1866 by J.P. Migne. ...

External links

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Pentecost
Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...

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