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Encyclopedia > Pennsylvania German language
Pennsylvania German/Dutch
Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch
Spoken in: Canada, USA 
Region: Northern Indiana; East Central Illinois; Southeastern Pennsylvania; Central Ohio; Kitchener-Waterloo Region, Ontario; and elsewhere
Total speakers: 250 000–300 000
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  West Germanic
   High German
    West Central German
     Pennsylvania German/Dutch
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: gem
ISO 639-3: pdc 
Blue: The counties with the highest proportion of Pennsylvania German speakers.Red: The counties with the highest number of Pennsylvania German speakers.
Blue: The counties with the highest proportion of Pennsylvania German speakers.
Red: The counties with the highest number of Pennsylvania German speakers.

  This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Motto: Ex industria prosperitas (Latin: Prosperity through industry) Location of Kitchener in the Waterloo Region Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Founded 1833 Incorporated as City 1912 Government  - Mayor Carl Zehr Area  - City 136. ... The City of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada is the smallest of the three cities in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, and is adjacent to the larger city of Kitchener. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Germanic languages in Europe are divided into North (blue) and West Germanic (green and orange) Languages  Low Saxon-Low Franconian (Dutch)  High German (standard German, Schwyzerdütsch)  Insular Anglo-Frisian (English, Scots)  Continental Anglo-Frisian (Frisian)  East North Germanic (Danish, BokmÃ¥l Norwegian, Swedish)  West North Germanic (Nynorsk Norwegian... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Pennsylvania_German_distribution. ... Image File history File links Pennsylvania_German_distribution. ...

Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. It is traditionally the language of the Pennsylvania Dutch community. West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch) is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ...


The word "Dutch" does not refer to the people of the Netherlands. "Dutch" here is left over from an archaic sense of the English word "Dutch" (compare German Deutsch, Dutch duits), which once referred to all people speaking a West Germanic language on the European mainland. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... West Germanic is the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages, including such languages as English, Dutch, and German. ...


The use of the term Pennsylvania German versus Pennsylvania Dutch is a source of some debate among speakers of the language. Linguistically and historically, the term Pennsylvania German is more accurate. Culturally, however, many residents of the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania prefer to be identified as Pennsylvania Dutch - presumably because they view themselves and their traditions (which have thrived independently of Europe for 300 years) as representing a distinctly American subculture rather than being primarily derivative of southern Germany.


Speakers of the language are found today mainly in Pennsylvania (Dutch Country), Ohio, and Indiana in the United States, and Ontario, Canada. Historically, the dialect was spoken by most persons in Pennsylvania of south German origin, whether Lutheran, Reformed, Catholic, or belonging to any of a number of other Christian denominations. The use of Pennsylvania German as a street language in urban areas (such as Allentown, Reading, Lancaster and York) was declining by the arrival of the 20th century, while in more rural areas it continued in widespread use through World War II but not much beyond. Today, the majority of speakers are either Amish or Old Order Mennonite (see Survival below). (Note that some other North and South American Mennonites of Dutch and Prussian origin speak Plautdietsch, which is a very different Low German variety.) Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Pennsylvania Dutch Country refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania that has a high percentage of Amish, Mennonite and Fancy Dutch inhabitants and where the Pennsylvania German language was historically common. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ... Old Order Mennonites are a branch of the Mennonite church. ... Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, is a language spoken by the Mennonites, who are ethnically Dutch, but who adopted an East Low German dialect while they were refugees in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), beginning in the early-to-mid 1500s. ... Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers...

Contents

European origins

The Pennsylvania German language resembles most closely the Franconian dialects of the German language. This is because Pennsylvania German speakers came from various parts of the southwest German-speaking corner including the Palatinate, Swabia, Württemberg, Alsace, and Switzerland. Most settlers spoke a West Middle German or Franconian dialect, and in the first generations after the settlers arrived it is believed that the dialects merged. The language which resulted resembled most the Palatinate German. Legend:  Dutch. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Germany. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... West Middle German is a High German dialect family in the German language. ... Pfälzisch (Palatinate German) is a West Franconian dialect of German which is spoken in the Rhine Valley between the cities of Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern and Mannheim. ...


Speaking

In earlier generations, the Pennsylvania Dutch spoke English fluently but with a strong and distinctive accent. English speakers with a Pennsylvania German accent were sometimes noted for blending the sounds of v and w. The phrase "A wonderful violin," when spoken by a "Dutchman", might be perceived by a mainstream American as being pronounced, "A vonderful wiolin." Persons who attend non-Amish auctions in Amish areas, especially in Pennsylvania, often hear "wee-C-R" and "D-wee-D" when the modern electronic items - VCR and DVD - are auctioned. A person with a bad temper would be Wicious and Wiolent. Some other examples of Pennsylvania Dutch pronunciation: house=haus (or hoss); once=vunc; you=yuh or du; why=vie; will-vill; the=the or de. Other typical sounds "oh" and "au" ("ow") sounds that are quite broad and virtually un-diphthonged, somewhat like some accents of Canadian English but more pronounced. Consonants like "t", "p" and "s" were spoken as in Pennsylvania German, as described below. The spoken language often had a slow, lilting rhythm, whether the speaker was speaking English or German. Today, this accent lives most as a stereotype in the tourist imagination, and most Pennsylvania German speakers today speak English with only a very slight Deitsch accent, if at all. With many modern speakers of the language, it is English that has "corrupted" the Pennsylvania German pronunciation rather than the other way around. For the 1996 Blur single, see Stereotypes (song). ...


Writing

There are currently two competing writing systems for the language. These use English and German writing systems, respectively, to approximate the sounds of Pennsylvania German. The choice of writing system is not meant to imply any difference in pronunciation. For comparison, the Lord's Prayer written under the two systems, as well as in English, Modern German, and Dutch, appears below. Representation of the Sermon on the Mount The Lords Prayer in Swahili. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...

English (BCP) Writing system 1 (English-based) Writing system 2 (German-based) Modern German Modern Dutch
Our Father which art in heaven, Unsah Faddah im Himmel, Unser Vadder im Himmel, Vater unser im Himmel, Onze vader die in de hemelen zijt,
Hallowed be thy name. dei nohma loss heilich sei, dei Naame loss heilich sei, geheiligt werde dein Name, geheiligd zij uw naam,
Thy kingdom come. Dei Reich loss kumma. Dei Reich loss komme. Dein Reich komme. Uw rijk kome.
Thy will be done, Dei villa loss gedu sei, Dei Wille loss gedu sei, Dein Wille geschehe, Uw wil geschiede,
on earth as in heaven. uf di eaht vi im Himmel. uff die Erd wie im Himmel. wie im Himmel, so auf Erden. op de aarde als in de hemel.
Give us this day our daily bread. Unsah tayklich broht gebb uns heit, Unser deeglich Brot gebb uns heit, Unser tägliches Brot gib uns heute, Geef ons heden ons dagelijks brood,
And forgive us our trespasses; Un fagebb unsah shulda, Un vergebb unser Schulde, Und vergib uns unsere Schuld, en vergeef ons onze schulden,
as we forgive those who tresspass against us. vi miah dee fagevva vo uns shuldich sinn. wie mir die vergewwe wu uns schuldich sinn. wie auch wir vergeben unseren Schuldigern. gelijk ook wij vergeven aan onze schuldenaren.
And lead us not into temptation Un fiah uns naett in di fasuchung, Un fiehr uns net in die Versuchung, Und führe uns nicht in Versuchung, en leidt ons niet in bekoring,
but deliver us from evil. avvah hald uns fu'm eevila. awwer hald uns vum Iewile. sondern erlöse uns von dem Bösen. maar verlos ons van het kwade.
For thine is thy kingdom, thy power Fa dei is es Reich, di graft, Fer dei is es Reich, die Graft, Denn Dein ist das Reich, und die Kraft Want uwer is het Koninkrijk, de kracht
and thy glory, For ever and ever. un di hallichkeit in ayvichkeit. un die Hallichkeit in Ewichkeit. und die Herrlichkeit in Ewigkeit. en de heerlijkheid in der eeuwigheid.
Amen. Amen. Amen. Amen. Amen.

Since 1997, the Pennsylvania German newspaper "Hiwwe wie Driwwe" allows dialect authors (there are still about 100 dialect writers) to publish Pennsylvania German poetry and prose. The newspaper is published twice a year (2,400 copies per issue). For the novel by Joan Didion, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


Differences from standard German

As a Franconian dialect, Pennsylvania German is much closer to standard German than are many other modern German dialects, including Bavarian, Swiss German, or any of the northern forms of the language.


The differences from High German can be summarized as consisting principally of a simplified grammatical structure, several vowel and consonant shifts that occur with a fair degree of regularity, an important influence from English in both vocabulary and (increasingly) pronunciation and the use of some words that cannot be tied back to either English or High German roots but seem to be unique to Pennsylvania German or to have their origin in one or more South German dialects.


Grammar

Pennsylvania German grammar is quite similar to that of High German, with a few simplifications. Like High German, Pennsylvania German uses three genders (der Mann, die Fraa, es Kind). Pronouns inflect for four cases, as in High German, but the nominative and accusative are identical for articles and adjective endings (High German "den" becomes "der"). As in other South German and West German dialects, the genitive is replaced by a special construction using the dative and the possessive pronoun: "that man's dog" becomes "em Mann sei Hund". Adjectival endings exist but are somewhat simplified compared to High German. The past tense is generally expressed with the present perfect tense: "Ich bin ins Feld glaafe" (I went into the field) rather than the simple past that can be used in High German ("Ich lief ins Feld"). The use of the subjunctive, while it exists, is even more limited than in modern High German.


Several Pennsylvania German grammars have been published over the years. The clearest and most concise is A Simple Grammar of Pennsylvania Dutch by J. William Frey, although Earl C. Haag's A Pennsylvania German Reader and Grammar is also well organized and is easier to find.


In Lancaster County and some other regions, the use of the dative has been replaced over time by the accusative, so that "em Mann sei Hund" (the man's dog) becomes "der Mann sei Hund", and "Ich bin am schaffe" (I am working) becomes "ich bin an schaffe". This is leading to a disappearance of declensions among some speakers.


Pronunciation

Most speakers of High German will quickly learn to understand Pennsylvania German if they learn the following basic vowel and consonantal shifts. The sound values are represented under German spelling rules, with the same sound under English spelling rules indicated in parentheses. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Vowels

  • long a => long o (with some words): schlafen => schloofe
  • au => aa (English: ou => aw). This varies from speaker to speaker. Example: auch => "au" or "aa"
  • final e => long i (English: "ee") (with some speakers only, and generally only with feminine and plural endings): gute Frau => guudi Fraa
  • eu, äu => ei (English: long "i" sound). Example: neu => nei
  • short o => unaccented "schwa" sound, like English "but", generally written with "o". Bodde (floor) is thus pronounced somewhat like the American "butter", but without the final "r". In contrast, the first vowel of "Budder" (butter) rhymes with the American "took"
  • short ö => e (English: short "e"). Example: Köpfe => Kepp
  • long ö => ee (English: broad, undiphthonged "ay"). Example: schön => schee
  • short ü => i (English: short "i"). Example: dünn => dinn
  • long ü => ie (English: long "ee"). Example: Kühe => Kieh

Consonants

  • b => w or ww, depending whether the preceding vowel is short or long (only when between vowels, not in initial or final position) (English: b => v). Example: Kübel => Kiwwel
  • g => j (English: g = y) (mostly in some words following "r" plus a vowel). Example: morgen => morje. For speakers with a guttural or Americanized "r" sound, the "j" can disappear.
  • g often becomes silent between vowels. Example: sagen => saage. Since the letter "g" has been retained by so many past writers, this sound was presumably pronounced as a very light, fricative "g" before it disappeared.
  • k => g (when followed by consonants such as "l" and "r"). Example: klein => glee
  • final "n" generally disappears, including in infinitives. Example: waschen => wasche
  • p => b in many words. Example: putzen => butze
  • pF => p. Example: Pfarrer => Parrer
  • final "r" after a vowel is even more strongly vocalized than in modern High German, so that "Budder" is pronounced "Buddah". It often disappears entirely from both spelling and pronunciation, as in Herz = Haaz.
  • "r" in all other positions was originally rolled, except for with some Amish, who tended to gutteralize it as in modern High German. Today most speakers have migrated to an American "r", at least in part.
  • s => sch before p or t, even at the end of a word. Example: bist => bischt
  • s is all other locations is never voiced (always like the first "s" in the English "Susie", never like the second)
  • t => d, especially initially and when followed by "r" or a vowel. Example: tod => dot; Butter => Budder
  • w is for many speakers a rounded sound midway between a German and English "w". This does not apply to German "b" sounds that become "w" and "ww", which tend to be a true German "w". Other speakers use a German "w" more consistently.
  • final z => s with some speakers (English: ts => s). Example: holz => hols

Among the Amish of Lancaster County, there have been numerous other shifts that can make their Pennsylvania German particularly difficult for modern High German speakers to understand. A word beginning in "gs" generally becomes "ts" (which is more easily pronounced), so that German gesund => gsund => tsund and German gesagt => gsaat => tsaat. (This trait is found in Lancaster County outside of the Amish communities as well.) Likewise, German gescheid => gscheid => tscheid (as if it were English "chite"). German zurück => zrick => tschrick (exactly as in American English "trick"). The softened "w" after guttural consonants has mixed with the guttural "r" of earlier generations and also turned into an American "r", so that German gewesen => gwest => grest and German geschwind => gschwind => tschrind (spoken as "trint" would be in American English). These changes in pronunciation, combined with the general disappearance of declensions as described above, result in a form of the language that has evolved considerably from its early Pennsylvania origins nearly 300 years ago.


Adoption of English vocabulary

The southern Germanic peoples who together formed the original Pennsylvania Dutch culture and language arrived in America in the early 18th century, before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. This is also true, to a more limited extent, of a second wave of immigration in the mid-19th century, who came from the same regions but settled more in Ohio, Indiana and other parts of the mid-West. Thus, an entire industrial vocabulary relating to electricity, machinery and modern farming implements has naturally been borrowed from the English. For Pennsylvania German speakers who work in a modern trade or in an industrial environment, this increases the challenge of maintaining their mother tongue. A Watt steam engine. ...


There are a number of English words that have been used since the first generations of Pennsylvania Dutch habitation of southeastern Pennsylvania. Examples of English loan words that are relatively common include "bet" (Ich bet, du kannscht Deitsch schwetze = I bet you can speak Dutch), "depend" (Es dependt en wennig waer du bischt = it depends somewhat on who you are), "juscht" and "juscht abaat" for the English "just" and "just about" (but with the "j" pronounced like an English "y", as in German); "tschaepp" for "chap" or "guy"; and "tschumbe" for "to jump". With some adjustments to the pronunciation, "dad" and "daddy" become "Daet" and "Daadi", respectively; and "mom" becomes "maem" (roughly rhyming with "ham"). A car is, at least for the Lancaster County Amish, a "Maschiin" (just like the English "machine"). Today, many speakers will use Pennsylvania German words for small numbers and English for larger and more complex numbers, like "$27,599."


Vocabulary that is not derived from English or High German

Pennsylvania German contains a number of words that do not exist in standard High German but are derived from any of a number of south German dialects. Potatoes are "Grumbeere"; someone is "ebbe" or "eppe"; something is "ebbes" or "eppes" [Not true - contraction of standard German 'etwas']; boy is "Bu" (plural Buwe)[Standard German 'Bub, plural Buben' ]. The demonstrative adjective "seller" (engl. "that one") is found in a number of South German dialects but not in High German. Some words have cognates in High German but have a different meaning in Pennsylvania German, at least with some speakers: "schwetze" is the standard word for "to speak", while in High German the connotation of "schwätzen" tends in the direction of idle gossip; "schmacke" can mean "to smell" while the High German "schmecken" means "to taste"; "schpringe" can mean "to run" rather than "to jump". Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


Where a High German would have a choice between "tun" and "machen", a Pennsylvania Dutchman will generally prefer the former (pronounced "du"). The words "du", "duscht" and "geduh" (in High German "tue" and "tun", "tust" and "getan") appear far more frequently in Pennsylvania German than in High German or even Palatine German.


A number of words are truly unique to Pennsylvania German. What Americans would call "corn" and most languages elsewhere in the world call "maize" is "Welschkorn" or "Welschkann" in Pennsylvania German; "welsch" means "unintelligible" in ancient Germanic languages, and it also means, by extension, "foreign," thus "foreign corn" (since in Germany, rye and not maize is considered to be "corn"). Turkey, likewise, is "Welschhahn", meaning "foreign rooster" because it is not like German fowl. "To like" is "gleiche," which derives from the German word "gleichen," meaning "to be similar." “Corn” redirects here. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ...


Survival

Pennsylvania German can be said to be dying in at least two ways. First, while it was once used as an everyday language in many parts of southeastern Pennsylvania, today it is not. There are still many among the older generations who speak it; however, most of their descendants know only English. Second, the Amish, who do speak the language every day, use many English words in their Pennsylvania German. Because of this transformation, there is a fear among some that the Amish are gradually losing the language as they slowly replace Pennsylvania German words with English ones. Another concern is that this process is being quickened as land in many larger Amish communities becomes more scarce, which is forcing more Amish to look for jobs outside of farming and in factories where they are exposed to English much more than before. An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ...


Only Amish and Old Order Mennonites, i.e., the plain people, are passing the language along to their children in the current generation, although they were originally minority groups within the Pennsylvania German speaking population. According to sociologist John A. Hostetler, fewer than 10 percent of the original Pennsylvania German population was Amish or Mennonite. The plain people is a generic term used to refer to Amish and old order Mennonites in Pennsylvania. ... John A. Hostetler (1918-2001) was an author, educator, and leading scholar of Amish and Hutterite societies. ...


However, there is no sign that the Old Order Amish or the Old Order Mennonites who still use the language are about to give it up. In these cultures, the language is a sign of Demut or humility, and the language serves as a barrier against the outside world. Furthermore, with the high birth rate in Amish communities, the possibility is great that the language will survive at least in the short term. In fact, the Old Order Amish population which numbered only about 5000 in 1900 has been doubling every 21 years. If this pace were to hold up, the number of Pennsylvania German speakers could rise quite rapidly in the coming century.


Speaker population

In Canada, the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, and many middle-aged and older Mennonites who do not belong to the Old Order, and whose ancestors came from Pennsylvania, speak Pennsylvania German. There are far fewer speakers of Pennsylvania German in Canada than in the United States; however, at least one Canadian Mennonite group has been slower at abandoning the language than their American counterparts.


Such is the case with the automobile Old Order Mennonites, whose members in Canada have continued to use Pennsylvania German in the home, whereas the Old Orders who use automobiles in the United States are making the switch to English.


In the United States all Old Order and New Amish and almost all horse and buggy Old Order Mennonite groups speak Pennsylvania German (the Shenandoah Valley's Old Order Mennonites are the exception, they have many families who speak only English, and their Sunday meetings are conducted in English only). As for the Beachy Amish, there has been a move towards English in many families. There are also diverse groups of those who can speak the language: Lutherans, members of Reformed churches, Moravians, Schwenkfelders, and members of the Church of the Brethren. Together, these people once represented the vast bulk of Pennsylvania German speakers. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic. ... The Schwenkfelder Church is a small but unique American Christian body rooted in the 16th century reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489-1561). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Schwarzenau Brethren. ...


These communities are also making efforts to re-teach the language in evening classes; however, as every year passes by fewer and fewer in these particular communities speak the language. There is still a weekly radio program in the dialect whose audience is made up mostly of these diverse groups, and many Lutheran and Reformed church congregations in Pennsylvania that formerly used German have a yearly service in Pennsylvania German. Other non-native speakers of the language include those persons that regularly do business with native speakers.


A fair estimate of the speaker population today would be between 150,000 (a very conservative estimate) to 250,000, although many, including some academic publications, may report much lower numbers, uninformed of those diverse speaker groups[citation needed].


Among them, the Amish population is probably around 150,000 to 200,000; the Old Order Mennonites population is several tens of thousands, and there are thousands of older, less conservative Mennonites who speak the language, and thousands among older Pennsylvanian non-Amish and non-Mennonites. The Grundsau Lodge, which is an organisation in southeastern Pennsylvania of Pennsylvania German speakers, is said to have 6,000 members.


The number of Amish community members is not easy to estimate. In many cases, what is referred to as the Amish population represents only the baptized members of the community, which does not include younger members of the communities in their mid-twenties or younger. A better estimate is achieved based on the number of gmayna (church districts) and the average size of each gmay or church district. Furthermore, while there are large communities of speakers in the states of Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, there are smaller speaker groups found in and outside those states, and in Canada, scattered among English speakers. Baptism in early Christian art. ...


There are no formal statistics on Amish population, and most who speak Pennsylvania German on the Canadian and US Census would report that they speak German, since it is the closest option available. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


See also

Here is a list of common phrases in different languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pennsylvania Dutch Country refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania that has a high percentage of Amish, Mennonite and Fancy Dutch inhabitants and where the Pennsylvania German language was historically common. ... The German-Pennsylvanian Association (German: Deutsch-Pennsylvanischer Arbeitskreis) is an organization founded in the Rheinhessen area of Ober-Olm in Germany dedicated to cultural exchange and research involving the Pennsyvania Dutch language and people. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, is a language spoken by the Mennonites, who are ethnically Dutch, but who adopted an East Low German dialect while they were refugees in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), beginning in the early-to-mid 1500s. ... Texas German is a dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who founded the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in 1846. ... Solomon DeLong (born February 8, 1849, Schnecksville, Pennsylvania-February 2, 1925, Allentown, Pennsylvania) was a Pennsylvania German language writer and journalist. ... H. L. Fischer (1822-1909) (Henry Lee Fischer) was a Pennsylvania German language writer and translator. ... Colonel Thomas C. Zimmerman (1838-1914) was a Pennsylvania German language writer and translator. ...

External links

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In Pennsylvania German

  • Hiwwe wie Driwwe - The Pennsylvania German Newspaper
  • Deitscherei.org - Fer der Deitsch Wandel
  • Amisch.de - Pennsylvaniadeutsch Board

Information


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pennsylvania German language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2909 words)
The use of Pennsylvania German as a street language in urban areas (such as Allentown, Reading, Lancaster and York) was declining by the arrival of the 20th century, while in more rural areas it continued in widespread use through World War II but not much beyond.
This is because Pennsylvania German speakers came from various parts of the southwest German-speaking corner including the Palatinate, Swabia, Württemberg, Alsace, and Switzerland.
Pennsylvania German can be said to be dying in at least two ways.
Pennsylvania Dutch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (646 words)
Pennsylvania Dutch were historically speakers of the Pennsylvania German language.
Pennsylvania Dutch from the Palatinate of the Rhine
Recently due to loss of the Pennsylvania German language in many communities, as well as to intermarriage and increased mobility, especially in the more secular communities, Pennsylvania Dutch ethnic consciousness is often very low, especially among younger Pennsylvania Dutch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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