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Encyclopedia > Pentazocine
Pentazocine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1S,9S,13S)-1,13-dimethyl-10-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-
10-azatricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2,4,6-trien-4-ol
Identifiers
CAS number 359-83-1
ATC code N02AD01
PubChem 441278
DrugBank APRD01173
Chemical data
Formula C19H27NO 
Mol. mass 285.424 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ~20% orally
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 2 to 3 hours
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C/D (U.S.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Legal status

Schedule IV (U.S.) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation of the United States governments fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances. ...

Routes Oral

Pentazocine is a synthetically-prepared narcotic (opioid analgesic) drug used to treat mild to moderately severe pain. Pentazocine is sold under several brand names, such as Talwin (with naloxone) and Talacen (with acetaminophen). It should be noted that this compound may exist as one of two enantiomers, named (+)-pentazocine and (-)-pentazocine. (-)-pentazocine is a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, while (+)-pentazocine is not, and displays selectivity to the related sigma receptor. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ...

Contents

Adverse effects

Side effects are similar to those of morphine, but Pentazocine may be more likely to cause hallucinations and other psychotomimetic effects; cardiovascular effects make it unsuitable for use in myocardial infarction. Unlike morphine its respiratory depressant action is subject to a "ceiling" effect. It can be used as analgesics for dental extractions except in heroin addict patients. This article is about the drug. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Recreational use

In the 1980s, recreational drug users discovered that combining pentazocine with the antihistamine tripelennamine (most commonly dispensed under the brand name Pyribenzamine) produced a euphoric sensation much like that brought on by heroin. Users who were already addicted to the latter often used this combination when heroin was unavailable to them. Since tripelennamine tablets are typically blue in color, the pentazocine/tripelennamine combination acquired the slang name Ts and blues. After health-care professionals and drug-enforcement officials became aware of this scenario, the narcotic-antagonist naloxone was added to preparations containing pentazocine, and the reported incidence of its abuse has declined precipitously since. It is commonly asserted that the use of pentazocine with tripelennamine originated amongst dentists, doctors, and nurses in the Middle Western United States. A more recent development is that pentazocine is combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) via the oral route or insufflation. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Tripelennamine (INN, also known as pyribenzamine) is a first generation pyridine antipruritic and antihistamine in the ethylenediamine class. ... Tripellenamine (Pyribenzamine) is a first generation antihistamine. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ...


Administration

Pentazocine is administered by subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous injection as the lactate: The usual dose is the equivalent of pentazocine 30 to 60 mg every 3 to 4 hours; it should not be necessary to exceed 360 mg daily. It is also available in 25mg pills. The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Lactic acid is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. ...


In a study published in the March 24, 2003 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team led by McGill University researcher Jeffrey Mogil found that women with red hair require less pentazocine for pain relief than do women with other hair colours or men of any hair colour. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences. ... McGill University. ... Woman with red hair Man with red hair Red hair (also referred to as auburn, ginger, ranga or titian) varies from a deep orange-red through burnt orange to bright copper. ...


Legal status

Pentazocine is still classified in Schedule IV under the Controlled Substances Act in the United States, even with the addition of the naloxone. Internationally, pentazocine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[1] The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ...


External links

  • Eurekalert report on PNAS article

 
 

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