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Encyclopedia > Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylfaanisch Deitsch
Total population

Several Million Image File history File links Mennonite_and_carriage_publ. ...

Regions with significant populations
United States, especially Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia; Ontario, Canada
Languages
English, Pennsylvania Dutch
Religions
Lutheran, Reformed, Evangelical, Moravian, Church of the Brethren, Mennonite, Amish, Schwenkfelder, United Christian, River Brethren, Yorker, Catholic
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The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. According to Don Yoder, a Pennsylvania German expert and retired professor from the University of Pennsylvania, the word "Dutch" in this case owes its origin to an archaic meaning where the word "Dutch" designated groups that are considered today German and Dutch.[1] Although Yoder rejects other explanations, other sources, such as Hostetler (1993) give the origin of "Dutch" as a corruption or a "folk-rendering" of the term "Deitsch".[2] It is worth noting that the adjective "German" is "Deutsch" in the German language and "Duits" in the Dutch language. Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Look up Evangelical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Schwarzenau Brethren. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ... The Schwenkfelder Church is a small American Christian body rooted in the 16th century reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489-1561). ... The River Brethren is a name used to indicate certain Christian groups originating in 1770, during a revival movement among German colonizers in Pennsylvania. ... In cricket, a yorker is a delivery where the cricket ball bounces on the cricket pitch on or near the batsmans popping crease. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ...


Pennsylvania Dutch were historically speakers of the Pennsylvania German language. They are a people of various religious affiliations, most of them Lutheran or Reformed, but many Anabaptists as well. They live primarily in southeastern Pennsylvania in the area stretching in an arc from Bethlehem and Allentown through Reading, Lebanon, and Lancaster to York and Chambersburg. They can also be found down throughout the Shenandoah Valley (the modern Interstate 81 corridor) in the adjacent states of Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, and in the large Amish and Mennonite communities in Mifflin County, Pennsylvania, in Ohio north and south of Youngstown and in Indiana around Elkhart. Their cultural traditions date back to the German immigrations to America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Only then did German immigration from various parts the southern Rhineland, Palatinate, the southern part of Hessen, Baden, Alsace and Switzerland gain momentum, and soon dominate the area. But the Pennsylvania Dutch language ultimately a derivative of Palatinate German. Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Strasbourg Regional President Adrien Zeller (UMP) (since 1996) Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Pfälzisch (Palatinate German) is a West Franconian dialect of German which is spoken in the Rhine Valley between the cities of Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern and Mannheim. ...

Contents

Pennsylvania Dutch from the Palatinate of the Rhine

Many Pennsylvania Dutch, are descendants of refugees from the Palatinate of the German Rhine. For example, most Amish and Mennonite came to the Palatinate and surrounding areas from the German speaking part of Switzerland, and so their stay in the Palatinate was of limited duration. The Palatinate (German: Pfalz), historically also Palatinate of the Rhine (Lat. ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ...

Allentown's Center Square. Allentown is one of the larger centers considered part of the Pennsylvania Dutch area, and many older residents can still speak Deitsch
Allentown's Center Square. Allentown is one of the larger centers considered part of the Pennsylvania Dutch area, and many older residents can still speak Deitsch

However, for the majority of the Pennsylvania Dutch, their roots go much further back in the Palatinate. During the War of the Grand Alliance (1689-97), French troops, under King Louis XIV, pillaged the Palatinate, forcing many Germans to flee. The War of the Palatinate (as it was called in Germany), also called the War of Augsburg, began in 1688 as Louis took claim of the Palatinate, and all major cities of Cologne were desolated. By 1697 the war came to a close with the Treaty of Ryswick, and the Palatinate remained free of French control. However, by 1702, the War of the Spanish Succession began lasting until 1713. French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees. Image File history File links Allentown_centersquare. ... Image File history File links Allentown_centersquare. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... Nine Years War redirects here. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... A palatinate is a territory administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign, but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ...


The first major emigration of Germans to America resulted in the founding of the Borough of Germantown in northwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania in 1683-1685. Mass emigration of Palatines began out of Germany in the early 1700s. In the spring of 1709, Queen Anne had granted refuge to about 7,000 Palatines who had sailed the Rhine to Rotterdam. From here about 3,000 were sent to America either directly, or through England, bound for William Penn’s colony. The remaining refugees were sent to Ireland to strengthen the Protestant presence in the country. By 1710, large groups of Palatines had sailed from London, the last group of which was bound for New York. There were 3,200 Palatines on 12 ships that sailed for New York and approximately 470 died en route to America. In New York, under the new Governor, Robert Hunter, Palatines worked for British authorities and produced tar and pitch for the Royal Navy in return for their safe passage. They also served as a buffer between the French and Natives on the frontier and the English colonies. In 1723, some 33 Palatine families, humiliated under Governor Hunter’s rule, migrated from Schoharie, NY, to Tulpehocken, Berks County, PA, where other Palatines had settled. Germantown was originally the Borough of Germantown, a town in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania and is today a neighborhood in Philadelphia, about six miles northwest from the center of the city. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... The Rhine (Dutch: ; French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... William Penn William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) founded the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony that became the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... NY redirects here. ... Robert Hunter may refer to: In politics: General Robert Hunter (1664/1666–1734), Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Colony, Governor of New York, New Jersey, Jamaica Robert C. Hunter (born 1944), U.S. judge, North Carolina Court of Appeals Robert E. Hunter, U.S. Ambassador to NATO Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Pennsylvania Dutch Identity

Recently due to loss of the Pennsylvania German language in many communities, as well as to intermarriage and increased mobility, especially in the more secular communities, Pennsylvania Dutch ethnic consciousness is often very low, especially among younger Pennsylvania Dutch. Many young Pennsylvania Dutch consider themselves only descendants of Pennsylvania Dutch and it is not part of their personal identity. However many of those raised in the immediate area, or those who have close ties there, still hold those ties close even if their parents don't emphasize those ties. In some communities the Pennsylvania Dutch name is reserved only for members of the Amish and traditional Mennonite communities. For example, Amish youth who do not join the Amish church are even said to "go English" in which case they may switch their identity from Pennsylvania Dutch to English. Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. ... Mobility is the ability and willingness to move or change; this can depend on motor skills; mobility aids may be needed such as a walking stick, walker, mobile standing frame, power operated vehicle/scooter, wheelchair or white cane for visual impairment. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ...


See also

Wikipedia
Pennsylvania Dutch edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

During the reign of Mary I, John Strype says more than 800 English protestants fled to the continent (predominantly the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland, and France) and joined with reformed churches there or formed their own congregations. ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) that are known for their plain dress and limited use of modern conveniences such as automobiles and electricity. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons (1496-1561). ... Hans Herr (September 17, 1639 – October 11, 1725) was born in Zürich, Switzerland. ... The Schwenkfelder Church is a small but unique American Christian body rooted in the 16th century reformation teachings of Caspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig (1489-1561). ... Old German Baptist Brethren (OGBB) descend from a pietist movement in Schwarzenau, Germany, in 1708, when Alexander Mack founded a fellowship with 8 believers. ... According to widespread belief, rumschpringe is a traditional rite of passage in the Amish religious denomination, and describes a period lasting months or years during which adolescents are released from the church and its rules. ... Pennsylvania German, or more commonly Pennsylvania Dutch, (Deitsch, Pennsylvania Deutsch, Pennsilfaanisch-Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilweni-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch), is a West Central German variety spoken by 150,000 to 250,000 people in North America. ... The Story of the Hex Sign in southeastern and central Pennsylvania. ... Pennsylvania Dutch Country refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania that has a high percentage of Amish, Mennonite and Fancy Dutch inhabitants and where the Pennsylvania German language was historically common. ... Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine is the typical and traditional fare of the Pennsylvania Dutch, and it has had a considerable influence on the areas in which they originally settled, Central and Southeastern Pennsylvania, as well as the neighboring areas that they have migrated to over time. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... German Texans are an ethnic category belonging to residents of the state of Texas who acknowledge German ancestry and self-identify with the term. ... Helen Reimensnyder Martin (1868-1939) was an American author. ... Anna Balmer Myers was an American author of romantic novels featuring the local color of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. ... An ornate Taufschein, or baptismal certificate Fraktur is a Blackletter script used to write the German language from the beginning of the Sixteenth Century until 1945. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

References

  1. ^ Weaver, Kyle R. (2006), Meet Don Yoder Dean of Folklife Scholars, Pennsylvania Heritage, vol. 32, no. 2, p.9-10
  2. ^ Hostetler, John A. (1993), Amish Society, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, p. 241

External links

  • The Pennsylvania German Society
  • Lancaster County tourism website
  • Overview of Pennsylvania German Culture
  • Irish Palatine Association

In Pennsylvania German

  • Deitscherei.org - Fer der Deitsch Wandel
  • Hiwwe wie Driwwe - The Pennsylvania German Newspaper
  • Pennsylvania German Encyclopedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pennsylvania Dutch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (642 words)
Pennsylvania Dutch were historically speakers of the Pennsylvania German language.
1 Pennsylvania Dutch from the Palatinate of the Rhine
Pennsylvania Dutch from the Palatinate of the Rhine
Pennsylvania German language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1270 words)
The word "Dutch" here is left over from an archaic sense of the English word, which prior to the 16th century referred to all people speaking a West Germanic language on the European mainland.
English "Dutch" is cognate to Standard German "Deutsch" and Dutch "Duits", Pennsylvania German "Deitsch", all referring to the German, not the Dutch language (although the Dutch language was natively called Diets at that time).
Pennsylvania German is well-known for its association with the Amish.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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