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Encyclopedia > Pentagram
A pentagram

A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. The word pentagram comes from the Greek word πεντάγραμμον (pentagrammon), a noun form of πεντάγραμμος (pentagrammos) or πεντέγραμμος (pentegrammos), a word meaning roughly "five-lined" or "five lines". Image File history File links Pentagram_green. ... Image File history File links Pentagram_green. ... In geometry, a star polygon is a complex, equilateral equiangular polygon, so named for its starlike appearance, created by connecting one vertex of a simple, regular, n-sided polygon to another, non-adjacent vertex and continuing the process until the original vertex is reached again. ... The golden five-pointed star. ... In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ...


Pentagrams were used symbolically in ancient Greece and Babylonia. The Pentagram has magical associations, and many people who practice neopagan faiths wear jewelry incorporating the symbol. Christians once more commonly used the pentagram to represent the five wounds of Jesus,[1][2] and it also has associations within Freemasonry. The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ...


The pentagram has long been associated with the planet Venus, and the worship of the goddess Venus, or her equivalent. It is also associated with the Roman Lucifer, who was Venus as the Morning Star, the bringer of light and knowledge. It is most likely to have originated from the observations of prehistoric astronomers.[citation needed] When viewed from Earth, successive inferior conjunctions of Venus plot a nearly perfect pentagram shape around the zodiac every eight years. Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Lucifer, as depicted in Collin de Plancys Dictionnaire Infernal (1863). ... Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ...


The word "pentacle" is sometimes used synonymously with "pentagram", although their technical usages are different, and their etymologies may be unrelated.[3] A pentacle or pantacle is an amulet, generally made of parchment, paper or metal (although it can be of other materials), on which the symbol of a spirit being evoked is drawn. ...

Contents

Early history

Sumer

The first known uses of the pentagram are found in Mesopotamian writings dating to about 3000 BC. The Sumerian pentagrams served as pictograms for the word "UB," meaning "corner, angle, nook; a small room, cavity, hole; pitfall," suggesting something very similar to the pentemychos (see below on the Pythagorean use for what pentemychos means). In René Labat's index system of Sumerian hieroglyphs/pictograms it is shown with two points up.[4] In the Babylonian context, the edges of the pentagram were probably orientations: forward, backward, left, right, and "above".[citation needed] These directions also had an astrological meaning, representing the five planets Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and Saturn, and Venus as the "Queen of Heaven" (Ishtar) above.[citation needed] Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... A hieroglyph is one part of an ideographic writing system that is often found carved in stone. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... This article is about the planet. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... For other uses, see Ishtar (disambiguation). ...


Pythagoreans

The Pythagoreans called the pentagram ύγιεια Hygieia ("health"; also the Greek goddess of health, Hygieia), and saw in the pentagram a mathematical perfection (see Geometry section below). The Pythagoreans were a Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians, mathematicians, and philosophers who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. ... In Greek mythology, Hygieia (Roman equivalent: Salus) was a daughter of Asclepius. ...


The five vertices were also used by the medieval neo-pythagoreans (whom one could argue were not pythagoreans at all) to represent the five classical elements: Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand “The Four Elements” redirects here. ...

  • ύδωρ, Hydor, water
  • Γαια, Gaia earth
  • ίδέα, Idea or ίερόν, Hieron "a divine thing"
  • έιλή, Heile, heat (fire)
  • άήρ, Aer, air

The vertices were labeled in the letters of υ-γ-ι-ει-α. The ordering (clockwise or counter-clockwise) and starting vertex varied. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another as a result of a difference in temperature. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, frost, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The ancient Pythagorean pentagram was drawn with two points up and represented the doctrine of Pentemychos. Pentemychos means "five recesses" or "five chambers", also known as the pentagonas — the five-angle, and was the title of a work written by Pythagoras's teacher and friend Pherecydes of Syros.[5] It was also the "place" where the first pre-cosmic offspring had to be put in order for the ordered cosmos to appear. The pentemychos is in Tartaros.[citation needed] Pherecydes of Syros (in Greek: Φερεχύδης) was a Greek thinker from the island of Siros, Magna Graecia of the 6th century BC. Pherecydes authored the Heptamychia, one of the first attested prose works in Greek literature, which formed an important bridge between... In Greek mythology, Tartarus, or Tartaros, is both a deity and a place in the underworld - even lower than Hades. ...


In very early Greek thought, Tartaros (or Chaos, according to Hesiod) was the primordial Darkness from which the cosmos is born. While it was locked away after the emergence and ordering of the cosmos, it still continued to have an influence. In fact, it was known as "the subduer of both gods and men" (Homer), and it was from this that the world got its "psyche" (soul) and its "daimon". The Boundless Darkness held influence through Mychos or Krater. Apart from being the gateway from "there" to "here" it was also a way in the opposite direction, from "here" to "there", as is evident in the many tales about how Greek heroes, philosophers and mystics descended through Krater to Tartaros/Hades (the distinction between the two was very optional back then) in quest for Wisdom. The Underworld as the source of wisdom was the rule. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chaos. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... A krater (Greek κρατηρ, from the Greek verb κεραννυμι, to mix. ... A krater (Greek κρατηρ, from the Greek verb κεραννυμι, to mix. ... In Greek mythology, Tartarus, or Tartaros, is both a deity and a place in the underworld - even lower than Hades. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


Tartaros was also later seen as the "chthonic realm" where all the enemies of the cosmic order were locked away, also called the "prison-house" of Zeus. It was said to lay outside of the aither over which Zeus had lordship; what we today would call space, back then called "Zeus' defense-wall," yet it was also beneath the earth. Plato (in Cratylus) said that the aither had a penetrating power that permeates the whole world, and he found it both inside and outside of our bodies. The pentemychos is outside, or in-side, of the aither. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. In the dialogue, Socrates is asked by two men, Cratylus and Hermogenes, to advise them whether names are conventional or natural, that is, whether language is a system of arbitrary signs or whether words have an...


In the play Medea by Euripides, the sorceress Medea calls upon Hecate with the words, "By that dread queen whom I revere before all others and have chosen to share my task, by Hecate who dwells within my inmost chamber, not one of them shall wound my heart and rue it not." Note that she speaks of the Heart. The inmost chamber is the Mychos. Normally, Hecate and Persephone are portrayed solely as the rulers of the Underworld. In Medea, however, Hecate is called the Lady of Tartaros, Phulada (Guardian), Propulaia (Before the Gates), Kleidophoros (Key-bearer) and Kleidoukhos (Key-holder, Priestess). This Underworld of the Greeks and Pythagoreans is also the "inmost chamber" and the Core of Inner Being. Medea by Evelyn De Morgan. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ... Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Persephónē) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ...


European occultism

Man inscribed in a pentagram, from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's Libri tres de occulta philosophia. The five signs at the pentagram's vertices are astrological.
Another pentagram from Agrippa's book. This one has the Pythagorean letters inscribed around the circle.
The occultist and magician Eliphas Levi's pentagram, which he considered to be a symbol of the microcosm, or human.

Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa and others perpetuated the popularity of the pentagram as a magic symbol, keeping the Pythagorean attributions of elements to the five points. By the mid-19th century a further distinction had developed amongst occultists regarding the pentagram's orientation. With a single point upwards it depicted spirit presiding over the four elements of matter, and was essentially "good". However the other way up was considered evil. Image File history File links Pentagram_and_human_body_(Agrippa). ... Image File history File links Pentagram_and_human_body_(Agrippa). ... Cornelius Agrippa, as portrayed in Libri tres de occulta philosophia. ... Libri tres de occulta philosophia (Latin: Three Books about Occult Philosophy) is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippas penetrating study of Occult Philosophy, widely acknowledged as a significant contribution to the Renaissance philosophical discussion concerning the powers of magic and its relationship with religion. ... In geometry, a vertex (plural vertices) is a special kind of point, usually a corner of a polygon, polyhedron, or higher dimensional polytope. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Another pentagram from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippas Libri tres de occulta philosophia scanned by Jörgen Nixdorf This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Another pentagram from Heinrich Cornelius Agrippas Libri tres de occulta philosophia scanned by Jörgen Nixdorf This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (612 × 612 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pentagram Portal:Spirituality User:Fuzzypeg Portal... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (612 × 612 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pentagram Portal:Spirituality User:Fuzzypeg Portal... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spirit: Elizabethans who claimed magical knowledge A magician is a person skilled in the mysterious and hidden art of magic, which can be described as either the act of entertaining with tricks that are in apparent violation of natural law, such as those... Eliphas Lévi Eliphas Lévi, born Alphonse Louis Constant, (February 8, 1810 - May 31, 1875) was a French author and magician. ... Macrocosm and microcosm is an ancient Greek schema of seeing the same patterns reproduced in all levels of reality. ... Cornelius Agrippa, as portrayed in Libri tres de occulta philosophia. ...

"A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates."[6]
"Let us keep the figure of the Five-pointed Star always upright, with the topmost triangle pointing to heaven, for it is the seat of wisdom, and if the figure is reversed, perversion and evil will be the result."[7]

Religious symbolism

Christianity

A goat's head inscribed in a pentagram, from La Clef de la Magie Noire by the Rosicrucian Stanislas de Guaita (1897). The epigraph reads "Leviathan" (outer circle) and "Samael" and "Lilith" (inner circle).

The pentagram was used as a Christian symbol for the five senses,[8] and if the letters S, A, L, V, and S are inscribed in the points, it can be taken to mean a symbol of health (from Latin salus).[citation needed] Image File history File links Pentagram_with_one_point_down_(de_Guaita). ... Image File history File links Pentagram_with_one_point_down_(de_Guaita). ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... It has been suggested that Leviathan in rabbinic literature be merged into this article or section. ... Samael is an important figure in Talmudic and post-Talmudic lore, a figure who is accuser, seducer, and destroyer. ... “Lilitu” redirects here. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ...


Medieval Christians believed it to symbolise the five wounds of Christ. The pentagram was believed to protect against witches and demons.[9]


The pentagram figured in the heavily symbolic Arthurian romances.[9] It appears on the shield of Sir Gawain in the 14th Century poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In the poem the five lines of the star are given multiple meanings: they represent the five senses, five fingers, the five wounds of Christ,[10] the five joys that Mary had of Jesus (the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Resurrection, the Ascension and the Assumption), and the five virtues of knighthood which Gawain hopes to embody: noble generosity, fellowship, purity, courtesy and compassion. A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... In Arthurian legend, Sir Gawain (Gawan, Gawein) features as a knight of the Round Table. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... A key piece of the Paleologan Mannerism - the Annunciation icon from Ohrid. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


Probably due to misinterpretation of symbols used by ceremonial magicians, it later became associated with Satanism and subsequently rejected by most of Christianity sometime in the twentieth century.[9]


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has traditionally used pentagrams and five-pointed stars in Temple architecture, particularly the Nauvoo Illinois Temple[11] and the Salt Lake Temple. These symbols derived from traditional morning star pentagrams that are no longer commonly used in mainstream Christianity.[12] The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The Salt Lake Temple, operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the best-known Mormon temple. ... See also: Nauvoo Temple for a historical overview of the original structure on the same site. ... The Salt Lake Temple is the largest (of more than 120) and best-known temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...


Judaism

The pentagram was the official seal of the city of Jerusalem for a time.[9] For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Satanism

Satanists use a pentagram with two points up, often inscribed in a double circle, with the head of a goat inside the pentagram. This is referred to as the Sigil of Baphomet. They use it much the same way as the Pythagoreans, as Tartaros means Hell in Christian terminology (the word is used as such in the Bible, referring to the place where the fallen angels are fettered). The Pythagorean Greek letters are most often replaced by the Hebrew letters לויתן forming the name Leviathan. Less esoteric LaVeyan Satanists use it as a sign of rebellion or religious identification, the three downward points symbolising rejection of the holy Trinity. Satanism is a religious or philosophical movement centered around Satan or another entity identified with Satan, or centered around the forces of nature, particularly human nature, represented by Satan as an archetype. ... The Sigil of Baphomet The Sigil of Baphomet has its origins in accusations of demonic worship by the medieval Knights Templar. ... “The Inferno” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Evil Angels be merged into this article or section. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... It has been suggested that Leviathan in rabbinic literature be merged into this article or section. ... Satanism Associated organizations The Church of Satan First Satanic Church Prominent figures Anton LaVey | Blanche Barton | Peter H. Gilmore | Peggy Nadramia | Karla LaVey Associated concepts Left-Hand Path | Objectivism | Pentagonal Revisionism | Suitheism | Survival of the fittest | Might is Right Books and publications The Satanic Bible | The Satanic Rituals | The Satanic...


Neopaganism

A typical Neopagan pentagram (circumscribed): a symbol used in many Neopagan traditions to represent earth, air, fire and water, plus the fifth element of quintessence or Spirit.

Many Neopagans, especially Wiccans, use the pentagram as a symbol of faith similar to the Christian cross or the Jewish Star of David. It is not, however, a universal symbol for Neopaganism, and is rarely used by Reconstructionists. Its religious symbolism is commonly explained by reference to the neo-Pythagorean understanding that the five vertices of the pentagram represent the four elements with the addition of Spirit as the uppermost point. As a representation of the elements, the pentagram is involved in the Wiccan practice of summoning the elemental spirits of the four directions at the beginning of a ritual. Image File history File links Pentagram_circumscribed. ... Image File history File links Pentagram_circumscribed. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Several ancient Classical Element Greek version of these ideas persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture. ... In alchemy, among the classical elements, quintessence (meaning fifth element, along with earth, air, fire, and water) was another term for aether; it is the substance of which the heavenly bodies were supposed to be composed. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous Armenian khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The Star of David The Star of David in the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text, the Leningrad Codex, dated 1008. ... Romuva Spring JorÄ— festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... Several ancient Classical Element Greek version of these ideas persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The outer circle of the circumscribed pentagram is sometimes interpreted as binding the elements together or bringing them into harmony. The Neopagan pentagram is generally displayed with one point up, partly because of the "inverted" goat's head pentagram's association with Satanism; however, within traditional forms of Wicca a pentagram with two points up is associated with the Second Degree Initiation and in this context has no relation to Satanism. The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ...


Because of a perceived association with Satanism and also because of negative societal attitudes towards Neopagan religions and the "occult", many United States schools have sought to prevent students from displaying the pentagram on clothing or jewelry.[13][14][15] In public schools, such actions by administrators have been determined to be in violation of students' First Amendment right to free exercise of religion. The word occult comes from the Latin occultus (clandestine, hidden, secret), referring to knowledge of the hidden.[1] In the medical sense it is used commonly to refer to a structure or process that is hidden, e. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ... The Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, taken with the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment make up the Religion Clauses. ...


Thelema

Aleister Crowley also made use of the pentagram and in his Thelemic system of magick: an adverse or inverted pentagram represents the descent of spirit into matter, not the triumph over matter which was considered evil as taught by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ... Thelema is the English spelling of the Greek word Θελημα which means will or intention. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... In religion evil refers to anything against the will or law of the god(s). ... The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn) was a magical order of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, practicing a form of theurgy and spiritual development. ...


Samael Aun Weor

Samael Aun Weor used the Pentagram to represent man's Atman, or Internal Christ. When a man's limbs are outstretched thus that his feet are planted on the ground while his head is situated atop his body it creates the omnipotent symbol of the pentagram. Through the Mantra "Klim, Krishna, Govindaya, Gopijana, Vallebayah, Swahah" one's inner being is said to be awakened and come to the initiate's aid. Aun Weor stated that no demon could resist the power of this mantra, since one's Logos cannot be overcome by a demon of any stature. Samael Aun Weor Samael Aun Weor (March 16, 1917 - December 24, 1977) was a prolific writer, lecturer and teacher of occultism. ... Atman may refer to a concept in Hindu and Buddhist traditions: Atman (Hinduism) Atman (Buddhism) See also Anatta (anatman) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Look up logos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In contrast to representing one's Logos, the inverted pentagram represents one's Umbral Guardian, the malignant antithesis of the divine father. When the pentagram's inferior rays point upwards, it represents Satan. This symbol is therefore shown above as the goat of the Witches' Sabbath, which serves as a call to the vast columns of demons. In Christian folk lore the Sabbath (or witch Sabbath to some people) is the name given to gatherings supposed to have been celebrated by Satanists, witches and warlocks to honor the Devil, offend God, Jesus, the sacraments, the cross, and perform unholy rites. ...


Political symbolism

Flags

While a solid five-pointed star is found on many flags, the pentagram is relatively rare. It appears on two national flags (those of Ethiopia and Morocco) and in some coats of arms. See gallery of flags with stars. The golden five-pointed star. ...


According to Ivan Sache, on the Moroccan flags, the pentagram represents the link between God and the nation.[16] It is also possible that both flags use the pentagram as a symbol of King Solomon (see Seal of Solomon), the archetypal wise king of Jewish, Christian and Muslim lore. It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... In Medieval Jewish, Islamic and Christian legends, the Seal of Solomon was a magical signet ring said to have been possessed by King Solomon (or Sulayman in the Islamic version), which variously gave him the power to command demons (or jinni), or to speak with animals. ...


The symbol also represents the five pillars of the Muslim faith and five daily times of prayer.


Other organizations

Order of the Eastern Star

Order of the Eastern Star emblem as shown on a memorabilia cup and saucer

The Order of the Eastern Star, a fraternal organization associated with Freemasonry, has employed a point-down pentagram as its symbol, with the five isosceles triangles of the points colored red, blue, yellow, white and green. This is an older form of the order's emblem, and it is now more commonly depicted with the central pentagon twisted 36° so that it is no longer strictly a pentagram. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... General Grand Chapter logo The Order of the Eastern Star is the largest fraternal organization in the world that both men and women can join. ... General Grand Chapter logo The Order of the Eastern Star is the largest fraternal organization in the world that both men and women can join. ... The Masonic Square and Compasses. ... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ...


In literature

In the medieval romance of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the pentagram on Gawain's shield is given a Christian interpretation (see above). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ...


In Goethe's Faust, the pentagram prevents Mephistopheles from leaving a room.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Faust depicted in an etching by Rembrandt van Rijn (circa 1650) Faust or Faustus (the Latin for auspicious or lucky) is the protagonist of a popular German legend in which a mediæval scholar makes a pact with the Devil. ... Mephistopheles flying over Wittenberg, in a lithograph by Eugène Delacroix. ...

Mephistopheles:
I must confess, my stepping o'er
Thy threshold a slight hindrance doth impede;
The wizard-foot doth me retain.
Faust:
The pentagram thy peace doth mar?
To me, thou son of hell, explain,
How earnest thou in, if this thine exit bar?
Could such a spirit aught ensnare?

In H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos stories, the version of The Elder Sign devised by August Derleth is a warped pentagram with a flaming eye or pillar of flame in the center. It was first described in Derleth's novel, The Lurker at the Threshold. (This was, however, different from the symbol that Lovecraft himself had envisaged.) Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. ... Cthulhu and Rlyeh The Cthulhu Mythos encompasses the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and associated horror fiction writers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In Dan Brown's novel The Da Vinci Code, the pentagram represents Venus, based on the successive inferior conjunctions of Venus against the Zodiac. Dan Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author of thriller fiction, best known for the controversial 2003 bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code. ... This article is about the novel. ... The term zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through constellations that divide the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of celestial longitude. ...


In Japanese culture, the pentagram (五芒星 gobōsei) is a symbol of magical power, associated with the onmyoji Abe no Seimei; it is a diagram of the "overcoming cycle" of the five Chinese elements. As a predominantly non-Christian country, with a different set of associations attached to the symbol, there is no social stigma associated with it. The Onmyōji (陰陽師, lit. ... Abe no Seimei ) (921?-1005?) was an onmyoji, a leading specialist of onmyodo during the middle of the Heian Period in Japan. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; pinyin: wÇ”xíng): wood, fire, earth, metal, and water (木, 火, 土, 金, æ°´; mù, hu...


Geometry

The pentagram is represented by the Schlafli symbol {5/2}. It is the smallest star polygon. Image File history File links Complete_graph_K5. ... Image File history File links Complete_graph_K5. ... In the mathematical field of graph theory a complete graph is a simple graph where an edge connects every pair of vertices. ... In mathematics, the Schläfli symbol is a simple notation that gives a summary of some important properties of a particular regular polytope. ... In geometry, a star polygon is a complex, equilateral equiangular polygon, so named for its starlike appearance, created by connecting one vertex of a simple, regular, n-sided polygon to another, non-adjacent vertex and continuing the process until the original vertex is reached again. ...


The pentagram can be constructed by connecting alternate vertices of a pentagon. It can also be constructed as a stellation of a pentagon, by extending the edges of a pentagon until the lines intersect. Look up pentagon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stellation is a process of constructing new polygons (in two dimensions), new polyhedra in three dimensions, or in general new polytopes in n dimensions. ...


Like a regular pentagon, and a regular pentagon with a pentagram constructed inside it, the regular pentagram has as its symmetry group the dihedral group of order 10. The symmetry group of an object (e. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ...


The pentagram contains ten points (the five points of the star, and the five vertices of the inner pentagon) and fifteen line segments.


Golden ratio

A pentagram colored to distinguish its line segments of different lengths. The four lengths are in golden ratio to one another.

The golden ratio, φ = (1+√5)/2 ≈ 1.618, satisfying Image File history File links Pentagram-phi. ... Image File history File links Pentagram-phi. ... The golden section is a line segment sectioned into two according to the golden ratio. ... The golden section is a line segment sectioned into two according to the golden ratio. ...

plays an important role in regular pentagons and pentagrams. Each intersection of edges sections the edges in golden ratio: the ratio of the length of the edge to the longer segment is φ, as is the length of the longer segment to the shorter. Also, the ratio of the length of the shorter segment to the segment bounded by the 2 intersecting edges (a side of the pentagon in the pentagram's center) is φ. As the four-color illustration shows:

The pentagram includes ten isosceles triangles: five acute and five obtuse isosceles triangles. In all of them, the ratio of the longer side to the shorter side is φ. The acute triangles are golden triangles. The obtuse isosceles triangle highlighted via the colored lines in the illustration is a golden gnomon. For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... A golden triangle is a triangle in which two of the sides have equal length and in which the ratio of this length to that of the third, smaller side is the golden ratio. ... A golden triangle is a triangle in which two of the sides have equal length and in which the ratio of this length to that of the third, smaller side is the golden ratio. ...


Trigonometric values

See Exact trigonometric constants: Pentagon

As a result, in an isosceles triangle with one or two angles of 36°, the longer of the two side lengths is φ times that of the shorter of the two, both in the case of the acute as in the case of the obtuse triangle. Exact constant expressions for trigonometric expressions are sometimes useful, mainly for simplifying solutions into radical forms which allow further simplification. ...


Three dimensional figures

See Uniform polyhedron: Icosahedral symmetry

Several polyhedra incorporate pentagrams: A uniform polyhedron is a polyhedron with regular polygons as faces and identical vertices. ... A polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a geometric object with flat faces and straight edges. ...



See also

The official symbol of the Baháí Faith is the five-pointed star, as mentioned by Shoghi Effendi: Strictly speaking the 5-pointed star is the symbol of our Faith, as used by the Báb and explained by Him. ... U.S. Navy Command at Sea Badge The Naval Command-at-Sea Pin is a highly regarded military badge of the United States Navy. ... In the mathematical field of graph theory a complete graph is a simple graph where an edge connects every pair of vertices. ... This article refers to the Finnish band. ... A heptagram or septegram is a seven-pointed star drawn with seven straight strokes. ... It has been suggested that Pascals Mystic Hexagram be merged into this article or section. ... In Medieval Jewish, Islamic and Christian legends, the Seal of Solomon was a magical signet ring said to have been possessed by King Solomon (or Sulayman in the Islamic version), which variously gave him the power to command demons (or jinni), or to speak with animals. ... The icosahedral rotation group I with fundamental domain Apart from the two infinite series of prismatic and antiprismatic symmetry, rotational icosahedral symmetry or chiral icosahedral symmetry of chiral objects and full icosahedral symmetry or achiral icosahedral symmetry are the discrete point symmetries (or equivalently, symmetries on the sphere) with the... Libri tres de occulta philosophia (Latin: Three Books about Occult Philosophy) is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippas penetrating study of Occult Philosophy, widely acknowledged as a significant contribution to the Renaissance philosophical discussion concerning the powers of magic and its relationship with religion. ... This page lists the regular polytopes in Euclidean space. ... This is a list of graphical signs, icons, and symbols. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... In heraldry the term mullet or molet refers to a charge or a difference in the conventional shape of a star - by default one with five points (compare pentagram). ... General Grand Chapter logo The Order of the Eastern Star is the largest fraternal organization in the world that both men and women can join. ... Look up pentagon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pentad The pentad, was used by the Pythagoreans as a secret sign to recognize each other. ... The pentachoron, also called a pentatope or 4-simplex, is the simplest convex regular polychoron (a type of four-dimensional geometric figure). ... A 3-simplex or tetrahedron In geometry, a simplex (plural simplexes or simplices) or n-simplex is an n-dimensional analogue of a triangle. ... A pentacle or pantacle is an amulet, generally made of parchment, paper or metal (although it can be of other materials), on which the symbol of a spirit being evoked is drawn. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... Red star on the Soviet flag The five-pointed red star (a pentagram without the inner pentagon) is a symbol of Communism and Socialism and represents the five fingers of the workers hand, as well as five of six inhabited continents. ... The golden five-pointed star. ... In typography, a star is any of a number of glyphs with a number of triangular points arrayed within an imaginary circle. ... Stellation is a process of constructing new polygons (in two dimensions), new polyhedra in three dimensions, or in general new polytopes in n dimensions. ...

References

  • Grünbaum, B. and G. C. Shephard; Tilings and Patterns, New York: W. H. Freeman & Co., (1987), ISBN 0-7167-1193-1.
  • Grünbaum, B.; Polyhedra with Hollow Faces, Proc of NATO-ASI Conference on Polytopes ... etc. (Toronto 1993), ed T. Bisztriczky et al, Kluwer Academic (1994) pp. 43-70.
  1. ^ "Pentagram" article in The Continuum Encyclopedia of Symbols Becker, Udo, ed., Garmer, Lance W. translator, New York: Continuum Books, 1994, p. 230.
  2. ^ Signs and Symbols in Christian Art Ferguson, George, Oxford University Press: 1966, p. 59.
  3. ^ "Pentacle", Oxford English Dictionary.
  4. ^ Labat, René. Manuel d'épigraphie akkadienne: Signes, Syllabaire, Idéogrammes. The pentagram is symbol number 306 in this system.
  5. ^ This is a lost book, but its contents are preserved in Damascius, De principiis, quoted in Kirk and Raven, The Pre-Socratic Philosophers, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1956, p. 55.
  6. ^ Levi, Eliphas (1855). Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual. 
  7. ^ Hartmann, Franz (c. 1895). Magic, White and Black. 
  8. ^ Christian Symbols Ancient and Modern, Child, Heather and Dorothy Colles. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971, ISBN 0-7135-1960-6.
  9. ^ a b c d http://altreligion.about.com/library/glossary/symbols/bldefspentagram.htm
  10. ^ Christian Symbols and How To Use Them, Knapp, Justina; Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1955. Plate LXV, Plate LV (Imprimatur, Jos. F. Busch, Bishop of St. Cloud)
  11. ^ See the Nauvoo Temple website discussing its architecture, and particularly the page on Nauvoo Temple exterior symbolism. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
  12. ^ http://www.fairlds.org/pubs/Stars.pdf
  13. ^ "Religious Clothing in School", Robinson, B.A., Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 20 August, 1999, updated 29 April, 2005. accessed 10 February, 2006.
  14. ^ "ACLU Defends Honor Student Witch Pentacle" press release, American Civil Liberties Union of Michigan, 10 February, 1999. accessed 10 February, 2006.
  15. ^ "Witches and wardrobes: Boy says he was suspended from school for wearing magical symbol" Rouvalis, Cristina; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 27, 2000. accessed 10 February, 2006.
  16. ^ Moroccan flag on Flagspot.net accessed on 10 February, 2006.

Branko Grünbaum is a mathematician who works mainly in geometry and is considered a founder of discrete geometry. ... Branko Grünbaum is a mathematician who works mainly in geometry and is considered a founder of discrete geometry. ... Damascius, the last of the Neoplatonists, was born in Damascus about AD 480. ... Eliphas Lévi Eliphas Lévi, born Alphonse Louis Constant, (February 8, 1810 - May 31, 1875) was a French author and magician. ... Franz Hartmann (1838 - 1912) was a German theosophist and author of esoteric works. ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Pentagrams

  Results from FactBites:
 
The pentagram (3630 words)
Although Venus is termed the bright morning star or Lucifer; and the pentagram is claimed by Lévi to represent the Baphomet; and the celestial motions of Venus sketch a pentagram in the sky; it does not follow that the pentagram represents Lucifer or that Lucifer equates with the Baphomet.
Pentagram: from the Greek, "pente", meaning five and "gramma", a letter; the pentagram is a five pointed figure formed by producing the sides of a pentagon both ways to their point of intersection, so as to form a five-pointed star.
The pentagram (also called pentacle, pentalpha, pentancle, pentagle, or pentangle) is thought by some occultists to trace its esoteric significance to an astronomical observance of the pattern of Venus' conjunctions with the Sun and has had many meanings in many cultures through the ages.
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